Thyromegaly

Thyromegaly goitre

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

The most common visible sign of thyroid cancer is a lump in the neck region that tends to grow in size quickly. This lump is usually painful and the pain radiates to the ears as well. The voice of the individual tends to become hoarse, and this change in voice is permanent. The lump causes difficulty in swallowing and breathing too. Most people complain of a cough in the initial stages that doesn’t go away. Thyromegaly or enlarged thyroid is often associated with the same early symptoms as thyroid cancer. However, as discussed above thyroid cancer is not the only reason why your thyroid gland can swell up.
An ultrasound can easily detect if there are any nodules present on the thyroid gland and whether these nodules need to be sent for biopsy. Ultrasound procedure for Thyromegaly can also tell if the gland is growing in size or not. The following are the signs of malignancy in the thyroid gland as detected by the ultrasound: • Nodule is filled with live tissue • Has blood flowing through it • There is only one nodule • There are no sharp edges around the nodule However, these alone do not confirm malignancy. The biopsy report carries the final word on this.
Thyromegaly and goiter refer to the same thing. An enlarged thyroid or goiter is most commonly caused by iodine deficiency in the body. It can be associated with both extremes – hypothyroidism (insufficient thyroid hormones) and hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid hormones).Additionally, an enlarged thyroid or goiter can also occur as a result of tiny nodules present on the thyroid gland.
As per studies, 5% of cases where there are thyroid nodules present on the gland are linked to thyroid cancer. The risk of thyroid cancer increases with the increase in the size (not number) of the nodules. In fact, the presence of multiple nodules could mean that the nodules are benign. If detected early, thyroid cancer is highly treatable. The 5 year survival rate of thyroid cancer patients is 98%.
What causes an enlarged thyroid gland?

Goiter can be caused due to many factors. Common factors include iodine deficiency and producing too much or too little thyroid hormones, T3 and T4. Other conditions that can cause an enlarged thyroid are Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s disease.

Can an enlarged thyroid cause choking?

A goiter or an enlarged thyroid gland is usually painless. However, a large goiter can cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing. It can also cause coughing and a tight feeling in the throat.

Can an enlarged thyroid shrink?

If the thyroid is enlarged, it can be shrunk by medication. Generally, L-thyroxine, the synthetic form of thyroid hormone, is prescribed. In some cases, radioactive iodine is administered to destroy thyroid tissues without harming other tissues. In extreme cases, where the goiter is compressing adjacent tissues, surgery might be required.

Overview of Thyromegaly

The thyroid gland is an essential part of the human body responsible for the production of hormones that regulate metabolism, body temperature and enhance growth and development of the body. Abnormalities in the functioning of the thyroid gland can lead to several clinical complications within the human body. According to recent epidemiological studies by American Thyroid Association, nearly 200 million people all over the world have some form of thyroid disease.

A major disease of the thyroid gland is Thyromegaly, which manifests with the enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is associated with numerous other clinical complications as well. There have been incidences in the past which show that thyroid enlargement can also be a serious indicator of malignancy. Around 62,450 new cases of Thyroid Cancer have been reported recently. It is high time people grow awareness of thyroid disorders and the ways to prevent them.

What is thyromegaly?

Thyromegaly goitreThyromegaly is the medical condition in which an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland occurs. It is manifested as a visible swelling below Adam’s apple in both men and women.

The disease is mainly attributed to the dysfunctions of the thyroid gland.

In most of the cases studied so far, women are more likely to develop thyromegaly than men of the same age. Heredity also plays a significant role in the diagnosed cases of the enlarged thyroid gland.

What are the main causes of thyromegaly?

Thyromegaly is triggered by a number of physical, genetic and dietary factors. The commonly analysed causes of the disease are given below-

  • Autoimmune diseases: Under few pathological conditions, the immune system of the body may attack the thyroid gland cells and associated enzymes. The remaining thyroid cells and enzymes are inadequate to produce the required amount of thyroid hormones. This may lead to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or atrophic thyroiditis.
  • Surgery: In few cancer patients, surgical removal of a part or the entire thyroid gland is carried out in order to prevent the spread of cancerous cells. In such cases, the thyroid gland is incapacitated and cannot produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s requirements.
  • Radiotherapy: Patients of Grave’s disease, Thyroid cancer or Nodular Goitre often receive radioactive iodine treatment (I-131). Again, patients suffering from cancers of head and neck region, Hodgkin’s disease or Lymphoma also undergo radiation therapy. These radiations can cause thyroid gland enlargement.
  • Congenital defect: Few infants have malformed or partially formed thyroid glands from birth. Thyroid glands may be absent at birth or positioned in the wrong place (ectopic thyroid) in few cases. In some other cases, the thyroid cells or enzymes do not function normally. All of these factors may equally contribute to a swollen thyroid gland.
  • Thyroiditis: In this condition, inflammation of the thyroid gland occurs due to autoimmune diseases or viral infections. This causes a burst of the thyroid hormones into the bloodstream all at once, causing a short period of hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism.
  • Medications: Certain over-the-counter drugs like interleukin-2, amiodarone, lithium, interferon alpha can disturb the normal mechanism of thyroid hormone production. People having a familial history of hypothyroidism or autoimmune diseases are predisposed to such conditions.
  • Iodine imbalance: Deficiency of iodine in the body or in the daily diet can cause thyromegaly.
  • Pituitary gland dysfunctions: The pituitary gland regulates the hormone production mechanism of the thyroid gland. Dysfunctions of the pituitary gland may be caused by radiotherapies, malignant tumors or surgeries that may induce thyromegaly.
  • Existing diseases: Few pre-existing diseases like amyloidosis (protein deposition), sarcoidosis (granuloma) or hemochromatosis (iron deposition) can disrupt thyroid gland functions and cause thyroid gland swelling.
  • Heredity: Ancestral history of hypothyroidism or any other endocrinal disorder can increase risks of thyromegaly in the future generations.

Tired of looking for natural remedies for your thyroid issues? Try these safe and tested solutions to improve your thyroid profile.


What are the symptoms of thyromegaly?

Thyromegaly thyroidGiven below are some of the common symptoms of thyromegaly-

  • Swollen thyroid gland
  • Cough due to tightness in the oesophageal region
  • Difficulty breathing and swallowing food
  • Alteration in voice and loss of modulating capacity
  • Headache, dizziness and general malaise
  • Fever (if infection is present)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dry hair and brittle nails (due the degeneration of keratin cells)
  • Swollen face
  • Bowel incontinence
  • Abnormal weight loss or gain
  • Muscle weakness
  • Elevated blood pressure and cholesterol level
  • Impaired growth in children


What are the different types of thyromegaly?

Enlargement of the thyroid gland may be classified as follows-

  • Aberrant type: Swelling of the supernumerary thyroid gland occurs.
  • Adenomatous type: Results from adenoma or multiple colloid nodules of the thyroid gland.
  • Basedow type: Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland after the administration of iodine.
  • Colloid type: Large and soft, filled with colloid
  • Cystic type: Cysts formed from by mucoid or colloid degeneration
  • Endemic type: Occurs in a particular geographical area
  • Fibrous type: The thyroid capsule and the stroma are hyperplastic
  • Follicular type: The thyroid parenchyma is affected.
  • Intrathoracic type: A part of the enlarged thyroid gland pushes into the thoracic cavity.
  • Iodide type: Occurs due to the presence of high levels of iodine.
  • Multinodular type: Occurrence of circumscribed nodules in the thyroid gland
  • Parenchymatous type: Increase in follicles and proliferation of the epithelium.
  • Perivascular type: Surrounds a large blood vessel.
  • Retrovascular type: Processes behind a large blood vessel.
  • Substernal type: The lowermost portion of the enlarged gland lies below the sternum.
  • Vascular type: Arises from dilation of the blood vessels of the thyroid gland.

Diagnosis

  • Blood tests (T4 and TSH tests)
  • Thyroid antibody test
  • Ultrasound of thyroid gland
  • Radioiodine scan
  • Thyroid fine needle biopsy

Treatment and Prevention

Thyromegaly surgeryThe exact treatment for thyromegaly depends on the exact condition of the thyroid. If the swelling is too less, the doctor may adopt a “wait-and-see” approach, while asking the patients to bring necessary changes in the diet. If the patient has low iodine levels, potassium iodide may be prescribed. Medicines which control the enlargement of the thyroid gland may be suggested by the doctor. In worst case scenario, such as too much swelling of the thyroid gland and/or thyroid cancer, surgery is the most effective option.

If one has a family history of thyroid issues, one can adopt a few preventive measures such as following a thyroid-healthy diet and refraining from smoking and drinking. One should be careful of fluoride contamination in water. Crash diets are a strict no-no. Be wary of environmental toxins and reduce exposure to harmful radiations (x-rays).

The most common visible sign of thyroid cancer is a lump in the neck region that tends to grow in size quickly. This lump is usually painful and the pain radiates to the ears as well. The voice of the individual tends to become hoarse, and this change in voice is permanent. The lump causes difficulty in swallowing and breathing too. Most people complain of a cough in the initial stages that doesn’t go away. Thyromegaly or enlarged thyroid is often associated with the same early symptoms as thyroid cancer. However, as discussed above thyroid cancer is not the only reason why your thyroid gland can swell up.
An ultrasound can easily detect if there are any nodules present on the thyroid gland and whether these nodules need to be sent for biopsy. Ultrasound procedure for Thyromegaly can also tell if the gland is growing in size or not. The following are the signs of malignancy in the thyroid gland as detected by the ultrasound: • Nodule is filled with live tissue • Has blood flowing through it • There is only one nodule • There are no sharp edges around the nodule However, these alone do not confirm malignancy. The biopsy report carries the final word on this.
Thyromegaly and goiter refer to the same thing. An enlarged thyroid or goiter is most commonly caused by iodine deficiency in the body. It can be associated with both extremes – hypothyroidism (insufficient thyroid hormones) and hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid hormones).Additionally, an enlarged thyroid or goiter can also occur as a result of tiny nodules present on the thyroid gland.
As per studies, 5% of cases where there are thyroid nodules present on the gland are linked to thyroid cancer. The risk of thyroid cancer increases with the increase in the size (not number) of the nodules. In fact, the presence of multiple nodules could mean that the nodules are benign. If detected early, thyroid cancer is highly treatable. The 5 year survival rate of thyroid cancer patients is 98%.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Pregnant women should get their blood serum levels tested regularly to keep a check on irregular thyroid hormones levels.
  • Natural and herbal remedies such as flaxseeds, watercress, and barley water can be effective. But take these only after consulting the doctor.

 

Don'ts
  • Consume cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, kale, turnip, and broccoli.
  • Ignore a swollen neck, even if it is painless.
  • Eat soy products such as soy milk and tofu.

 

 

 

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Folate test The Folate test measures and monitors the levels of folic acid in the blood. This test is also…
What to eat, what not to eat in the South Beach Diet? The South Beach Diet is one among the most popular weight loss programs that have been the talk…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of RBCs, WBCs, etc…
post circumcision
Circumcision Check to know everything about open , laser, stapler circumcision, and about preparation, procedure, risks, benefits , and…
anoscopy
Anoscopy Anoscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure where a small device known as anoscope will be inserted in the…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…
Gynecomastia or male breast enlargement
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is the enlargement of the male breasts. Learn about the treatment options, surgeries, and post-op care for…
Vitamin K2: 8 reasons why you need this bone-building & cancer-fighting nutrient Vitamin K2 is claimed to be essential for your bone health, for reducing the risk of cancer, and…
malarial antigen test
Malaria Antigen Test A malaria antigen test is a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that can detect malarial antigens (proteins) in your…
Optavia diet
The features of an Optavia diet The Optavia diet endorses pre-packaged meals and snacks called "fuelings" that are tasty, low in calorie, and incorporates…
18 instant steps to make your jogging routine more powerful Jogging is a form of Aerobic Endurance training which includes running at a slow pace. Jogging is slower…
Low carb diet
8 appetizing and mouth-watering recipes that every low-carb dieter should try Looking for delicious recipes that will fix your hunger pang without adding those pesky carbs? Look no further…
These are the top foods to increase your hemoglobin count It is important to add iron-rich foods into your diet in order to increase hemoglobin. Deficiency of hemoglobin could…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
Threatened abortion
A few facts about threatened abortion A threatened miscarriage indicates an early pregnancy loss. Look out for symptoms like bleeding, vaginal discharge, and pain.
blood ketone test
Blood Ketone (D3HB) Test The Blood Ketone Test measures and monitors the levels of ketone in the blood which is usually performed…
Goji berry: A traditional Chinese berry that packs the best of antioxidants Goji berry is an ancient berry that is considered to be power-packed with nutrients and antioxidants. Which means…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
Splenda
Splenda Splenda is an artificial sweetener derived from Stevia plant extracts. It is low in calories and a popular…
Surgery or home-remedy; what is the right way to treat a burn The treatment of a burn injury depends on its severity. You can save a life by offering the…
6 arguments in favour of glucosamine and where can you find it Studies have shown that glucosamine works by preventing the breakdown of cartilage of the joints. This is usually…
Diabetes blood test
Diabetic Profile The diabetic profile is a set of tests used for testing and monitoring the various kinds of Diabetes…
Shilajit: A miracle Himalayan herb for an active and happy life The Himalayas contain more wonders than you thought. Shilajit is a miracle herb that is widely used in…
top 10 deadliest diseases
What are the top 10 deadliest diseases and what is causing them? What are the largest killers of human lives across the globe? Which diseases are the most fatal ones?…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
blood elements analysis
Blood Element Analysis Test A blood element analysis is a blood test performed to measure the level of toxic elements such as…
anti-chlamydia antibody tets
Anti-Chlamydia Antibody -IgG Test Anti-Chlamydia Antibody - IgG test is performed by collection of urine or genital fluids as sample for testing…
gout diet purines
Gout Diet : Get relief from painful joints by eating these foods Are you a victim of this painful condition? Are medications providing only short relief? Find a list of…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
Jack in the box fast food
Jack In the Box : The perils of surging fast food culture in the USA Jack in the Box - How a culture of fast-food can clog your arteries, weaken your heart, fatten…
Ultrasound
Abdominal Ultrasound An abdominal ultrasound is used to visualize the organs inside your abdominal cavity including the liver, spleen, gall…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
Vitamin b12
Vitamin B12 Test Vitamin b12 is an essential nutrient required for healthy functioning of the nervous system and also development of…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
leptospira Igm test
Leptospira-IgM Test A Leptospira-IgM test is a blood test which is carried out to detect anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis is…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
Inhale oxygen, exhale worries: The top breathing exercises and how to perform them Performing the breathing exercise is like becoming mindful of how you breathe.  Here is a list of breathing…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
Rheumatoid Arthritis xray
Arthritis Profile Arthritis profile is a panel of primarily blood tests used to detect the presence of arthritis or check…
Vaginoplasty - Post-op care
Vaginoplasty Know more about vaginoplasty, the procedure, post-operative care, best options for treatment, cost, and possible risks. %%sitename%% %
Sputum test Sputum test is a commonly used diagnostic tool that is used to examine the presence of pathogens in…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
Miracle extract from the root of maca: 10 ways it can help you! Maca root has been used for years in herbal medicine. Today scientific research is unearthing fresh evidence in…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
APL IgM Test
Antiphospholipid Antibody(APL)-IgM test The antiphospholipid antibodies are specific protein in the body directed against the phospholipids. It is used to detect…
stain blood
Blood in your stool Know the reason for blood in your stool, toilet bowl or tissue and the important steps to take…
What is the right way to take a pregnancy test? A pregnancy test is undertaken to determine if you have conceived. A home pregnancy test is the most…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does our poop turn…
cystatin C
Cystatin C Test Cystatin C is a specific single-chain protein that is found in body fluids and is a biomarker for…
hYdroxycut pills
Hydroxycut: How safe are these so-called weight loss supplements? Hydroxycut is a blend of several different ingredients formulated to promote weight loss; powered by a key weight…
lose weight fast
12 easy and instant steps to successful weight loss Do you want to lose weight without losing your mind? Does weight loss always mean saying goodbye to…
Anti-Inflammatory foods: 18 foods to a disease-free you Anti-inflammatory foods are the foods which are known to reduce the inflammation as well as the pain from…
Pelvic_ultrasound
Pelvic Ultrasound Pelvic ultrasound is a process where sound waves are used to create image of your pelvic region organs…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…

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