Typhus


What is Typhus?

Vector-borne diseases are transmitted by insects or animals. They account for 17% of infectious diseases globally. A viral or a bacterial disease can be transmitted by any insect via contaminated water or food or even air. When such insects vectors bite, the infectious microbe gets injected into the body. Typhus fever is one such condition caused by fleas, lice, rats, squirrels, and chiggers.

  • Typhus fevers are diseases caused by rickettsial
  • These bacteria infect the fleas, lice, chiggers or even rats and squirrels.
  • After biting, upon scratching the bitten area, it opens up the skin giving more room for the bacteria to enter.

There are 3 types of typhus fevers:

  •  Scrub typhus – spread by chiggers spread
  • Murine typhus – spread by fleas
  • Epidemic typhus – spread by body lice

The incubation period for typhus is around 1 – 2 weeks.

What is a murine typhus fever?

Murine typhus is a disease caused by bacteria called Rickettsia typhi. It is also called endemic typhus or flea-borne typhus. The name murine means rats. So the main mammal host of murine typhus fevers are rats. It also spreads to people by contact with infected fleas. It largely happens when the infected feces are rubbed into the skin via cuts or upon scratching the skin.

What is an epidemic typhus fever?

Epidemic typhus, also called louse-borne typhus, is an uncommon disease caused by the bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. This type of typhus fever spreads through contact with infected body lice. It was an epidemic as it infected and caused millions of deaths ever since World War II.It affects those who reside in extremely crowded areas where the body lice can travel from one person to another.

What is scrub typhus fever?

Scrub typhus is also referred to as bush typhus. It is caused by the bacteria Orientiatsutsugamushi. It infects people via chiggers (larval mites) infected with this bacteria. An individual living in or traveling to areas prevalent in scrub typhus could be prone to the infection.

What are the symptoms associated with typhus fevers?

Murine typhus symptoms
  • Fever and chills
  • You will have body aches and experience muscle pain
  • You may also experience loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Cough
  • Rashes occur on the 5th day of illness
Epidemic typhus symptoms
  • Fever and chills
  • Headache and confusions
  • You tend to breathe faster
  • Body and muscle aches
  • Rash
  • Cough
  • Nausea and vomiting
Scrub typhus symptoms
  • Fever and chills
  • Headache and also mental changes, ranging from confusion to coma
  • Body aches and muscle pain
  • The site of the insect bite appears dark, brown or blackish  that are hard dried out blood clots (a scab-like region called eschar)
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Skin rashes tend to appear


How is a typhus infection diagnosed?

Most of them will recover with no treatment. Some cases might be severe and if left untreated, it can result in serious health damage to the liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, and brain. Inform your doctor if you have come in contact with any fleas, rats, or other insects are known to cause typhus.

Your doctor may carry out a blood test to look for murine typhus or other diseases. The testing and reporting may take several weeks. The doctor will advise you on the treatments even before the reports have come to minimize the severity of the infection.

Inform your doctor of the following aspects:

  • If you are living in a crowded environment
  • In case of a typhus outbreak in your community
  • If you have traveled abroad recently

Diagnosing typhus fever is very tricky as the symptoms might also be linked to the following diseases:

  • Dengue (a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus and is also known as breakbone fever. This disease is characterized by high fever, headache, rash and muscle, and joint pain).
  • Malaria (an infectious disease spread by mosquitoes. This disease is usually characterized by chills, fever, and sweating).
  • Brucellosis (an infectious disease caused by the bacteria named Brucella. It is characterized by joint and muscle pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue)

Here are some of the diagnostic tests your doctor might undertake:

  • A biopsy of the affected skin will be analyzed.
  • Western blot – This is a test to determine the typhus causing bacterial proteins.
  • Immunofluorescence test: This is an imaging method that makes use of fluorescent dyes to detect specific typhus proteins.
  • Complement fixation (CF) test – A test to determine the presence of the typhus bacteria protein via color

What are the treatment options?

The treatment options are minimal. Here, the main target is the bacteria. So antibiotics will usually be prescribed by your doctor.

What are the complications of typhus fever?

If left untreated, the typhus fever can result in the following complications:

  • Hepatitis – inflammation of the liver
  • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage – bleeding inside the intestines
  • Hypovolemia – decrease in blood volume

How can you prevent murine typhus and scrub typhus?

There is no vaccine to prevent murine typhus or scrub typhus. Make sure the rodents and animals stay away from your home, workplace, and recreational areas. Keep your home clear from rock piles, junk, cluttered firewood, and piles of pet food. Wear gloves while handling sick or dead animals. If you are working outdoors or hiking or camping, use insect repellents approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Do not spray them on the skin under the clothing.

You can also use skin products containing N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) for insect repelling creams. You can apply this on your skin or on your clothing as well. Make sure that you follow the instructions properly. If you are using sunscreen, apply the sunscreen before applying insect repellent.

If you have a baby or child:

  • Typhus bacteriaMake sure that you dress your baby in clothing that covers arms and legs.
  • Cover the crib, stroller, and baby carrier with mosquito netting.
  • Insect repellent must not be used on babies younger than 2 months of age.
  • Ensure that you do not apply it on a child’s hands, eyes, or mouth or on cuts or irritated skin.
  • If you are applying it to a child’s face, first spray the insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to the child’s face.

Treat clothing, boots, and gear with permethrin (a medication used to treat scabies) or purchase permethrin-treated items. The advantage is that the treated clothing remains protective even after washing the clothing it many times. Never use permethrin products directly on the skin as these medications are designed for clothing. Maintain your pets free of any fleas. You can also use veterinarian-approved flea control products for cats and dogs like flea collars. Do not use permethrin on cats.

How to prevent epidemic typhus?

  • There is no vaccine to prevent epidemic typhus.
  • Avoid traveling or residing in overcrowded areas.
  • Have a bath and wear clean clothes regularly.
  • You must wash louse-infested clothing at least once a week. Wash the clothing either by machine wash or wash dry infested clothing and bedding using hot water (at least 130°F), and dry the clothes on high heat.
  • Dry clean the clothing items that are not washable.
  • Neither use nor share any clothing, beds, bedding, or towels with a person who has body lice or is infected with typhus.
  • Treat the bedding, uniforms, and other clothing with permethrin. You should know that permethrin kills lice and provides long-lasting protection for clothing even after multiple items of washing. Do not use permethrin products directly on the skin as it causes skin irritation.
  • You must refrain from any contact with flying squirrels and their nests.

An ayurvedic approach to typhus fever

There is a whole range of ayurvedic treatments available.

  • Mix lightly boiled cow’s milk with the broth of meat or broth of Phaseolusroxburghii.
  • Avoid consuming rice until the fever subsides.
  • Garlic acts as an excellent antibiotic. It heals many diseases and can be used to treat typhus.
  • You can mix garlic with lemon water or honey water and consume it. Garlic and honey contain flavonoids and phenols and other sulfur-based compounds that contribute to its antibiotic property.
  • You can also consume the fruit of Capsicum Frutescens( Red pepper). This is helpful for treating cholera, sore throat, malaria, typhus, etc.
  • The oil of Melissa officinalis or lemon balms is rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids. It is very good for colds, typhus fevers & chills.
  • Prepare a decoction of the roots and leaves of Andrographispaniculata. This plant is known as Kalamegha in Ayurveda. It is termed as the “King of bitter”. It is rich in flavonoids, saponins, phenols, and It helps in flushing out toxins. You can use this decoction to treat typhus fever because of its anti-inflammatory and as immunosuppressive proportions.

The final outcome…

Typhus fever is a bacterial infection caused by conveying entities like fleas, lice, flying squirrels, and even rats. It is usually characterized by fever, rash, cough, chills, nausea, vomiting, etc. Antibiotics are usually prescribed for this infection. Apart from this, you can also try home remedies to cope with the infection. You can prepare extracts with garlic or ginger or honey, etc., to help your body heal faster.

Simple things like sterilizing the clothing or items of an infected individual, keeping the house clean, having a bath and wearing clean clothes every day would be of great help in protecting yourself from typhus fever. Typhus is usually a treatable infection if treated on time.

Facts

  • Albert Schweitzer used garlic to treat typhus on soldiers during the world war I.
  • The bacteria can be inactivated with moist heat at 121°C for 15 minutes or dry heat at 170°C for 30 minutes.
  • You can prepare a mixture of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% peracetic acid, 3- 6% hydrogen peroxide, iodine, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde to kill Rickettsia prowazekii.

Facts

  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the death rates from typhus fevers occur in 1 out of 50,00,000 individuals every year.
  • Typhus fever occurs in colder (i.e. mountainous) regions of central and eastern Africa, central and South America, and Asia.
  • Major outbreaks have been reported from Burundi, Ethiopia etc.

Facts

  • Scrub typhus mostly occurs in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, China, Japan, India, and northern Australia.
  • Most cases of murine typhus in the United States are from California, Hawaii, and Texas.

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Maintain proper. Take a bath and wear clean clothes regularly.
  • Contain the movements of infected people in the house.
  • Do not scratch the typhus rash.
  • Try avoiding moving around in excessively crowded unhygienic places.
Don'ts
  • Share your towels, bedding, etc., with an infected individual.
  • Scratch the skin rash.
  • Go camping without proper precautions.
  • Apply permethrin on cats.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

anal sex
Anal sex: Tips from experts on how to be kinky yet safe Whether it irks you or stokes your fantasies, anal sex has always been an intriguing sexual act. Learn…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
understanding addiction
Addiction explained: An obsession that could cost you your life Is addiction a behavioral disorder? Or is it a chronic disease? How does addiction cause chemical and structural…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
High Fiber Diet – Fire up your fiber intake for these health benefits! Regular bowels, healthy detox, higher immunity, and guaranteed weight loss - a high fiber diet can bring all…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
Fluoride: An indispensible mineral or a potential toxin ? Fluoride, the main ingredient of toothpaste, has shown a great potential as a cleanser. However, how much fluoride…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
Creatine: Is this the right peak athletic-performance supplement for you? Creatine is the amino acid that boosts our energy. Did you know creatine supplements can help you reach…
Isagenix diet
Isagenix Diet: Do you really need liquid meal replacements to lose weight? Isagenix Diet - What are liquid meal replacements and why is the world going ga-ga over them? Are…
Glutathione: Probably the strongest antioxidant known to mankind An antioxidant with ample potential to transform your body, glutathione is one of the most critical substances secreted…
eating myths debunked
8 ‘healthy eating’ myths you believed until now Is a zero-carb diet really healthy for you? Are organic products worth their cost? Did you know how…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket The dragon fruit is packed with nutrients and yet low on calories and is the dream food that…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
Panera bread steak arugula
Panera Bread: The truth behind this “healthy” restaurant chain What to order and what to avoid when dining at Panera Bread ? Know more about this popular…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
Paleo diet man
Paleo Diet: Is eating like the Caveman the right way to go? Paleo diet is the world's oldest diet; dating back to 2.5 million years ago. Why is this prehistoric…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
lose weight fast
12 easy and instant steps to successful weight loss Do you want to lose weight without losing your mind? Does weight loss always mean saying goodbye to…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
quinoa salad
Quinoa : A prodigous superfood you need to include in your diet today! Quinoa - what is so special about this native South American grain that has taken the world by…
boost immunity tips
Step up your defence: 15 proven tips on how to boost your immunity Want to naturally build up a stronger immunity? Tired of frequent colds and runny nose?You will never believe…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your survival. However, these…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
stevia side effects
Stevia: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another risky additive? Stevia is a plant native to South America.  It has been used as a natural sugar substitute and…
Pomegranate: Why are they called ruby red pearls of health? The shrub Punicagranatum yields a red fruit which is what you normally call pomegranate. The fruit is round…
black seed oil benefits
Black Seed Oil: What secret benefits could it bestow on your health? Black seeds or nigella seeds are tiny packets of health brimming with amazing benefits. Find out why should…
nature health benefits
Green Healing: The amazing health benefits of being in nature You have no idea what sitting in a closed room does to your body and mind.Can a stroll…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know some of the…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
oral hygiene tips
6 shocking consequences of bad oral hygiene (and how to avoid them) Did you know bad breath is not just turning off, but also harms your body in ways you…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
Pumpkin Seeds: Why pumpkins are more than just for pies! Pumpkins have been long associated with Halloween carvings and delicious pies. But did you know that pumpkin seeds…
BCAAs powder
BCAA: Now get more out of your workouts with this miracle protein BCAAs are counted as one of the best supplements for increasing your physical endurance. Find out what are…
avocado benefits
Avocado: 15 reasons why this fruit should be a staple in your diet Did you know that the word avocado literally means "testicles". Don't get grossed out as this power-packed fruit…
Garlic health benefits cloves
Garlic: Nature’s white pill as an effective home remedy What are the secrets hidden in these tiny white pills? Find out the immense health benefits of using…
gallbladder diet tomato
Gallbladder surgery :Tips on post-operative care and diet What to eat post a gallbladder surgery? What are the key things to avoid if you had a…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
cancer facts
8 hard-hitting truths no one tells you about cancer Did you know that 1.5 million new cases of cancer are reported every year? Can second-hand smoking kill…
Low carb diet
8 appetizing and mouth-watering recipes that every low-carb dieter should try Looking for delicious recipes that will fix your hunger pang without adding those pesky carbs? Look no further…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
turmeric skin
We bet you didn’t know that turmeric could be this beneficial! Did you know that turmeric, a humble ingredient found in most Indian kitchens could cure countless ailments and…
Serotonin happiness
Serotonin : What you didn’t know about this “feel-good” chemical Serotonin : Did you know that this "feel-good" hormone could well impact your sleep cycle, sex drive, appetite,…
Keto diet healthy
Keto Diet: Did you know you could eat fats to burn fats? Keto diet - A wonder diet that lets you eat fats and lose weight too! Read on to…
Spirulina: Battle diabetes and cholesterol with this blue-green algae Spirulina, a species of salt water algae, has now become a billion dollar industry. How you can use…
low carb diet meal
Low carb diet : Go high on fats and low on carbs for a leaner body! Did you know that sugar is the new fat? Going low on carbs and high on fats &…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
ADHD forgetful
ADD versus ADHD: What are the fundamental differences? Is every hyperactive child a patient of ADHD? Do adults display symptoms of ADHD as well? What is…
calories healthy
Calories: How to keep a check on these for faster weight loss Did you know you can burn calories while sleeping? Calorie-burning is what causes weight loss. How much should…
kale
Kale: With more iron than beef, this superfood is the ultimate way to lose weight Checkmate meat-eaters; with kale, vegans now have the ultimate iron-rich superfood as their ally that can protect from…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
How to make the apple cider vinegar diet work for you? Apple cider vinegar diet is a popular choice among health enthusiasts.Find out why nutritionists believe this could be…
How much protein
Proteins: What is the right protein-intake for your specific needs? As we all know protein is an essential macronutrient indispensible to good health and body. But how much…
Horny Goat Weed: Can it improve libido in human beings too? This plant got its name as Horny Goat Weed when one of the goats feeding on the plant…
hYdroxycut pills
Hydroxycut: How safe are these so-called weight loss supplements? Hydroxycut is a blend of several different ingredients formulated to promote weight loss; powered by a key weight…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
MANUKA HONEY child
Manuka Honey Manuka honey is a specific type of honey produced by honey bees that collect nectar from the flowers…
Healthy pregnancy tips
How to have a healthy pregnancy: Essential tips to remember What to expect when growing a life within you? How important are prenatal vitamins anyway? Don't make these…
paleo keto diet
Paleo vs. Keto: Which diet plan is best suited for your body goals? Is eating like a caveman the right way to go? Can you really eat fats to burn fats…
aspartame or sugar
Aspartame – Hidden truths about this storm in a teacup Aspartame, the artificial sweetener, has gone under the scanner on several occasions for allegedly doing more harm than…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…