Painful Urination

Painful urination bladder

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Overview

Genitourinary problems become more common after a certain age. These diseases mainly arise from urinary tract infections. “Painful urination” is a very common manifestation in such cases. It is precipitated by hygiene factors and existing medical conditions. According to the reports of the National Kidney Foundation, around 20% of women having a history of urinary tract infection is likely to develop a similar infection accompanied by painful urination in future. On being left undiagnosed, these infections may lead to renal dysfunctions of fatal nature.

 

What is painful urination?

Painful urination womanPainful urination or “painful micturition” or “dysuria” is a disorder of the renal tract which is characterized by pain, burning sensation and discomfort during passing urine.

It is primarily caused by the bacteria residing in the urinary tract.

Poor hygiene conditions combined with a weak immunity and existing kidney diseases can worsen the symptoms. Around 50-60% of women experience painful urination after the age of 40.

 

Causes of painful urination

Painful urination is caused by a number of etiological factors. The most common contributors to painful urination are listed below-

  • Failure of the renal system to eliminate bacteria from the body, which leads to excess accumulation of Escherichia coli bacteria along the linings of the urinary tract, thereby causing infections
  • Infection of the urethra due to Chlamydia or Mycoplasma species
  • Infections of the vagina in Vaginal Candidiasis and Atrophic Vaginitis
  • Inflammation of the urinary bladder due to activation of the mast cells
  • Direct contact of the sub-mucosal nerve filaments with the harmful elements in urine
  • Urothelial dysfunctions
  • Auto-immune diseases (vascular immune-pathology with immune deposits on the bladder wall, T-cell infiltrates and B-cell nodules)
  • Elevated levels of IgA and IgG in the urine
  • Functional abnormalities of the enzyme responsible for urinary nitric oxide metabolism
  • Abnormally reduced microvascular density in the suburothelium
  • Obstruction of the renal tract due to constriction of the urethra or enlarged prostate in men
  • Accumulation of calcium or protein wastes
  • Urinary schistosomiasis
  • Tumors present in the urethra, kidney or the urinary bladder
  • Pelvic floor diseases or pressure exerted by some abnormal pelvic mass
  • An injury caused to the vagina or urethra due to sexual abuse (For example, forced entry of some foreign object through the vagina)
  • Unprotected sexual activities or engaging in sexual activities from a very young age
  • Vaginal irritation caused by a defective contraceptive diaphragm
  • Overuse of some drugs like danazol, cyclophosphamide or allopurinol
  • Irritation caused due to allergies caused by chemicals contained in soaps, vaginal lubricants, and spermicides
  • Existing diseases like Arthritis, Diabetes mellitus, Sickle cell disease or Behçet’s disease
  • Polycystic kidney disease or glomerular disease
  • Hormonal fluctuations during menopause or pregnancy
  • An occurrence of cysts or scars in the kidneys
  • Using urinary catheter for a long time
  • Poor hygiene habits like using unclean sanitary napkins, using poorly sanitized toilets and improper cleaning after a bowel movement
  • A regular diet rich in sodium and purine
  • Low intake of fluids on a regular basis (causes dehydration)
  • Congenital defects of the urinary tract or a family history of urinary infections
  • Instrumental surgeries in the past
  • Unprotected exposure to ionizing radiations during the treatment of some existing diseases

 

Symptoms of painful urination

Painful urination bladderDysuria is not only accompanied by painful urination but also has several other symptoms. The general symptoms of painful urination and dysuria are discussed below-

  • Pain, irritation and burning sensation during passing urine
  • Pain in the bladder and urethra
  • Pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen
  • Pain radiating to the lower extremities and groin
  • Passing very small volumes of urine in spite of the excessive need to urinate
  • Feeling of urine retention and bladder fullness immediately after passing urine
  • Presence of trace amount of blood in the urine (indicates kidney stones or tumors)
  • The frothy or foamy appearance of urine (Proteinuria)
  • A release of excess vaginal discharge along with urine
  • Malodour from urine
  • Yellowish-brown discoloration of urine
  • Fever and fatigue
  • Abdominal swelling (due to an accumulation of urine)
  • Frequent need to pass urine, particularly at night (observed in aged people)
  • Swelling of face, hands, and feet
  • Muscle cramps and body pain

 

Conditions related to painful urination

Four primary conditions are related to painful urination. These are described below-

  • Lower urinary tract infection: It is associated with urinary bladder infection or cystitis. In this case, the bacteria enter the urethra through the vaginal passage. This may occur during unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner or during improper wiping after a bowel movement. From the urethra, the bacteria reach the bladder within a very short time and cause infections.
  • Upper urinary tract infection: This is evident in people suffering from kidney stones, bladder dysfunctions or enlarged prostate. In this condition, the bacterial infection spreads from the bladder to the kidney. A common example of the upper urinary tract infection is Pyelonephritis. In some children, reverse flow of urine from the bladder to the kidneys occurs. This is called Vesicoureteral reflux and it leads to painful urination.
  • Urethritis: Acute inflammation of the urethra occurs in this condition. This disease is normally triggered by the Gonorrhoea or Chlamydia species. Urethritis is also caused by an Indwelling Catheter (IDC) or as an inflammatory response to certain chemicals present in spermicides, antiseptics or bubble bath soaps.
  • Vaginitis: Vaginitis is characterized by inflammation of the vagina. It may be caused due to an allergic response to bath soaps and spermicides, infected tampon or dropped estrogen level after menopause.

 

Diagnosis

The following diagnostic tests are recommended-

  • Voiding cystourethrogram
  • Radionuclide scan
  • Cystoscopy
  • Urodynamics
  • Ultrasonography

 

Treatment & Prevention

Painful urination kidney stonesTreating episodes of painful urination often includes:

  • Antibiotic treatments can help in treating UTIs which are a primary cause of causing painful urination.
  • Pain medications are also prescribed to help relieve the painful symptoms.
  • Getting treatment for the underlying STI (sexually transmitted infection) also helps control the symptoms.
  • There are several home remedies that are used to treat urinary tract infections. Few of these include cranberry juice, vitamin C rich foods, and bearberry leaves.

You can prevent the onset of painful urination by following these steps:

  • Drinking lots of water and regularly emptying your bladder.
  • Not indulge in tobacco and alcohol consumption.
  • If you have a tendency to get urinary infections, limit your caffeine intake.
  • Keep the genital area clean.
  • Refrain from using unsanitary toilets.
  • Practice safe sex and get regularly screened for STIs.

 

Facts

  • Since women have a shorter urethra than men, they are more likely to acquire urinary tract infections. This is because bacteria can enter the body through a shorter urethra more easily.
  • One of the biggest causes of UTI, E. Coli bacteria, is normally found in the intestines and the rectum. Owing to sexual acts, it can get transferred to your urethra.

Facts

  • Body-changes during pregnancy can also initiate UTI and other infections but during pregnancy the symptoms are less obviously felt by the infected individual.
  • Globally, 200 million women are affected every year with the schistosomiasis (a flat worm), which is drug-resistant bacteria causing UTIs.

Facts

  • Certain studies indicate that obese men are twice as likely as obese women to contract UTIs that could cause painful urination.

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Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Wear cotton undergarments that will keep your groin area dry, fresh, and bacteria- free.
  • Practice safe sex methods and always remember to urinate after intercourse to flush out any pathogens from the system.
  • Drink adequate amount of water and refrain from replacing water with sugary and soda drinks.
Don'ts
  • Put off going to the bathroom. If you have an urge to urinate, holding it in longer will cause spread of toxins and infections.
  • Have a high intake of caffeine. Caffeine can irritate bladder. Same goes for alcohol and tobacco.
  • Swipe back-to-front when using a toilet paper. This will introduce bacteria into your urethra.

 

 

 

 

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Coffee Enema: Turn your favorite morning beverage into a powerful colon cleanser The wonders of coffee are not just limited to waking you up every morning. You can now use…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
complement c4 test
Anemia Profile Anemia Profile test (Basic) is a blood screening test that measures the levels of important components of the…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of health benefits. Discover…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
How to correctly perform nasal irrigation using a Neti Pot? Neti pot has been a part of Ayurveda since centuries. This ancient tool is extremely effective in treating…
Epley maneuver: Why is this the best protection from the symptoms of vertigo? Epley maneuver is an exercise that can treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).  It was…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
Atkins diet weight loss
Atkins Diet: The right steps to carb control that can help you lose those pounds fast The Atkins diet is a high fat, low-carb diet with proven weight loss benefits that is flexible enough…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
chloride test
Chloride Test A chloride test of the blood checks the level of chloride in body, an important factor governing the…
Optavia diet
The features of an Optavia diet The Optavia diet endorses pre-packaged meals and snacks called "fuelings" that are tasty, low in calorie, and incorporates…
Agave nectar: The bitter truth about this sweetener revealed Agave nectar is considered to be sweeter than the normal table sugar and even contains higher amounts of…
Coconut sugar: What is it and is it healthier than table sugar? In the long list of things that the wonderful coconut gives us, coconut sugar is another remarkable addition.…
What to eat, what not to eat in the South Beach Diet? The South Beach Diet is one among the most popular weight loss programs that have been the talk…
These are the top foods to increase your hemoglobin count It is important to add iron-rich foods into your diet in order to increase hemoglobin. Deficiency of hemoglobin could…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
valproic acid test
Valproic Acid Test Valproic acid test is performed to generally check for psychiatric and even neurological conditions such as bipolar disease…
phenytoin test
Phenytoin test Phenytoin is a drug that is administered mainly to epilepsy patients. The phenytoin blood test measures the level…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
antihepatitis core antigent
Anti-Hepatitis B Core Antigen (AHBc) Total Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (AHBC ) is a blood examination and the only serological marker of infectious blood…
sodium blood test
Blood Sodium Test A blood sodium test measures the amount of sodium (an important electrolyte) in your body. It is also…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know some of the…