Juvenile Macular Degeneration

Juvenile Macular Degeneration

Overview of Juvenile Macular Degeneration

Genetic disorders are responsible for a number of diseases in children. These diseases are usually serious in nature and are often not curable. A series of routine studies related to the health conditions in children establish that the “eyes” suffer maximum damage due to diseases of genetic origin. A very common disease of this category is “juvenile macular degeneration”. Research studies show that when either of the parents is the carrier of the gene responsible for macular degeneration, their children have about 50% chances of acquiring the disease. Parents of these children should be particularly aware of the disease since, at present, juvenile macular degeneration is one of the leading causes of blindness in children all over the world.

 

What is Juvenile Macular Degeneration?

Juvenile Macular Degeneration retinaJuvenile macular degeneration is a hereditary autosomal recessive eye disease. It is also known as Juvenile Macular Dystrophy (JMD). In most cases, it arises from defects in the X-chromosome. The location of the disease is the central part of the child’s retina, also known as the macula. It mainly impacts the central vision and to some extent, the color vision. Juvenile macular degeneration is known as dominant when the child inherits only one dominant gene that is related to the disease. It is known as recessive when the child inherits recessive gene of the disease from both the parents.

In some children, macular degeneration occurs due to the premature death of the macular cells. In the other cases, tiny blood vessels grow into the macula. Rupture of these blood vessels causes scarring of the macula and leads to macular degeneration. Children suffering from macular degeneration generally lose their central vision partially or completely.

 

 What causes juvenile macular degeneration?

Juvenile macular degeneration occurs due to several factors. The common causes are as follows-

  • Inheritance of a faulty gene (usually dominant) from one parent
  • Inheritance of a defective gene (usually recessive) from both parents
  • Death of macular cells
  • Abnormal growth and rupture of blood vessels within the macula

 

What are the common signs of juvenile macular degeneration?

The general warning signs of juvenile macular degeneration are as follows-

  • Partial or complete loss of central vision
  • Gradual loss of color vision
  • Photosensitivity (aversion to extreme light)
  • Loss of night vision
  • Difficulty reading the blackboard in school
  • Defective perception of straight lines as curved or bent
  • The appearance of dark spots in the central field of vision
  • Problems in distinguishing minute details
  • Difficulty performing tasks such as threading a needle, reading very small prints or reading street signs.

 

What are the different types of juvenile macular degeneration?

Juvenile Macular DegenerationStargardt’s disease

It is also known as Stargardt’s macular degeneration or Stargardt’s macular dystrophy. Its scientific name is fundus flavimaculatus. It is an inherited retinal disease which affects the macula. Its rate of occurrence is about 1 in 10,000 people. It is prevalent in children between the ages of 10-20. Acute vision disturbance occurs after the age of 30. Stargardt’s disease causes partial loss of central vision, detailed vision and color vision in children.

Genetics of Stargardt’s disease: In 90% of the cases, Stargardt’s disease arises from the mutations in the ABCA4 gene. When both the parents are the carriers of this gene, their children have high risks of developing Stargardt’s disease. Observations prove that the carriers of the Stargardt’s disease do not suffer from the disease. This happens because a normal copy of the gene from the other parent suppresses the defective gene. Hence one can say that Stargardt’s disease is a recessive retinal disease. But in some rare cases, a dominant variety of Stargardt’s disease also occurs. The contributing gene in this case is the ELOVL4 gene.

Symptoms of Stargardt’s disease: In Stargardt’s disease, the defective gene prevents the retinal protein from removing toxic materials from the eye. These materials therefore accumulate over time and damage the macula. The more serious symptoms are as follows-

  • Appearance of an oval lesion around the macula which causes loss of visual accuracy
  • Pale yellowish spots that appear around the pre-formed lesion
  • Blurred central vision (at times with spots or patches)
  • Loss of adaptation to changing light intensities

Best’s disease

This disease is also known as Vitelliform macular dystrophy. It affects the Reitnal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) layer and leads to a progressive loss of central vision. It occurs due to mutations in the BEST1 or PRPH2 gene.

Types of Best’s disease: Best’s disease has two subtypes-

  • Early onset form that appears in childhood
  • Adult onset form that appears in mid-adulthood and causes loss of vision

 Stages of Best’s disease: Best’s disease occurs in the following stages-

  • Stage I: Minor RPE changes occur.
  • Stage II: Classic “egg-yolk” lesions appear
  • Stage III: Lipofuscin layers appear
  • Stage IV: Scrambled-egg appearance occurs due to breakdown of materials
  • Stage V: Retinal atrophy takes place
  • Stage VI: Acute vision impairment occurs.

Cone-Rod Dystrophy 

In Cone-Rod dystrophy, malfunctioning of the cone and rod photoreceptors occurs. The manifestations of the progressive stages are- loss of central vision, loss of night vision and loss of peripheral vision.

Symptoms of Cone-Rod dystrophy: The following symptoms are very common-

  • Rapid involuntary movement of the eye called “Nystagmus”
  • Roving eye movements, where the patient cannot focus on one particular object
  • The tendency to poke the eye
  • Loss of color vision
  • Loss of twilight and night vision

 

Diagnosis

Here is a list of a few diagnostic tests for juvenile macular degeneration-

  • Fluorescien angiography
  • Electrodiagnostics
  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
  • Genetic Tests

 

Treatment & Prevention

juvenile macularIn the current scenario, no treatment has been devised for juvenile macular degeneration. However, research is being done on the newer modes of treatment such as:

  • Gene therapy– This therapy aims at repairing or replacing the ABA4 gene. The gene is planned to be delivered to the cells by means of a larger virus from the lentivirus family.
  • Stem cell-based therapies– Human stem cells derived from the embryonic or adult tissues can be employed to replace the degenerated photoreceptors which cause vision loss.
  • Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) – These cells are synthesized from the human embryonic stem cells. These cells can help by providing nourishment and support to the retina.

Some drugs can be employed to reduce retinal damage. These drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to reduce the retinal damage in mice. Chemical compounds having a structure similar to these drugs are being studied.

Synthetic vitamin A- A synthetic form of vitamin A (ALK-001) is being studied at the Columbia University. This synthetic form of vitamin A does not get readily converted into lipofuscin. In case of mice and other larger animals, an oral dosage of ALK-001 has reduced the formation of lipofuscin deposits.

Since it is an inherited disorder, there are no means of prevention.

 

Facts

  • Juvenile macular degeneration (JMD) has several variants such as Stargardt disease, Stargardt macular dystrophy, or fundus flavimaculatus, Best disease etc.
  • Stargardt disease is the most common form of JMD while the Best disease is the second most common form of JMD.

Facts

  • Nearly 95% of cases of juvenile macular degeneration are caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in the ABCA4 gene; approximately 5% of the cases result from other rarer mutations in different genes.

Facts

  • Approximately 1 in 2 children have the possibility to be born with the disease inherited if the parent is affected by one dominant gene mutation.
  • As per the National Eye Institute (NEI), juvenile macular degeneration is diagnosed in approximately 1 in every 8 to 10 thousand individuals.

 

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Wear hats and dark glasses when you are exposed to bright lights. This helps in reducing the build-up of lipofuscin.
  • Take vitamin A supplements under a doctor’s supervision only. High dose of vitamin A might increase the accumulation of lipofuscin and thereby accelerate the loss of vision.
  • Use low vision aids in case you have lost your central vision.
Don'ts
  • Neglect your family history. Go for a genetic counseling. This will help in understanding the risk of other family members getting the disease.
  • Ignore the appearance of grey, black or hazy spots in the center of your vision. Seek medical attention.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a particular liver enzyme…
Vitamin K2: 8 reasons why you need this bone-building & cancer-fighting nutrient Vitamin K2 is claimed to be essential for your bone health, for reducing the risk of cancer, and…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
anti-thyroglobulin antibody
Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody test Anti-thyrogloubin antibody test measures the level of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cells and are hence indicative…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test is used to measure and monitor the levels of folic acid in the blood. The…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
abdominal-CT-scan- image
Abdominal CT scan Abdominal CT scan is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides a clear picture of the state of internal…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin. Find easy and…
hlab27 test
HLA-B27 test The HLA-B27 is a blood test that is used to determine the level of a particular protein called…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body is infected by…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help you combat the…
Stye : The best natural home remedies to ease the pain Styes developing inside the eyelid tend to be more painful whereas external styes are less painful and ooze…
Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are non-invasive breathing tests employed for diagnosing and monitoring lung diseases such as bronchitis
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
IGE test
IgE test – Immunoglobulin E IgE or immunoglobulin E test is a test that measures the level of IgE in the blood and…
rubella IgG test
Rubella IgG Test The rubella IgG test is a blood test that checks for the rubella virus IgG antibodies present in…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each spoonful you are…
Silicon Dioxide: How can a component of sand be essential to your wellbeing? Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the nature. Find out how silicon dioxide can prove…
Chromium Picolinate: An essential mineral supplement for faster weight loss Did you know that about 1.6 million deaths were directly linked to diabetes globally? How is it linked…
How do neutrophils protect you from fatal bacterial attacks? During an infection, certain enzymes alert the mature neutrophils.  Neutrophils then travel through the bloodstream to the affected…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
Poop chart: Top things you didn’t you your poop could reveal about you Bristol poop chart was designed during the 1990s in order to help doctors identify various types of poops…
Ferritin blood test
Ferritin Test Ferritin test is a blood test that provides vital information on the level of RBCs and iron in…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
serum electrolyte test
Serum Electrolyte If there is an electrolyte imbalance in the body, a serum electrolyte test will help to find out…
HELICOBACTER_PYLORI---IgG
Helicobacter Pylori – IgG Test Helicobacter pylori IgG test is a blood, saliva, and urine test performed to determine if the patien is…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does our poop turn…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
RHEUMATOID_FACTOR_(RF)
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Rheumatoid factor or RF is a blood test used to diagnose painful joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis…
Free T3 test
Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) Test The free triiodothyronine or FT3 test is an important blood test that is used to detect the level…
serum zinc test
Serum Zinc Test The serum zinc test is a blood test performed to assess the zinc level in the blood (serum)…
TPAB test
Treponema Pallidum Antibody(TPAB) test Treponema pallidum bacteria a gram-negative bacteria that has helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, responsible for STDs such as syphilis.
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of RBCs, WBCs, etc…
POSTPRANDIAL-BLOOD-SUGAR
Post-Prandial Blood Sugar Postprandial blood sugar test is an important diabetes diagnosing tool. This simple blood test measure the level of…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test involves detecting and measuring the presence of the IgG class of beta…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
Bubble Tea: Bubbling with nutrition or a hidden sugar mine? The tapioca pearls present in the tea looks like bubbles and hence the name bubble tea became popular.…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
bilirubin-test-result
Bilirubin Test Bilirubin is a substance produced in the body as a result of red blood cell breakdown. A bilirubin…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in the bloodstream in…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the three important functions…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Helicobacter pylori IGA
Helicobacter Pylori – IgA Test The H.pylori IgA test is a blood test used to identify the level of IgA antigen in the…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
lipid-profile
Lipid Profile Lipid profile is a blood test that provides complete information on how much cholesterol is present in the…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
Cystoscopy Cystoscopy is intended to look at the abnormalities in the ureters, bladder, and urethra, to assist surgeries performed…
random blood sugar test
Random Blood Sugar Test The random blood sugar or RBS test is a blood test prescribed mainly to check the level of…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an inexplicable emotional numbness…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself is a detoxifying…
EEG
Electroencephalogram – EEG EEG or electroencephalogram is a diagnostic tool used to access the functioning of neurons and brain activity to…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
Top natural diuretics: The instant benefits you can get from nature’s water pills Since diuretic drugs are known to cause side effects, it is better to choose a natural diuretic that…
EMA antibodies
Endomysial Antibodies (EMA) Test EMA test is an investigative blood examination to locate the presence of certain antibodies, called Endomysial antibodies or…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
Internal bleeding brain
Beware: Ignoring these tell-tale signs of stroke could cost a life The signs and symptoms of a stroke differ depending on which part of the brain has been affected.…
arterial-blood-gas
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Arterial blood gas analysis is a diagnostic procedure used to determine the volume of oxygen and carbon dioxide…
Bronchoscopy procedure
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure where in a scope is inserted into the lung pathway to observe any growth…
Chest X-Ray A chest x-ray is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to visualize the structures inside your chest. It…
fructosamine test
Fructosamine Test A fructosamine test is a blood test that measures blood sugar glucose content. Fructosamine level can indicate blood…
anti-chlamydia antibody tets
Anti-Chlamydia Antibody -IgG Test Anti-Chlamydia Antibody - IgG test is performed by collection of urine or genital fluids as sample for testing…
free thyroxine ft4
Free thyroxine test (FT4) The FT4 or free thyroxine test is a blood test used to detect the level of free thyroixine…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
Panera bread steak arugula
Panera Bread: The truth behind this “healthy” restaurant chain What to order and what to avoid when dining at Panera Bread ? Know more about this popular…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
boost brain health
The ultimate tips on how to boost your brain health Would you like to be smarter? Want a sharp memory but bored of doing sudoku? Try salsa or…
glutamine workout
Glutamine: Why is this the right choice for muscle-gain supplement? Glutamine can help you gain muscles and build higher immunity. Read more to find out how you can…
gout diet purines
Gout Diet : Get relief from painful joints by eating these foods Are you a victim of this painful condition? Are medications providing only short relief? Find a list of…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the potatoes) growing close…
Erythritol: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another marketing ploy? Erythritol is a popular choice of a healthy alternative sweetening agent in foods. But how healthy can a…
Microneedling: Does this cosmetic procedure live up to the hype? Is microneedling a safe and painless procedure? How can pricking your skin with a series of pins help…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
blood elements analysis
Blood Element Analysis Test A blood element analysis is a blood test performed to measure the level of toxic elements such as…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
erythropoetin test
Erythropoietin (EPO) Test Erythropoetin stimulates the production of RBCs in bone marrow thus an erythropoetin test is done to diagnose blood…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
Pumpkin Seeds: Why pumpkins are more than just for pies! Pumpkins have been long associated with Halloween carvings and delicious pies. But did you know that pumpkin seeds…
black seed oil benefits
Black Seed Oil: What secret benefits could it bestow on your health? Black seeds or nigella seeds are tiny packets of health brimming with amazing benefits. Find out why should…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
Psyllium Husk: More than just an effective natural laxative Psyllium husk, or isabgol, is a popular natural laxative . But did you in addition to regulating bowels,…
Epley maneuver: Why is this the best protection from the symptoms of vertigo? Epley maneuver is an exercise that can treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).  It was…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…
Colloidal silver benefits
Colloidal silver: An essential dietary supplement or yet another pharmaceutical hoax? Colloidal silver is hailed as an effective home remedy for infections. Many believe it can treat HIV and…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid when you experience…