CA19.9 Test

Ca 19.9 test

What is the CA19.9?

CA 19.9 is a cancer antigen that exists on the surface of cancer-causing cells. The levels of CA 19.9 are elevated highly during pancreatic cancer. CA 19.9 can be measured in the blood. Testing of the levels of CA 19.9 is useful as a tumor marker. The CA 19.9 level elevates especially during pancreatic cancer. The levels of CA 19.9 can, however, be elevated in the conditions of other cancers like Ovarian cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, cholangiocarcinoma(gallbladder and bile duct cancers), gastric cancers, etc.

What is the CA 19.9 test?

The CA 19.9 test helps in assessing and monitoring the levels of CA 19.9 in the blood. The CA 19-9 test is used as a tumour marker in cancerous conditions. In some cases, your health practitioner might also suggest CA 19.9 test in other body fluids like urine, semen, CSF etc.
 

Why did my doctor recommend me to undergo the CA 19.9 test?

There are various conditions that your doctor might want to diagnose via the CA 19.9 test. Some of the conditions under which your doctor has recommended you to take the CA 19.9 test are discussed here.

– The CA 19.9 test is used as a tumor marker. Hence your doctor might suggest the test to ensure if there is any cancerous growth.

– To diagnose if there is any new cancerous growth in the pancreas.

– The recurrence of the pancreas cancer can also be detected by the CA 19.9 test.

– The CA 19.9 test is also suggested in order to evaluate the response of a person to the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Your health practitioner can suggest you the Ca 19.9 test also to differentiate between pancreatic cancer and other conditions. 

When should I undergo the CA 19.9 test?

There are a few symptoms related to the abnormal levels of the CA 19.9. When you are experiencing such symptoms consecutively or recurrently, you should definitely undergo the Ca 19.9 test. Some of the most common symptoms are listed below:

– Abdominal pain or gastritis
– Back pain
– Nausea and anxiety
– A sudden shift in appetite
– Abrupt weight loss
Jaundice( increased amount of bilirubin causing discoloration of the skin, mucous and whites of the eyes)

In the later stages, the symptoms might include the following:

– Chronic pain
– Anxiety and nauseatic feeling
– Frequent regurgitation or vomiting 
– Malabsorption(inability of the body to absorb nutrients fro the diet)
– In some rare cases, there can be problems related to blood glucose control

What are the preparations required for the CA 19.9 test?

There are no specific preparations required for the CA 19.9 test.

– Fasting is not required.

– No old medications are suggested to be stopped for the blood serum test. Talk to your doctor and inform him about all the medications that you have been taking. He might suggest you stop some medications intake if required before the test of other body fluids.

– There is no inclusion of new medications.

What is the procedure of the blood test for the CA 19.9 test?

The blood test is conducted by the collection of a sample of the blood. The sample of the blood is collected by the procedure of venipuncture. The venipuncture is carried out following the steps elaborated below:

– A tourniquet or an elastic band is wrapped around the upper arm of a person. This makes the veins more prominent.

– A syringe is injected to draw the sample of blood.

– The blood sample is collected in the tube of the syringe.

– The tourniquet is removed.

– In the point of the puncture, an antiseptic is applied for the prevention of any infection.

– The spot of the puncture is dabbed with a cotton swab or a bandage is put in that spot. This stops the further bleeding from that spot of the injection of the syringe.

– The collected blood sample is sent to the laboratory for the CA 19.9 test.

What is the procedure of the urine test for the CA 19.9 test?

In the case of the urine test, the samples of urine have to be collected over the time period of 24 hours. You will be given the containers from the diagnostic center in which you have to store your urine sample. You will be given instructions about the storage of the samples. Then it’ll be sent for the CA 19.9 test. The urine sample collection an be done in the following ways:

– It is necessary to empty your bladder right in the morning by excretion. Note the time.

– In the next 24 hours, you have to store all the urine passed in the container provided to you.

– Store the urine sample as per the guidelines. Generally, it is suggested to be kept in a refrigerator.

Return the container to the diagnostic center. The sample will go for the CA 19.9 test.

What is the procedure of the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) test for the 19.9 test?

The procedure of the CSF collection involves the following steps:

– You have to down on your side pulling your knees closer to your chest. Your chin should be pressed downwards.

– The CSF collection can also be done when you’re sitting bent forward.

– A numbing cream is applied or numbing medicine is injected in your lower back.

– As the area becomes completely numb, a syringe is injected and the CSF is collected into the tube.

– You need to stay still while the CSF is being collected.

– After the collection of the CSF, the spot of the puncture is cleaned and bandaged.

– You might be instructed to lie down on your back for an hour or two after the CSF collection to avoid any headache after that.

What is the procedure of the amniotic fluid test for the CA 19.9 test?

The procedure of the collection and testing of the amniotic fluid is called amniocentesis. The procedure of amniocentesis is carried out by the following steps elaborated below:

– Your health practitioner will instruct you to lie down in a specific position.

– The exposed part of the abdomen is sterilized.

– A general or a local anesthetic is introduced to avoid any kind of pain.

– A hollow needle guided by the ultrasound is injected into the amniotic cavity.

– A sample of 15ml – 20 ml of amniotic fluid is collected.

The amniotic fluid sample is then sent to the laboratory for the CA 19.9 test.
 

What is the procedure of the peritoneal fluid collection for the CA 19.9 test?

Peritoneal fluid is the abdominal fluid which helps in the lubrication of the tissue surfaces that lines the abdominal wall and pelvic cavity.
The procedure of the collection of  the Peritoneal fluid is elaborated in the steps below:
 
– You will be instructed to sit or lie down depending on the amount of the sample your doctor has suggested for the test. You can sit up if your doctor has to withdraw a small amount of the sample but in the case of the collection of a larger amount of the sample, you have to lie down on your back with your head a little elevated.

– The doctor cleans the area of the abdomen from where he’s going to insert a needle.

– The doctor will drape your abdomen with sterile covering after clearing the skin.

– A local or general anesthetic is introduced. This helps in numbing the skin so that no pain is experienced.

– After the skin is numb, a syringe is injected into the peritoneal area, for the collection of the Peritoneal sample fluid.

– It is suggested to stay still till the test is over. The test might take 30 minutes to 45 minutes.

What is the procedure of the collection of the synovial fluid for the CA 19.9 test?

The Synovial fluid is a viscous fluid found in the cavities of the Synovial joints.  The procedure for the collection of the synovial fluid for the CA 19.9 test follows the following steps.

– A local or general anesthesia is administered in the area of the affected joint.

– A hollow needle is inserted inside the joint of the two bones.

– The Synovial fluid is withdrawn into the tube of the syringe.

– The sample is collected and sent to the laboratory for the CA 19.9 test.

What is the procedure of the collection of the Pleural fluid for the CA 19.9 test?

The pleural region is the space between the outside lining of the lungs (pleura) and the chest wall. The fluid is collected from this space and is known as the pleural fluid. The procedure is called Thoracentesis which is used for the pleural fluid collection. The procedure of the pleural fluid collection is as follows:

– You will be instructed to sit on a bed or on the edge of a chair and rest your head and arms on a table.

– The area is detected from where the needle will be inserted.

– A numbing cream is applied. A local or general anesthesia is applied for numbing the particular area of the puncture.

– A hollow needle guided by the ultrasound is inserted in the pleural space.

– It is highly suggested not to cough, breathe heavily or move at all during the test procedure. This is to avoid any injury or bruising.
The fluid is drawn inside the tube of the syringe.

– After the collection of the pleural sample, the area is cleaned and bandaged.

The pleural fluid is then sent to the laboratory for the CA 19.9 test.

What is the procedure of the collection of the Pericardial fluid for the CA 19.9 test?

Pericardial fluid is the serous fluid secreted into the pericardial cavity. It is secreted by the serous layer of the pericardium. The procedure of the collection of the pericardial fluids called pericardiocentesis. The collection of the pericardial fluid is done by the following steps:

– You will be instructed by your health practitioner to lie down on a special table in the cardiac catheterization lab.

– A mild sedative will be given to relax you but you will be conscious throughout the test.

– In case of any need for medications or fluids, an intravenous(IV)line is inserted into your hands and arms.

– A local or a general anesthetic is used to numb the area on your chest.

– After the area is numbed, a needle is inserted and then a catheter is tunneled into the sac around your heart. The catheter is generally guided by X-ray or ECG(EchoCardioGram).

– The fluid sample is withdrawn.

– After the fluid has been collected, the catheter is removed.

– The whole procedure of the pericardiocentesis takes about 20 minutes to 60 minutes.

The collected Pericardial sample is then sent to the laboratory for the CA 19.9 test.
 

What is the procedure of the sweat chloride collection for the CA 19.9 test?

The sweat chloride sample might be collected for the CA 19.9 test to be conducted. The procedure of the collection of the sweat chloride sample involves the following steps:

– The patient’s skin is washed and dried.

– A pad soaked in pilocarpine(a chemical that helps in the stimulation of the sweat glands) is placed on the skin. A mild current is created by the electrode. This helps in moving the chemicals in the skin where the sweat glands are located.

– The stimulated area starts to sweat. The pad and the electrodes are removed.

– A piece of filter paper is placed over the area. The filter paper is weighed before placing it on the spot.

– This area is completely covered with plastic and tightly bandaged. Sweat is collected for 30 minutes.

– The sweat is collected in the filter paper. This filter paper is again weighed.

– It is then placed into a buffer to evaluate the concentration of the chloride.
 
For similar procedures, sweat can also get collected into a plastic coil of tubing or onto a piece of gauze. The sweat sample hence collected is then sent for further tests.

What are the other ways in which the CA 19.9 test is performed?

The CA 19.9 test can also be performed by the collection of samples of semen as well as Fetal Fibronectin.The procedure for the collection of the semen sample includes the following:

Your doctor might give you a special condom which can be used for jaculating and collecting the semen during sexual activity. You might be asked to masturbate and ejaculate in a container provided by your health practitioner. This can be done at home as well as a private room provided in the diagnostic centre.

The procedure for the collection of the Fetus Fibronectin involves the following steps: You will be instructed to lie down on your back on an examination table. The healthcare provider will place a speculum inside the vagina. A cotton swab is used for gently swiping the secretions near your cervix.

Is there any pain associated with the CA 19.9 test?

The sample collection of blood, CSF, Urine, Amniotic Fluid, Peritoneal fluid Synovial fluid, Pleural fluid, Pericardial fluid, Semen, Sweat chloride and Fetus Fibronectin involves no pain at all. The sample collection procedures which include the injecting of the syringe or the needle might involve a pinpricking sensation. That’s a momentary feeling which passes in a few seconds.

What are the risks associated with the blood collection procedure of the CA 19.9 test?

The venipuncture process has a few minute risks associated with it the few common risks are as follows:

– There can be a feeling of pain due to too many punctures of the needles.

– An individual might feel dizzy or lightheaded after the blood sample is drawn.

– There is also a risk of Haematoma(blood clotting under the skin causing lump formation).

The procedure might involve mild bruising and bleeding as well.

What are the risks associated with the collection of the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) sample?

There are a few risks associated with the collection of the CSF sample:
You might feel discomfort and pain during the procedure.

– People having low platelet count might experience bleeding in the spinal cord.

– In the case of CSF leakage, an individual might feel dizziness and a headache persisting for a while.

– The nerve might get damaged.

– The collection procedure of CSF leads to various infections.

What are the risks associated with the collection of the Amniotic Fluid sample?

A few common risks related to the Amniotic fluid collection are as follows:
– Miscarriage of the baby
– There are risks of preterm delivery

What are the risks associated with the collection of the Peritoneal Fluid?

The most common risks associated with the collection of the peritoneal fluid are:

– Developing a fever with a high temperature above 100°F.
– Experiencing severe abdominal pain and tenderness.
– There can be heavy bleeding on the site of puncture.

What are the risks associated with the collection of the Synovial fluid?

There are a few common risks associated with the collection procedure of the synovial fluid. Some of these risks are listed below:

– Experiencing pain in the places of punctures
– Bruising and bleeding
– Swelling in certain places
– Infections
– The medicine which is injected into the joint can cause various allergic reactions.
– The cartilages might get damaged inside the joint.

What are the risks associated with the collection of the Pleural fluid?

The pleural fluid collection or thoracentesis ca pose a few common risks. Some of  the risks related to this collection procedure are listed below:

– Bruising and bleeding
– There are be various infections
– Pneumothorax or collapsing of the lung 
– The pleural fluid collection can lead to various respiratory diseases and infections.

What are the risks associated with the collection procedure of the Pericardial fluid?

The Pericardial fluid collection or Pericardiocentesis procedure involves some very serious side effects. Some of the risks posed by the Pericardial fluid collection procedure are:

– The irregular rhythm of the heartbeat.

– Might lead to myocardial infarction(heart attack)

– The test procedure might lead to the puncturing of the organs like the heart, liver, lung or stomach.

– Cardiac arrest is a very probable risk posed by the collection procedure of the Pericardial Fluid.

What is the price of the CA 19.9 blood test n India?

The price of the CA 19.9 blood test generally ranges between Rs 450 – 2600. The prices might vary depending on the location i.e. the state or the city the diagnostic center is located in.

When will I get my results for the CA 19.9 test?

You will get your results for the CA 19.9 test within 24 hours to 36 hours after the test.

What does my CA 19.9 test result depict?

A healthy clinical range of the CA 19.9 ranges from 0 – 37 unites per millilitre. For the fluid being tested, if the range is more than 37 units per millilitre, it is possible that you are suffering from pancreatic cancer.

What does it mean if I have higher levels of CA 19.9?

Having higher levels of CA 19.9 might signify that you are detected with a malignant tumour especially in the pancreas. The CA 19.9 levels can also be high due to other kinds of cancers like lung cancer, colorectal cancer, gallbladder cancer etc. Higher levels of CA 19.9 can also indicate the following conditions as follows:

Gallbladder stones
Infections in the biliary duct(cholangitis)
The bile duct can get blocked due to jaundice
Swelling of the pancreas also known as pancreatitis
Cystic Fibrosis
Hepatic or liver diseases

Is the CA 19.9 test recommended for pregnant and lactating women?

The CA 19.9 test is highly recommended for pregnant women experiencing the common symptoms related to the abnormal levels of CA 19.9 in the body. In the case of pregnant women, the amniotic fluid sample is collected, to evaluate the levels of the CA 19.9. It acts as a tumour marker, hence it is suggested for the pregnant women. The CA 19.9 test is completely safe for the mother as well as for the fetus. The collection procedure might involve some risks.

When should my kid undergo the CA 19.9 test?

If your kid is experiencing any of the symptoms related to the abnormalities of the CA 19.9 level, it is highly recommended for your kid to undergo the CA 19.9 test. Some of the most common symptoms of the higher levels of the CA 19.9 are as follows:

– Nausea and dizziness
Anxiety and depression
– Loss of appetite
– Sudden weight loss
– Loss of memory
– Difficulty in concentrating
– Often regurgitation
– Jaundice 
 

What are the benefits and the limitations of the CA 19.9 Test?

Benefit  Limitation 
The CA 19.9 test is used as a tumor marker it determines if a person has a malignant tumor. Especially pancreatic cancer is diagnosed using the CA 19.9 test. The CA 19.9 test is not specific. Hence it is not used to assure if a person has pancreatic cancer or not. The results of the CA 19.9 test is not enough for evaluating cancer.

What is the prevalence of Pancreatic Cancer in India?

The prevalence of pancreatic cancer is very low in India. 0.5 – 2.4 per 100,000 in men and 0.2 – 1.8 per 100,000 in women in India are suffering from pancreatic cancer annually.

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