Edema

Edema swollen feet

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

What Is Edema?

Edema is the technical term for swelling that occurs when fluid accumulates in the soft tissues. You may have noticed localized swelling in a certain part of the body as a consequence of injury, allergy or inflammation at the site. This is a normal and typical response of the body to such situations. However, it impairs the normal functioning of the affected tissues since it prevents cellular respiration from taking place normally.

Edema may be localized or generalized in nature. It may affect a certain section of tissue or an entire organ or an entire limb. It can be caused by localized disease or systemic disorders as well. Alternatively, it can be caused by a perfectly normal condition such as pregnancy. In fact, it is typical for pregnant women to have swollen ankles and feet. Most of us have, at some point or the other, woken up with puffy eyes in the morning. This is a form of edema. Similarly, the small swelling that you notice when you have been bitten by a mosquito is also a common manifestation of edema.

 

How Does It Develop?

Edema swollen feetSince the primary feature of edema is an abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid, it can be caused by any condition that impairs normal fluid circulation. For instance, when there is inflammation, the blood vessels at the site become more permeable in order that immune cells may migrate to the affected site. At the same time, this leads to the leakage of fluids from the capillaries and into the interstitial space. Usually, this is in the form of water but certain proteinaceous substances may be present as well.

Alternatively, edema can occur when certain factors prevent the normal transportation of interstitial fluid into the intravascular space (into the blood capillaries). The patient may have a problem with the kidneys and this problem may interfere with the normal process of excretion of excess fluids from the body.

A list of possible causes and contributing factors appear below

  • Water retention.
  • High salt content in the diet.
  • Lymphatic obstruction.
  • Bed rest or prolonged immobility.
  • Being overweight.
  • Infection.
  • Allergy.
  • Inflammation.
  • An injury such as a burn.
  • Certain medications including over-the-counter drugs such as ibuprofen.
  • Heart disease or failure.
  • Liver disease or failure.
  • Lung disease or failure.
  • Kidney disease or failure.
  • Insect bites or stings.
  • Exposure to toxins such as that of the poison ivy plant.
  • Hypoalbuminemia or abnormally low levels of albumin in the blood.
  • Nutritional deficiency such as kwashiorkor.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Any condition that blocks the veins or obstructs the flow of blood through them. An example of this would be deep vein thrombosis.

 

How Do I Recognise Edema? What Are The Signs?

Edema pregnancyEdema may set in suddenly and abruptly or it may develop slowly and over time showing an accumulation of several minor changes in the body. Generally, the affected area feels tighter and heavier and visibly swollen. There may be some tenderness. The skin over the affected area is usually stretched tight and appears shiny. When pressure is applied with a finger, for instance, the swollen area is usually yielding and sometimes it may retain the mark for a short while.

More specific symptoms are related to the particular area of the body affected. For instance, if you have pulmonary edema, you will not be able to breathe normally. As a result, you will feel breathless. If the brain is affected, you may have headaches and possibly symptoms like tinnitus.

 

What Are The Different Types Of Edema?

Edema may be differentiated in a number of ways. For instance, the condition may be either generalized or local. These terms are described in more detail below:

  • Generalised edema: This type involves swelling in body parts such as the arms, legs, face or abdomen. Typical causes include a chronic disease in vital organs such as the heart, kidneys, liver or lungs. Generally, this produces a form of swelling known as “pitting edema”.
  • Localised edema: This involves only small areas of the body as when you have a mosquito bite or swelling around the eyes.

Edema is also described as either “pitting” type or “non-pitting” type. Pitting edema is characterized by a dimple or depression left behind in the swollen area when a finger is pressed into it. This depression typically remains for a short while before it disappears. On the other hand, when the patient has non-pitting edema, the indentation caused by pressure does not remain once the pressure is released. This is because the swelling is not limited to mere accumulation of fluid. For instance, myxedema is a form of edema in which there is an abnormal increase in connective tissue deposition in the affected area, making it more turgid than the pitting type.

Edema can also be identified on the basis of the specific organ involved or the area of the body affected. For instance, pulmonary edema involves the lungs. Similarly, cerebral edema refers to edema in the brain. Peripheral edema refers to swelling in the lower extremities which are usually related to water retention. Skin edema involves the skin.

 

What Are The Potential Complications?

The nature of complications depends on the specific site of the body affected, the underlying cause and the extent of the problem. For instance, if the patient has pulmonary edema, there is a possibility of fluid also accumulating in the space between the pleural membranes. This condition is known as pleural effusion and it can make it difficult for the patient to maintain a normal breathing pattern.

The patient may develop complications, not directly as a result of the edema itself, but as a consequence of the fundamental problem that is responsible for the swelling.

 

How Is It Diagnosed?

Not all forms of edema necessarily require medical intervention. As we have seen, there can be certain innocuous forms of edema as a result of normal conditions such as temporary immobility or pregnancy. These are soon resolved. However, if the patient is experiencing widespread edema or distressing symptoms, they should certainly visit a doctor.

Diagnosis will be focused on ascertaining the real cause for the swelling. The swelling itself may be easy enough to identify, particularly if it is externally visible in the form of swollen ankles or arms. Through a physical examination of the patient and their medical history, the doctor may be able to form a preliminary suspicion of the underlying cause. This will need to be confirmed by means of appropriate laboratory tests and imaging techniques. The following procedures can help to clarify the nature of the problem:

  • Blood tests.
  • Urine tests.
  • Liver function tests.
  • Ultrasound imaging.
  • Computerised tomography (CT).

 

Treatment & care

Edema protective wearThe goal of treatment is to resolve the main problem responsible for edema, which is merely a symptom. In some cases, as when the patient is pregnant, no treatment may be needed at all. Treatment for edema depends on its cause. For instance, if tests identify a blood clot in one of the deep veins, the patient will be put on a course of blood thinners. In case of nutritional deficiency or excessive salt in the diet, the diet will need to be modified accordingly. Similarly, if the patient has developed edema as a result of prolonged bed-rest or immobility, then care should be taken to change their position at regular intervals to improve circulation.

Disease in important organs such as the heart, liver or lungs will be treated accordingly. This may require medications or surgical intervention as the case may be. Swelling is a normal bodily response to abnormal situations such as impaired lymphatic drainage, injury, toxins or inflammation. Most of us have experienced this in some form or the other. It is not always related to a disease. Rather, it can be a sign of a completely healthy condition such as pregnancy. As we have seen, edema can manifest in a localized or generalized manner. Depending on the cause of the condition, the swelling itself may be restricted to a minor area (as with a mosquito bite) or it may involve an entire organ or entire limbs. Hence the method of treatment, and also the prognosis to a certain extent, is dependent on the actual cause.

 

Facts

  • Consumption of a lot of salty food can cause edema because the body will try to dilute the extra salt with water and retain it for a longer period of time.
  • Sometimes, blood clots and varicose veins may also result in the swelling of the legs (usually just one) similar to edema.

Facts

  • It is more a symptom of an underlying disorder rather than being a disease itself.
  • Pulmonary edema occurs as a result of fluid-retention which moves towards the lungs which may cause severe respiratory issues.

Facts

  • Macular edema, fluid retention in the macula of the eye, is commonly observed in diabetic patients.
  • Hormonal fluctuations, such as those during pregnancy and menstrual cycles, can also cause increased fluid retention.

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Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Edema in the ankles should be dealt with increased physical movements such as cycling or walking around.
  • You can use ice-packs on the affected area or keep your ankles immersed in cold water. Diabetic patients should consult their doctors first before applying this technique.
  • Exercises that contract the calf and thigh muscles are good for the restoration of normal circulation in the human body.
Don'ts
  • Sit in positions which might further restrict blood flow to the legs, such as crossing your legs. Keep the affected part elevated.
  • Indulge in tobacco, alcohol, and junk food consumption

 

 

 

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What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
pilonidal sinus
Pilonidal sinus Pilonidal sinus is more common in young men than women. Learn about treatment options, surgical management, risks, and…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Psyllium Husk: More than just an effective natural laxative Psyllium husk, or isabgol, is a popular natural laxative . But did you in addition to regulating bowels,…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
Ear pain model
Easy and safe tips for ear wax removal you can do at home Cerumen impaction generally occurs when an external object like cotton swabs are used to remove the ear wax.…
Atkins diet weight loss
Atkins Diet: The right steps to carb control that can help you lose those pounds fast The Atkins diet is a high fat, low-carb diet with proven weight loss benefits that is flexible enough…
Chest X-Ray A chest x-ray is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to visualize the structures inside your chest. It…
blood elements analysis
Blood Element Analysis Test A blood element analysis is a blood test performed to measure the level of toxic elements such as…
PROGESTERONE_test
Progesterone test The progesterone test is a blood test used to determine the level of hormone progesterone in the blood…
iron deficiency profile
Iron Deficiency Profile An iron deficiency profile is a battery of blood tests which are performed in order to determine the…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential for a healthy…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
Jack in the box fast food
Jack In the Box : The perils of surging fast food culture in the USA Jack in the Box - How a culture of fast-food can clog your arteries, weaken your heart, fatten…
black seed oil benefits
Black Seed Oil: What secret benefits could it bestow on your health? Black seeds or nigella seeds are tiny packets of health brimming with amazing benefits. Find out why should…
Oil of Oregano: The one-stop essential oil you’ve been looking for Are you plagued by a weak immune system? High body inflammation accompanied by pain and infections? Why not…
Epley maneuver: Why is this the best protection from the symptoms of vertigo? Epley maneuver is an exercise that can treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).  It was…
Tart Cherry: The healthiest excuse for taking that second serving of pie Tart cherry has been traditionally used in delectable desserts such as pies. Recent studies have revealed that its…
Hydroquinone: Is it the best topical treatment for hyperpigmentation? Darkening of the skin due to high melanin levels is called hyperpigmentation.  Hydroquinone interferes with melanin production thus treating…
Inversion Therapy: The anti-gravity way of healing chronic back pain Inversion therapy involves suspending a person upside dow using different types of equipment. This works by taking the…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
Coffee Enema: Turn your favorite morning beverage into a powerful colon cleanser The wonders of coffee are not just limited to waking you up every morning. You can now use…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of RBCs, WBCs, etc…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Bone marrow aspiration Bone marrow aspiration is a process where a sample of the bone marrow is withdrawn from the bone…
C-Reactive Protein Test A CRP or c-reactive protein blood test is an important diagnostic tool used to determine the risk of…
HSV-1_IGG
Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV)-IgG Test Herpes simplex virus I(HSV)-IgG is an Immunoglobulin protein that acts as an antibody & stays in the blood…
malarial antigen test
Malaria Antigen Test A malaria antigen test is a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that can detect malarial antigens (proteins) in your…
lipase test
Lipase Test A lipase test is a blood test performed to quantitatively measure the level of the enzyme lipase in…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Sushi: health benefits and recipes Sushi is a traditional Japanese dish prepared with vinegared rice served with fish (often raw), vegetables, and other…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…