What is the Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test?
The Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgMtestseeks to detect and measure the IgM class of antibodies in the blood. This test has a significant role in the diagnosis and assessment of patients with clear symptoms of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS).
The presence of beta-2 glycoprotein 1 immunoglobulin, IgM class of antibodies in the blood helps in the diagnosis of symptoms such as a thrombotic episode (improper clotting of blood) or understanding the reasons for repeated miscarriage.
What are immunoglobulins all about?
Immunoglobulins are nothing but glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma or white blood cells in the body. They are called autoantibodies and are the backbone of the immune system. The autoantibodies attach themselves to antigens with a motive to destroy and eliminate them from the body. An immunoglobulins test measures the presence of three specific classes of immunoglobulins- IgG, IgM, and IgA. If the levels of these three vital immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, or IgA are not in keeping with the reference range, it is indicative of a potential health issue.
Is this test known by other names?
The test is known with few names such as beta 2 GP1 Ab, and IgM.
What is beta2 glycoprotein 1 IgM?
Our immune system thrives well because of the presence of antibodies. The role of antibodies is to detect and destroy organisms like viruses, bacteria, and parasites in the body. IgM antibodies can protect the body by providing immunity against a chronic pathogen for a prolonged period.
Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgMis a specific class of autoantibody in the blood. Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgMtargets the lipid proteins, called phospholipids in the body and is connected to improper clotting of blood. Phospholipids can be found in the outer layer of cells and platelets.
Antiphospholipid antibodies do not aid the clotting process in the body. This means the presence of Antiphospholipid antibodies ups the chances of blood clots in the veins and arteries. Other autoimmune disorders such as lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) point to the presence of one or more Antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood examination.
How serious is Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder. In APS, the body’s immune system attacks cells and tissues. APS known no barriers of age or gender, there are many child and infant victims of this condition. Most of the diagnosis of APS takes place between the ages of 20 and 50.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients portray abnormal levels of beta-2 GP1 IgM antibodies in the blood. APS causes the development of inappropriate blood clots, low platelet count and can trigger a very unhealthy pregnancy with complications such as repeated miscarriages and preeclampsia.
Some of the health problems caused by APS are:
Deep vein thrombosis
Miscarriage in pregnant women
APS can be a threat to life if huge blood clots form in the brain, lungs or heart. Symptoms can manifest in the form of problems in blood circulation, thrombosis, and hemolytic anemia. Not surprising that blood examinations of patients of other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus or with systemic rheumatic diseases, show beta 2 glycoprotein IgMin alarming frequency.
Do I really need the Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test?
If you have suffered unexplained blood clots in an artery or vein, your doctor will ensure you undergo this blood examination. Further, if you are bogged down by repeated miscarriages especially in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, your healthcare provider will order this test to pinpoint the reason. A list of crucial symptoms that prompt your healthcare provider to order this test for you:
– Memory loss
– Recurrent miscarriages
– Inflammation and pain in the limbs
– Noticeable alterations in speech and cognition
– Chest pain
– Chronic headaches and breathlessness
– The clot in the vein or artery
A beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgA antibody test is required in cases where the initial tests performed for APS have turned negative, yet the suspicion of APS remains.
In the event of either the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test turning positive, the blood test needs to be repeated after a gap of 3 months to check if the presence of the antibody was just temporary or chronic.
This test is also necessary for those who suffer an autoimmune disorder and have tested negative for beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody. Periodic testing may be needed for such people to monitor the development of antibodies.
Do I need to prepare myself before the Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test?
It is preferred to discuss with your doctor about your medical history including all the medicines, supplements and vitamins you take. If you are on illegal drugs or herbs, make sure you let your doctor know about it. Rest assured, this test is simple and there is no major preparation required from your side.
What is the procedure for the beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgM antibody test?
The test merely involves extracting a sample of blood from your vein. This can be performed by a doctor or a technician and is a very safe and quick process
To spot the vein easily, an elastic band is wrapped around your forearm. This ensures the vein fills up with blood and becomes easily recognizable.
The area is disinfected before the needle is pierced. A need is inserted into the vein and the blood sample spills into the attached tube. Before patients really get to experience the pinprick, the procedure is over.
The band is loosened and a cotton swab or gauze is applied on the site using slight pressure to stop excessive bleeding or bruising. The blood sample is sent to the laboratory for testing. In rare cases, fee patients may need to be injected at several areas to spot a vein.
Also, few report pain or infection after the blood is drawn. Some patients complain of feeling faint, which sets itself right in a few hours
Can this test benefit me?
Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgM antibody test helps healthcare providers with clarity for some of the symptoms exhibited -the presence of blood clots or recurrent miscarriages. For a confirmed diagnosis of Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), this test is especially beneficial. Further, for the patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, this test confirms the disorder with the presence of autoantibodies in the blood.
How long does it take to get the test results of the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM antibody test?
Results of the beta 2-glycoprotein 1 IgMantibody test are mostly available within seven days.
What is the normal range for the test results of the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test?
Reference Values for all ages
– 0-39.9 U/mL (Borderline)
– 0-79.9 U/mL (positive)
– ≥80.0 U/mL (strongly positive)
– <15.0 U/mL (negative)
How do I interpret the test results?
If the blood examination report reveals beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) antibodies more than 40 U/mL for IgM, it points to Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).
Patients that manifest clinical signs of APS can portray reduced levels of beta-2 GP1 antibodies in their blood. For the test results to be accurate, it is imperative that Beta-2 GP1 IgM antibodies should be found in the blood at least during two or more blood tests performed with a gap of 12 weeks.
If the beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgM antibody test is positive, it does point to the presence of Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In the event that the level of beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM antibody is high in the test results done after a gap of 12 weeks, it is almost confirmed the patient is a victim of APS. To make it a clear and confirmed diagnosis of APS, healthcare providers align the tests of blood test results along with clinical symptoms.
If the test result came out as moderately positive for beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgM antibodies, then the antibodies’ presence was fleeting. More so, if tests to check for the presence of other Antiphospholipid antibodies, turned negative.
Is there anything more I should know about this test?
To clear any possible confusion, patients must know that :
– A single positive beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgMantibody result does not confirm the diagnosis of APS.
– On the same lines, a negative report is not a clean chit about the development of antibodies. This test is merely indicative of the absence or presence of antibodies at the time the test was performed.
– A confirmed diagnosis of APS can only be made if both the clinical symptoms and test result from at least two blood examinations conducted after 12 weeks of the first test result concur
Is it important that everyone should undergo this screening test?
This test is not ageneral screening tool. It is required only for those that manifest clinical symptoms of autoimmune disorders and need blood tests to spot the presence of Antiphospholipid antibodies.
Are children subject to this test anytime?
Children with clear symptoms of APS or other autoimmune disorders must undergo a beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test, to make a confirmed diagnosis.
Can expectant women undergo this test?
Complications during pregnancy such as recurrent miscarriages in women or preeclampsia signal the need for this test to conclusively check for the presence of autoimmune disorders.
What is the price of the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test in India?
The price of beta 2 glycoproteins 1 IgM varies across India and is specific to facilities and location. However, the price estimate for this blood examination ranges from Rs 782 to 1,836.
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