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According To Facts
Varicocele:
  • Varicocele has a prevalence rate of 15% among the general population.
  • Boys in the age group of 15 to 17 years have the highest prevalence.
  • Studies indicate that around 35% of men facing fertility problems are generally affected by varicocele.
  • Did you know that 72% of men affected with varicose veins also suffer from varicocele?
Pain disorder:
  • The overall prevalence of chronic pain in the United States is around 35%.
  • Women are more affected by chronic pain as compared to men.
  • According to a survey by the Institute of Medicine, around 1.16 billion people suffer from chronic pain in the United States.
  • More than 60% of people affected by chronic pain are unable to work due to disability.
Tension headaches:
  • Tension headaches affect more than 1.8 billion people worldwide.
  • Tension headaches are more common in woman than men.
  • Prevalence of tension headache is approximately 40%.
  • Around 14 billion dollars are spent worldwide to treat headaches.
Exertional headache:
  • The prevalence of exertional headache in general population is around 10%.
  • Exertional headaches affect both men and women equally.
  • Majority of patients suffering from exertional headache also suffer from migraine headache.
Manic depression:
  • Bipolar depressive episodes tend to look a lot like classic depression.
  • The length of mood episodes can vary from person to person.
  • It can take a while to receive a proper diagnosis of bipolar disorder, which is often misdiagnosed as depression.
  • Treatment almost always involves medication, but effective drugs and dosages vary widely by individual.
Sensory diabetic neuropathy:
  • Diabetic neuropathy affects more than 130 million people worldwide.
  • According to an estimate, around 25% of diabetic patients get affected by neuropathy.
  • Hyperglycemia is the main risk factor for diabetic neuropathy.
Lymphadenopathy:
  • Lymph nodes are found individually or in groups.
  • Some Lymph nodes are as small as the head of a pin, while are as large as an olive.
  • Groups of lymph nodes can be felt in the neck, groin, and underarms.
  • Lymph nodes generally are not tender or painful.
Rubella:
  • Rubella may lead to testicular swelling in adult men
  • There are approximately 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome every year
  • The Americas were declared Rubella-free by the WHO in 2015
  • Rubella comes from a Latin word that means “little red”
  • Rubella is known as the German measles due to it being first classified as a separate disease by German physicians in 1814.
  • It is known as the three-day measles due to the symptoms generally going away after three days
  • Rubella was first described in 1740
Syncope:
  • People of any age can faint, but syncope in older adults is usually an indication of a serious underlying cause.
  • According to stats, 1 in 3 people experience syncope
  • Fainting was called swooning in England during the Victorian era
  • Well-to-do women in England often had something called a “fainting room” in the Victorian era
Dry cough:
  • Cough accounts for a maximum number of emergency room visits in the United States.
  • Cough that persists for more than four weeks is considered a chronic cough.
  • Prevalence of acute cough ranges between 9 to 64% whereas chronic cough is greater than 10%.
  • Around 360 million dollars are spent every year for over the counter cough medications in the United States.
Dyshidrotic eczema:
  • The word eczema originated from the Greek word “ekzema” meaning eruption.
  • About 1 in 2000 people are affected by dyshidrotic eczema.
  • About 15 to 30% of children are affected by this condition.
  • According to an estimate, more than 15 million Americans are affected by atopic dermatitis.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC):
  • DIC accounts for 1% of hospital admissions each year.
  • Bacterial sepsis accounts for 83% of DIC cases, which is followed by trauma and cancer.
  • It should be noted that DIC can also occur as a complication from surgery.
Yellow poop:
  • According to a survey, it has been estimated that around 1% of the total population experience yellow stools due to various reasons.
  • Celiac disease which can cause yellow poop affects 1 in every 1750 adults in the United States.
  • Irritable bowel disease affects more women than men and is also a factor that can cause yellow poop.
  • It has been estimated that Giardiasis affects 3 to 7% of the population in the United States with yellow diarrhea as the primary symptom.
Fanconi anemia:
  • Men with Fanconi anemia have decreased fertility.
  • Fanconi's anemia is often mistaken with Fanconi's syndrome; a condition that affects the person's kidneys.
  • Ashkenazi Jews and Afrikaners are much more likely than others to carry the recessive gene that causes FA
  • Fanconi anemia is usually diagnosed between the ages of 2 and 15.
Bloom Syndrome:
  • Most people with Bloom syndrome are likely to develop cancer over their lifetimes. They have 150-300 times the risk of developing cancerous growths as do people without this disorder.
  • David Bloom, a New York City dermatologist, first discovered this disorder in 1954
  • Men with BS have an average height of 148.5 cm and weight around 41.3 kg. Women, meanwhile, have an average height of 141 cm and weigh around 36.6 kg.
  • Infants and children who have BS have significant feeding problems, with them not having an interest in eating.
Plague:
  • The plague killed an estimated 100 million people (about one-quarter of the population) during the Middle Ages.
  • In 2003, more than 2,100 human plague cases and 180 deaths were recorded
  • There are fears that plague bacteria possibly could be used as a bioweapon by terrorists.
  • The last plague epidemic in the urban US was in Los Angeles in 1924/1925
Cloudy Urine:
  • A study conducted in the year 2015 showed that intake of cranberry juice capsules which is equivalent to 240-ml of cranberry juice cut the risk of UTI by half. It also showed that there were fewer attacks of UTIs in a year.
  • A 2007 study showed that the use of Vitamin C in pregnant women proved to be very effective in preventing UTI.
  • A study that examined patients with long-term use of catheters found they were more prone to developing UTI as their urine output levels are low.
  • The increased fluid intake had led to a significant decrease in UTI among a group of 28 self-monitored women who managed their hydration levels satisfactorily.
Pneumothorax:
  • Men are more likely to get a pneumothorax
  • While smoking is directly related to the risk of pneumothorax, family history also contributes to the incidences of a lung collapse
  • Catamenial pneumothorax is very rare and often misdiagnosed
  • Tall and thin people are at high risk of this condition
Yellow Jacket Sting:
  • Yellow jackets normally do not go very far (usually a mile) from their nest to look for food.
  • Male drones do not sting. Only the female yellow jackets attack.
  • 95% of stings are usually from a yellow jacket or a bee.
  • Children are usually the victim of yellow jacket stings as they tend to play outside.
  • Some insects mimic yellow jacks in order to scare their predators.
  • Some huge nests are known to house 100,000 yellow jackets.
  • There is a city in the United States called Yellow Jacket.
  • Drones are produced out of non-fertilized eggs
  • The yellow jacket is the mascot of the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Itchy Scalp:
  • The prevalence of scalp pruritus has been reported specifically with great rarity. Therefore, it is difficult to understand its epidemiology. It has only been reported based on other medical conditions.
  • The prevalence of itchy scalp across a wide range of medical conditions varies from as little as 13% to as high as 45%.
  • In a specific study of the itchy scalp in a French population, the prevalence was about 21.5%.
  • Studies show that itchy scalp or scalp pruritus has a detrimental effect on the quality of life.
Prediabetes:
  • Around 84 million Americans have prediabetes. 90% of them are not aware they have it.
  • In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with prediabetes has tripled as people have become more overweight and less active.
  • Indians and Alaska Natives are twice as likely to develop prediabetes compared to Caucasians.
  • More than 50% of Hispanic men and women are at the risk of developing prediabetes.
Hypocalcemia:
  • The incidence of ionized hypocalcemia is difficult to quantify.
  • In a study conducted in 2011-2014, the incidence of transient hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy (thyroid removal) was 27% and that of permanent hypocalcemia was 1%.
  • Hypocalcemia can be caused by a lack of vitamin D.
  • Most cases of hypocalcemia have no symptoms.
Dark Urine:
  • Urine helps remove creatinine, which could otherwise be toxic for the body.
  • Every day, for every 1 to 2 quarts of urine produced, the kidneys must work on approximately 120 to 150 quarts of blood.
  • A kidney works 24 hours a day.
  • A normal bladder holds up to 2 cups of urine.
Stuffy Nose:
  • Both the nose and the mouth can serve as entry points for air entering the lungs.
  • The cilia in the nose trap all the bad stuff that you breathe including pollutants, allergens, smoke, and even some bacteria and viruses.
  • Your nose protects you with its sense of smell, a fundamental sense that is vital to all life.
Smegma:
  • Though smegma is a substance of great chemical complexity, its exact composition is not known.
  • The only components scientists know it contains are neutral fats, sterols, fatty acids, and cell debris.
  • Smegma quickly changes its chemical composition upon atmospheric exposure.
Inverted nipples:
  • During the 19th century, a woman’s health was diagnosed by examining her nipples.
  • Some women have 2 nipples in one breast
  • Nipple pain is common in women
  • Nipples change in size especially during pregnancy
  • Discharge from the nipple may be a sign of health problems
  • There is a rare condition that causes a person to be born without nipples
Pharyngitis :
  • It has been estimated that pharyngitis accounts for 12 million emergency room visit every year in the United States.
  • Around 50% of pharyngitis cases are in the age group below 18 years.
  • Around 80% of sore throat cases are caused by viruses.
  • It has also been found that pharyngitis cases are higher in countries where there is a higher dependence on antibiotics.
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder:
  • OCPD has a prevalence of 2.1-7.9% in the general population.
  • It has a prevalence of 7.9% in the United States and considered the most common personality disorder.
  • Men are affected twice as often as women with OCPD.
  • It has been estimated that around 9% of psychiatric patients can be affected by OCPD.
Temporal Arteritis:
  • Temporal arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) seen in adults and generally affects the elderly. Its incidence rate is 15–35 out of every 100,000 people older than 50 years in studies conducted in Scandinavia, Minnesota (USA), and the UK.
  • The incidence is highest in Scandinavian countries that share a Viking ancestry. It is also similarly high in populations elsewhere descended from Scandinavians.
  • East Anglia in UK, which also showed a high incidence of temporal arteritis, is composed of people with a Viking ancestry.
  • The incidence is relatively low in Southern European countries because they have a different genetic background.
Thyroid Storm:
  • In the United States, the true frequency of thyroid storm and thyrotoxicosis is not known. However. The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in children is Graves Disease.
  • About 1-2% of all babies conceived by mothers with Graves Disease can develop thyrotoxicosis.
 
  • Based on the results of a four-year survey between 2004 and 2008, the incidence in Japan was as low as 0.2 for every 100,000 people.
  • The rate of thyroid storm overall in the thyrotoxic patients in the study was 0.2% and in hospitalized thyrotoxic patients, it was 5.4%., its incidence increases with age.
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage:
  • The annual incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the US is 6–16 cases per 100,000 persons, with approximately 30,000 episodes occurring annually.
  • The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, unlike other kinds of stroke, has not reduced with time.
Swollen Lymph Nodes:
  • Each of them being the size of a pea, there are hundreds of lymph nodes spread throughout the body.
  • You are the pump for your lymphatic system. Unlike the circulatory system, which relies on the heart to do the pumping of blood, the lymphatic system moves its fluid using gravity and pressure.
Pyelonephritis:
  • According to a study, incidence rates of acute pyelonephritis were higher in the female population than in the male population for nearly all age groups.
  • The difference in rates between the sexes, however, appeared to diminish at older ages.
Cholesteatoma:
  • Intracranial extensions may lead to meningitis and lateral sinus thrombosis
  • Occurs more in men and older children, among adults it usually appears between 30 to 40 years of ages
  • Chances of cholesteatoma recurrence are high if excision is incomplete.
Hookworms:
  • Despite it being an easily treatable condition, an estimated 576-740 million people in the world are infected with hookworm
  • Hookworm infections were widespread in the Southeastern United States. However, the disease declined after proper sanitation was introduced in the early 20th century.
  • A female hookworm lays approximately 5,000 and 10,000 eggs a day for up to ten years.
  • The average life span of hookworms are four to six years
Inguinal Hernia:
  • 25% of males develop an inguinal hernia in their lifetimes. Meanwhile, the chance of developing an inguinal hernia in females is only 2%.
  • People who have an inguinal hernia on one side will have the risk of developing the hernia on the other side.
  • Studies have shown that smokers are at an increased risk of developing of inguinal hernias.
 
  • It has also been found that diet and nutrition play a role in causing inguinal hernias. You are less likely to develop hernias if your diet is rich in fiber.
  • Hernias in the inguinal region are more common due to the groin having a natural anatomical weakness as a result of inadequate muscle coverage.
Chondromalacia:
  • Statistics show that knee pain is a common condition in the present days with more than 100 million Americans suffering from it.
  • Treatment aims at the alignment of the kneecap as well as the strengthening of the knee.
  • Osteoarthritis of patellofemoral joint increases the risk of arthritis in older people.
  • Statistics from The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, show that 90 percent of patients report relief from pain after knee replacement. They are able to continue with their daily activities and some even report being able to get back to fitness and exercise.
Baby Acne:
  • Acne is very common and nearly 20 % of babies experience it after birth.
  • Baby acne requires no treatment in most cases as it resolves on its own.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis:
  • According to WHO, one-third of the world population is infected by TB bacteria.
  • Approximately 10 million cases were reported in 2017.
  • Asia and Africa accounted for 58% and 27% of TB cases respectively.
  • TB is one of the top 10 causes of mortality worldwide.
Epididymitis:
  • Majority of epididymitis cases occur between the age group of 20 to 39.
  • Around 50% of epididymitis cases are due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea.
  • More than 600,000 cases of epididymitis are reported in the United States every year.
  • It has been estimated that epididymitis accounts to 0.69% of outpatient emergency room visits.
Mosquito Bites :
  • The mosquito-borne disease accounts for millions of deaths every year.
  • According to WHO, dengue incidence has increased by 30%.
  • It has been estimated that malaria causes around 400,000 deaths every year.
  • The mosquito-borne disease accounts for 17% of all infectious diseases.
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis:
  • The first recorded HPV skin infection dates back to the 1920s.
  • According to a report in 2017, only 500 cases of EV were reported worldwide.
  • It has been estimated that around 30-70% of EV patients may develop squamous cell carcinoma later in their life.
  • It has been found that exposure to ultraviolet rays can exacerbate this condition.
Lower Abdominal Pain :
  • Around 3% of adults in the United States of America visit the emergency room with a complaint of lower abdominal pain.
  • Emergency room visits in the United States of America related to abdominal pain have increased by 18%.
  • Around 15-30% of people in the United States of America experience bloating.
  • Over 90% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome also experience bloating.
Capgras Syndrome:
  • Capgras Syndrome is one among the strangest mental disorders that need extensive research to know the exact reasons for its occurrence
  • Excessive anxiety and panic exacerbate other symptoms of Capgras Syndrome
  • Capgras Syndrome can be described as a wide gap between what the eye sees and the brain perceives and the emotional response to the situation
  • No complete cure is yet available for Capgras Syndrome
  • Capgras Syndrome is aided  with new medical technologies that are proving quite useful in making a diagnosis
  • If the exact location of brain lesions causing this condition can be positioned, then treatment will become a lot easier.
Chest Pain:
  • Chest pain is the No. 1 reason for most people to go to the emergency room.
  • Cardiovascular disease is the top cause of death around the world. Of the 17.9 million deaths around the world in 2016 alone, 85% died from strokes and heart attacks.
  • Most of these cardiac-related deaths occur in poor and developing countries.
  • Most chest pain and related conditions can be prevented with lifestyle modifications.
Cherry Angioma:
  • Cherry Angioma is rare among children.
  • Angioma can occur in about 5% of adolescents.
  • Adults over 30 years of age develop cherry angioma and this will only increase with age.
  • A cherry angioma, once it appears, will not go away on its own.
Charley Horse:
  • Almost everyone experiences a charley horse. Although Doctors explain possible causes, the exact reason remains unclear
  • Pregnant women and the elderly are more prone to charley horse
  • No foolproof cure for charley horse exists despite all the study that has gone into finding a cure
  • Quinine was earlier used to treat cramps until one day FDA warned against the dangerous cardiac side effects
  • Most patients learn to cope with Charley horse. The study on this condition continues but for now Charley horse remains a physiological mystery
Cardiac Tamponade:
  • Cardiac Tamponade is a rare condition but can affect anyone, at any time.
  • Statistics of 2018 show that five cases per 10,000 hospital admissions in the US were related to Cardiac Tamponade.
Fifth disease :
  • It mainly affects children in the age group of 5 to 15 years.
  • About half the population become immune to the virus by the time they reach adulthood.

  • Outbreaks generally occur in preschools and elementary schools.
Lupus Rash:
  • Around five million people are affected by lupus worldwide.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus accounts for 70% of lupus cases.
  • Around 20% of patients acquire it from their ancestors.
  • Lupus affects women 6 to 10 times more than men.
Tongue cancer :
  • Tongue cancer accounts for 29% of cases of oral cancer.
  • 17,060 cases of tongue cancer were reported in the U.S in a single year.
  • Tongue cancer has caused 3020 deaths in the U.S.
Osteopenia:
  • The current prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis is around 55% among people aged 50 and older.
  • A study done in 2010 among seven developed countries accounted for 117.9 million cases of osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Poison sumac :
  • This plant generally grows in southern and northeastern parts of the United States and is considered to be one of the most toxic plants found in the United States.
  • Poison sumac generally grows along water flowing areas such as rivers and lakes and is hardly found in deserts or areas above 5000 feet.
  • Due to high levels of urushiol present in them, around 85% of the general population is allergic to this plant.
High platelet count:
  • The incidence of essential thrombocythemia is around 0.6 to 2.5 per 100,000 among the general population per year.
  • Thrombocythemia in more prevalent in females than males.
  • The median age at onset of thrombocythemia is around 65 to 70 years.
Heel spurs:
  • The plantar fascia ligament absorbs an astounding amount of force
  • In individuals less than 50 years of age, spur formation is more common in women than in men.
  • Spurs are most common in those who are 20-29 years of age, and mostly in women.
  • The presence of spurs peaks in women by the age of 70, whereas it continues to increase in men.
Pinworms:
  • The first evidence of pinworm infection or Enterobiasis goes back to Roman-occupied Egypt (30 BC-AD 395). The oldest pinworm eggs have been discovered in coprolites (or fossilized dung) as old as 7000 BC in Danger Cave, Utah.

 

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  • Pinworms have also been described in the writings of Hippocrates, dating back to 430 BC.
  • It is hypothesized that these parasites did not originate in the Americas and that they migrated through the Beringia, an ancient landmass that existed between Siberia and Alaska. 
Panic Attack:
  • 3 Million Americans will suffer from Panic Disorder at some point in their lives.
  • The Panic Disorder prevalence was highest among adults aged 30-44 in 2001-2003.
Erythema Multiforme:
  • The annual incidence of erythema multiforme is less than 1%.
  • It mainly affects adults between the age group of 20 and 40.
  • Drug-induced erythema multiforme accounts for only 10% of overall cases.
H. pylori Infections:
  • H. pylori or Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium found in the stomach that gets its name from its spiral shape. They are responsible for stomach infections, leading to ulcers of the stomach and duodenum and sometimes to cancer as well.
  • Infections caused by H. pylori are one of the most widespread in the world with nearly two-thirds being infected by it and is very common in the United States
  • It causes more than 80% of stomach ulcers and up to 90% of duodenal ulcers.
Blood blister:
  • Friction blisters contain clear fluids whereas blood blisters contain blood.
  • A blister can heal within 3 to 7 days without any treatment.
  • Larger blisters that are bigger than 1.27 cm are called bullae.
  • A blister can be dressed loosely to fasten the healing process.
Bacterial Pneumonia:
  • Bacterial pneumonia may be caused by the germs that already live in your body.
  • Children and old people are at higher risk of acquiring bacterial pneumonia.
  • Getting a flu shot may help prevent pneumonia.
  • Bacteria causing pneumonia are getting more resistant to antibiotics. 
Atelectasis:
  • It is derived from the Greek word Ateles and ekstasis.
  • Atelectasis is caused when the alveoli in the lungs are not able to expand completely.
  • Bronchial blockage, as well as a mucus plug, can cause atelectasis.
  • It may be caused after undergoing surgery.
Pernicious anemia:
  • More females than males are affected by Pernicious anemia.
  • Without treatment, some of the triggering factors can become permanent.
  • The term “pernicious” means “deadly.” It was termed in this manner because earlier, the treatment for vitamin B12 was not available.
  • It is often hereditary.
Sebaceous Cyst:
  • Sebaceous cysts generally occur during the 30s and 40s.
  • They are predominant in males; the male versus females ratio is  2:1.
  • They occur rarely before puberty.
  • Around 1% of sebaceous cysts are noted to be malignant.
Pellagra:
  • Gaspar Casal in the year 1735 described pellagra for its dermatologic effect.
  • Pellagra was first known as Asturian leprosy in Italy.
  • It was first reported in the United States in the year 1902.
  • It has caused more deaths than any other nutrition-related disease in United States.
Ménière's Disease:
  • This disease usually impacts only one ear.
  • About 95% of the cases of Meniere’s disease can be managed with good medical treatment.
  • It affects both men and women equally.
 
  • The data published by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders accentuates on the fact that approximately 615,000 people in the United States have Ménière's.
Molluscum contagiosum:
  • Infection usually subsides in a few months with no treatment.
  • It is usually harmless and takes up to 18 months to clear completely.
  • As the infection subsides, the lesions do not leave a scar behind.
  • The prevalence of this disease is similar in men and women.
  • Once you have had the infection, you will not become immune from getting infected again.
Typhus:
  • Albert Schweitzer used garlic to treat typhus on soldiers during the world war I.
  • The bacteria can be inactivated with moist heat at 121°C for 15 minutes or dry heat at 170°C for 30 minutes.
  • You can prepare a mixture of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% peracetic acid, 3- 6% hydrogen peroxide, iodine, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde to kill Rickettsia prowazekii.
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the death rates from typhus fevers occur in 1 out of 50,00,000 individuals every year.
  • Typhus fever occurs in colder (i.e. mountainous) regions of central and eastern Africa, central and South America, and Asia.
  • Major outbreaks have been reported from Burundi, Ethiopia etc.
Ketoacidosis:
  • The prevalence of ketoacidosis in hyperglycemia or diabetes is more in diabetes type 1 (little or no insulin) than in type 2 diabetes (a condition of insulin resistance).
  • Ketoacidosis can become fatal if you ignore it.
  • Administration of too much insulin too soon is also fatal to the patient.
  • If it causes a change in the rhythm of the heart, it can cause a cardiac arrest too!
Crohn's Disease:
  • Crohn’s disease affects people of all ages and gender.
  • Diet does not cause Crohn’s disease.
  • This disease affects your gastrointestinal tract as well as other areas of your body.
  • People with Crohn’s disease eventually have surgery.
Blue Balls:
  • Medically called as epididymal hypertension
  • May cause bluish discoloration to the testes.
  • This condition is generally painful.
  • It usually affects men between the age of 15 and 30.
Autonomic Dysreflexia:
  • The occurrence of stroke increases by 300 – 400%.
  • Initial incidence of AD begins with a severe headache and the occurrence of AD can be up to 40 times in a day in susceptible patients.
  • AD can also coexist with other triggers hypertension but is more common in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI).
Maladaptive Daydreaming:
  • Certain studies show that compulsive maladaptive daydreamers could spend as much as 60% of their waking time in daydreaming.
  • This condition was first formally studied by Eli Somer of the University of Haifa in 2002 where he found 6 survivors of child abuse showing the high tendency of imagination and daydreaming.
  • Though a history of abuse is seen in many people with MD, it is also experienced by people who have had a normal childhood.
  • Try to analyze and understand what negative repressed emotion is at the core of your MD tendency – guilt, embarrassment, shame, fear etc.
  •  Refer to a specialist in this field and discuss your issues and symptoms openly.
High Blood Pressure:
  • 1 out of every 3 grown Americans has high blood pressure, which is approximately 75 million people.
  • Only half of these individuals have the blood pressure levels under control. Similarly, 33% of the population is in the pre-hypertension zone.
  • This health costs associated with this disease is $ 46 billion per year in the USA alone.
  • Above 45 years of age, it is more prevalent in men than women. Above 65, women are more commonly affected.
Food Poisoning:
  • Foodborne diseases are very common ailment affecting millions, 48 million to be precise, every year.
  • It kills 5,000 Americans every year and almost 300,000 cases are hospitalized annually.
  • Green leafy vegetables, eggs, oysters, cheeses, and tomatoes – these are the edible items that get contaminated first with food-poisoning microbes.
  • A considerable amount of food-poisoning occurrence can be controlled if people cleaned their hands more often.
Hyperlipidemia:
  • Almost 29% of the entire American population has high cholesterol. That is roughly 73.5 million people.
  • Less than 30% of these individuals have their LDL cholesterol in control.
  • Roughly 42.2% of the entire American population has a moderate risk of developing high cholesterol.
  • Almost 50% of the diagnosed cases of hyperlipidemia are caused by genetic factors.
Breast Cancer:
  • It is the most common form of cancer in women with more than 1 million new cases reported each year.
  • Breast cancer is the 5th leading cause of all cancer-related deaths in women globally; in developed countries, it is the 2nd leading cause.
  • Late natural menopause (post 55 years) and early menarche (before the age of 12 years) could disturb the estrogen-progesterone balance that might lead to breast cancer.
  • According to NIC (National Institute of Cancer), 1 out of every 8 women is likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer (USA).
Malaria:
  • Malaria is a largely widespread disease with almost 212 million malaria cases reported in 2015 alone. Out of these 429,000 cases were fatal in nature.
  • More than 70% of all the fatalities associated with this disease occur in children under 5 years of age.
  • Due to extensive application of malaria prevention and control measures, the mortality rate of this disease has fallen by 29% globally.
  • Africa remains as the worst-affected continent. Worldwide, over 3.2 billion people are at a risk of acquiring this disease.
Typhoid:
  • More than 21 million cases of typhoid are reported every year globally out of which 222,000 results in death.
  • 75% of all cases of typhoid in the USA are related to international traveling.
  • Typhoid is more common in those countries where lack of sanitation and contamination of drinking water with sewage.
  • The main reason for death from typhoid happens due to peritonitis, a severe inflammation of the inner abdominal lining.
Cold and Flu:
  • The common cold can be caused by 100 different types of virus, amongst which the rhinovirus is responsible for almost 50% of all incidences.
  • Studies reveal that in the USA alone there are almost 1 billion cases of colds every year.
  • Within a time interval of 24 hours, a single common cold virus can spawn a whopping 16 million offspring.
  • Almost 100,000 germs are released in the surrounding air with just one sneeze.
Cancer:
  • According to a 2015 report, 8.8 million deaths worldwide were cancer-related. That’s roughly 1 out of every 6 deaths.
  • Although cancer affects people across the globe, 70% of all cancer-related deaths occur in middle or low-income countries.
  • 30%-50% of all cancer deaths are preventable. 22% of cancer-fatalities can be prevented by one simple step – eliminating the consumption of tobacco.
  • There are more than 100 different body parts that can be affected by cancer, thus giving rise to more than 100 different variants of this disease.
Kidney Stones:
  • Calcium stones and oxalate stones are the two most common types of kidney stones.
  • The biggest contributor to kidney stones is insufficient fluids in the body. Dark yellow-colored urine is an indicator of inadequate water content.
  • The medical term for kidney stones is renal calculus. It is also called as nephroliths.
  • High acidic content in food can also cause kidney stones.
Emphysema:
  • Emphysema killed more than 3 million people globally in the year 2012 (7% of total deaths).
  • 3 in every 100,000 deaths are caused by emphysema.
  • It is the third leading cause of death in the USA. 90% of these deaths occur in low or mid-income conditions.
  • In females, smoking increases the chances of death through emphysema by 13%. In males, it is 12%.
  • The net cost of all COPD diseases (including emphysema and chronic bronchitis) was almost $50 millions in 2010.
  • It affects Caucasians more than any other ethnicity.
Diabetes:
  • As per the American Diabetes Association, in general, the A1C levels below 7% are optimum in most of the cases of diabetes.
  • Insulin is not administered orally as its effect is hampered by the stomach enzymes.
  • You can delay the occurrence of type 2 diabetes by a moderate physical activity of least 150 minutes in a week and by losing 7 percent of your body weight.
  • The prevalence of diabetes in the year 2013 was found to be in around 382 million individuals.
Cardiac Arrest:
  • Every year, roughly 382,000 people experience sudden cardiac arrest out which 92% succumb to the attack.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the biggest killers. Globally, one person dies due to a sudden cardiac arrest every 90 seconds.
  • Less than 50% of individuals who suffer a cardiac arrest outside a hospital receive timely medical assistance.
  • The number of times you should push on the chest during a CPR is roughly 100-120 times per minute. This is the same as the beats of the popular song “Stayin’ Alive”, a trick taught by paramedic experts.
Stroke:
  • During one brain stroke, 32,000 brain cells die every second which is equal to 1.9 million brain cells dying per minute.
  • Stroke is not limited to only the elderly. About 1 out of every 3 stroke patients belongs to the age group of 20-64.
  • The most devastating kind of stroke is the basilar artery stroke since it causes full-body paralysis which is termed as the “locked-in” syndrome.
  • 60% of stroke-related fatalities occur in women. It kills more females than breast cancer and more men than prostate cancer.
Arthritis:
  • There is not just one single type of arthritis; there are more than 100 different types of arthritis that can affect human body such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis etc.
  • A diet high in Omega 6 fatty acids will eventually lead to arthritis flare-ups. Omega 3 fatty acids control bodily inflammations.
  • Arthritis is more common among females than in males.
  • It is second to only cardiac issues as the leading cause of work disability. More than 50% of arthritis patients are under the age of 65.
Asthma:
  • With more than 235 million people suffering from it worldwide, asthma is one of the leading non-communicable diseases in the world.
  • 80% of asthma-related deaths occur in middle and low-income countries. Children are most affected by this condition.
  • Asthma cannot be cured. It can be only treated and managed.
  • Avoiding asthma triggers can help decrease the severity of the attacks.
Dengue Fever:
  • 50% of the entire global population is at the risk of acquiring this disease, with tropical and sub-tropical countries being more prone to it.
  • It is one of the leading causes of death amongst children in many developing countries.
  • In the last 5 decades, the number of dengue cases has increased 30 times, and is gradually spreading from urban to rural areas.
  • The number of dengue cases reported annually throughout the world is 390 million.
Substance Abuse:
  • Heroin, extracted from raw opium, is also known as dimorphine. Opiate painkillers or opiods are also extracted from opium or the poppy plant.
  • In the USA, the problem of drug addiction and abuse costs around $ 484 billion per year.
  • 66% of all the drug addicts admitted into different addiction recovery centres in the USA have a history of physical and/or sexual abuse during their childhood or teenage years.
  • The most addictive forms of drugs are not alcohol or nicotine but pharmaceutical drugs which are prescribed as pain-killers and anti-depressants.
Chicken Pox:
  • It is rare to get chickenpox the second time; after the first time the virus (varicella zoster virus) becomes inactive in your body. But it still can cause another disease called “shingles”.
  • Before the introduction of the chicken pox vaccine, more than 4 million children were contracting this disease every year. Vaccination has brought down this number by 80-90%.
  • Chicken pox in adults presents more serious complications.
  • There are 90% chances of someone at home acquiring this infection if any one family member is suffering from it. It is a highly contagious disease.
Ear Infections:
  • Ear infections generally occur along throat infections, cold or allergies thereby accumulating fluids in the middle ear.
  • Ear infections are most common among children.  5 out of 6 children, by the age of 3, will have an ear infection.
  • A bacterium known as Streptococcus pneumonia most commonly causes ear infections.
  • Inserting sharp objects into the ear such as pens, pencils or keys tends to cause minor tears bruises in the ear canal.
Hepatitis:
  • Hepatitis A doesn't cause any chronic liver conditions, unlike hepatitis B & C.
  • Hepatitis is more common in low-income countries with limited sanitation.
  • Globally there are more than 1.4 million cases of hepatitis A reported annually.
  • Hepatitis was one of the most infectious conditions prevalent in the 90s.
COPD-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease:
  • Though smoking is the leading cause of COPD, 15%- 20% of COPD patients are lifelong non-smokers.
  • It is the third leading cause of death in the USA.
  • There were more than 10 million reported cases of chronic bronchitis in the USA alone with almost 70% of those above the age of 45.
  • Emphysema was detected in 4.7 million cases, with 90% of the population above the age of 45.
  • Women are more susceptible to COPD than men (almost two times as much in case chronic bronchitis).
  • In 2016, COPD affected was prevalent among 251 million people worldwide.
  • Industrial pollution is the cause of around 19% of all COPD cases.
Hypertension:
  • Recent studies have revealed that having chronic hypertension in your midlife (45-65 years) increases your risk for developing dementia.
  • 25% of men and 20% of women within the age group of 35-44 years are hypertensive.
  • More than 9.4 million fatalities across the globe can be attributed to hypertension.
  • There are more than 1.5 billion individuals worldwide who fall under the hypertensive category.
Depression:
  • The estimated expenditure on mental illness in the United States was approximately $300 billion in the year 2002.
  • It is estimated that nearly 25% of the adult individuals in the United States have a mental illness. In most of the cases, it is associated with chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 50% of the adult individuals in the United States will develop no less than 1 mental illness during their lifetime.
  • According to CDC, it is observed that the rate of injuries (both intentional and unintentional) is approximately 2 to 6 times higher in the individuals with some form mental illness as compared to the overall
Colorectal Cancer:
  • Colorectal cancer is one of the most widespread cancers in the USA, with as many as 135,430 cases diagnosed in the year 2017 alone.
  • One out of every 22 men will be detected with colorectal cancer. In women, this ratio is 1 in 24.
  • Regular screening can help in preventing 33% of deaths due to colorectal cancer in the USA. Experts believe that the 5 year survival rate can be made 90% with early detection.
  • Obesity increases the likelihood of developing colorectal cancer by 30%. It also diminishes the chances of a swift and healthy recovery.
Tuberculosis:
  • 1 out of every 3 individuals across the globe is a host to the tuberculosis bacteria yet only a small proportion develops the infection.
  • In 2016, almost 10 million new cases of TB were reported with only 7 countries comprising 64% of all reported cases.
Pneumonia:
  • More than 120 million cases of pneumonia are diagnosed in children under the age of 5 years. It is the leading cause of deaths in this demography.
  • 50% of all cases of sepsis and septic shock can be attributed to pneumonia.
  • Viral cases of pneumonia shouldn’t be treated with antibiotics. There are very few treatment methods for such type of pneumonia.
  • Every 20 seconds, pneumonia claims the life of one child under the age of 5. That amounts to 4300 young fatalities per day.
Heart Diseases:
  • 1 in every 4 adults succumbs to heart diseases every year in the United States.
  • Any individual with a parent or sibling (first-degree relative) or an uncle or grandparent (second-degree relative) who has been diagnosed with a heart disease before the age of 60 years, has a 10% chance of developing a heart disease early in his/her life.
  • Heart diseases are also known as cardiovascular diseases (CD) or coronary heart diseases (CHD).
  • Heart diseases are the leading cause of death among women, in the United States.
Obesity:
  • The global obesity rates have tripled in the past 4 decades. 1 out of every 3 Americans falls under the obese category.
  • Studies suggest that 70% of body weight variations have a genetic link.
  • Globally, more than 10% of the population can be categorized as obese.
  • CDC or Centre for Disease Control defines obesity as the state where an individual has BMI greater than equal to 30.
Prostate Cancer:
  • 1 in 8 men will get prostate cancer, once in their lifetime, in the UK.
  • Black men above the age of 50 are at a higher risk of getting prostate cancer.
  • This is the most common cancer in men in the UK.
  • Every 45 minutes a man dies of prostate cancer; that is more than 11,000 men each year in the UK alone.
Atherosclerosis:
  • The plaque that gets accumulated in the arteries is made up of cholesterol, fats, calcium, and other similar substances present in the blood.
  • Diseases that are a direct result of atherosclerosis are coronary heart disease, carotid artery disease, and peripheral artery disease.
  • There can be a build-up of plaque within the renal (kidney) arteries as well that can lead to chronic kidney disease.
  • Not all cholesterol is bad for you. Only the LDL cholesterol leads to cardiovascular and other related conditions. HDL cholesterol is good for the body.
Pancreatic Cancer:
  • Pancreatic cancer is known as a silent disease. As the signs and symptoms of the cancer are generally not noticed until cancer has reached its advanced stage.
  • In the past 40 years, the survival rates for all types of cancers have increased except for pancreatic cancer and renal cancer.
  • More than 37,000 deaths by pancreatic cancer were reported in the USA in 2012.
  • The lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer in men is 1 in 63 and in women it is 1 in 65.
Brain Diseases:
  • In the USA, 5.5 million people over the age of 65 and 200,000 below 65 are currently living with Alzheimer’s.
  • In the early 19th century it was believed that seizures were contagious. Due to this, epilepsy patients were kept away from the psychiatric ward.
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus is endemic to Asia; countries include Japan, India, and Pakistan.
  • The encephalitis virus was first isolated in 1935 in Japan.
Gum Disease:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), periodontal conditions are found to be the most common reason behind tooth loss in adults.
  • It is estimated that the prevalence of periodontal disease is 8.52% in the adults of ages 20 to 64 years.
Lung Cancer:
  • Lung cancer is the deadliest of all cancers, claiming 154,050 American lives in 2016 alone.
  • Detecting lung cancer early can help in treating the disease.
  • Second-hand smoking (passive smoking) and using e-cigarettes can have the same effect on your lungs as first-hand smoking.
  • 25% of all cancer-related deaths are due to lung cancer.
Liver Failure:
  • 3.5-4.6 million Americans have been affected by the hepatitis C virus.
  • Liver diseases are the 5th most common cause of death in the UK after heart, cancer, stroke and respiratory diseases.
  • Hepatitis B and C are the most common infectious liver diseases.
Liver Cancer:
  • Liver cancer is estimated to kill more than 30,000 Americans each year.
  • Liver cancer is 2 times more common in men than in women.
  • Liver cancer is known as a silent disease, as there are almost no symptoms in the initial stages.
  • Liver cancer accounts for 5.7% of all cancers occurring globally.
  • In 2010, liver cancer was the 3rd most common cause of death after lung cancer and stomach cancer.
Alzheimer’s:
  • Alzheimer’s was first noticed in 1906 by a German doctor named Alois Alzheimer. He noticed this condition in a patient named Auguste D.
  • This condition is the most common form of dementia.
  • Alzheimer’s is most common in Western European countries. However, its prevalence is gradually increasing in sub-Saharan African regions too.
  • It is the 6th leading cause of death in the United States.
Whooping Cough:
  • According to the data furnished by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were approximately 175,000 cases of pertussis (or whooping cough) each year before the introduction of the pertussis vaccine.
  • Ginger, honey, oregano, almonds, and lemon are believed to be the natural remedies for a whooping cough.
  • Pertussis infections in adults account for around 25% of cases.
  • The age group most prone to pertussis is infants below 3 months of age. The second most prone age group is 7 years to 10 years.
Conjunctivitis:
  • Conjunctivitis is also known as ‘pink eye’ and ‘madras eye.’
  • There are 4 main types of conjunctivitis and all are contagious.
  • Though conjunctivitis is common among children, it can happen to anyone.
  • Conjunctivitis tends to go away on its own within 2 weeks.
Bronchitis:
  • In the year 2011, more than 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis out of which 70% were over the age of 45 years.
  • The symptoms of bronchitis last for over 2 weeks and the cough alone can persist for over 8 weeks.
  • Chronic lower respiratory diseases (which include bronchitis and asthma) are ranked as the 3rd most common cause of deaths (USA).
  • Women are more vulnerable to chronic bronchitis than men. In fact, the prevalence ratio is almost 2:1.
Anxiety and Panic:
  • Anxiety and its related disorders are one of the most common illnesses diagnosed in the USA. Every year, there are more than 40 million cases of anxiety detected in the adult population.
  • Studies suggest that women are 2 times more likely to be diagnosed with Panic disorder since they are more exposed to trauma and abuse.
  • You needn’t necessarily have to be awake to experience a panic episode. Nocturnal panic attack also exist which have symptoms similar to a usual panic attack.
  • Specific phobias, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) , PTSD ( Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) – all of these can cause anxiety and panic attacks.
Thyroid Disorders:
  • 27 million people have some form of thyroid disease, in the United States, while 13 million cases remain undiagnosed.
  • The thyroid gland regulates the metabolism of almost all the cells in the body. It helps to produce protein and increasing the availability of oxygen in the body.
  • Thyroid disorders disturb your hormonal disorders, making it difficult for women to conceive.
  • Imbalance in the thyroid hormone causes menstrual problems such as missed, heavy, frequent, irregular periods.
Blood Disorders:
  • Red blood cells (RBCs) are also called erythrocytes; they carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues throughout the body. RBCs amount to 44% of the blood in the body. Their lifespan is 120 days.
  • White blood cells (WBCs) they are also called leukocytes; these cells help in maintaining the immunity in the body. Their lifespan can range anywhere from 13 to 20 days.
  • Platelets are also called thrombocytes; they make up 1% of the blood in the body. Their lifespan is 9-12 days.
  • The normal amount of hemoglobin the body for men is 13.8-17.2 grams per deciliter and for women, it's 12.1-15.1 grams per deciliter.
Bipolar disorder:
  • Chances of bipolar disorder is higher among female adolescents (3.3%) than males (2.6%).
  • Average onset age for bipolar disorder is about 25 years.
  • About 2.6% of the U.S. population suffers from bipolar disorder.
  • In the U.S., around 83% of cases of bipolar disorder are classified as severe.
AIDS:
  • Till date HIV/AIDS has claimed lives of more than 35 million individuals making it one of the leading causes of death by an infectious disease.
  • There were more than 1.8 million new cases of HIV/AIDS reported in the year 2016. As per WHO statistics, only 70% of HIV patients are aware of the condition. The rest 30% of the population hasn’t been screened for the disease.
  • Roughly 25 million people suffering from HIV/ AIDS, which is 70% of all the HIV/AIDS patients, belong to the sub-Sahara African region.
  • Homosexual and bisexual men are most likely to be diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. As per a survey done in 2007, 74% of all HIV patients were male.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were originally known as venereal diseases (VDs), the name being derived from Venus, the Roman goddess of love.
  • 20 million cases of STDs are reported each year in the United States.
  • Women have a higher chance of developing STDs due to their anatomy as compared to men.
  • Colored and Caucasian women have a higher risk of developing STDs than other ethnicities.
  • There are more than 25 known STDs.
Liver Cirrhosis:
  • Liver cirrhosis claims lives of more than 30,000 Americans every year. It is the 7th leading cause of deaths in the USA.
  • Substance abuse of alcohol is the biggest factor responsible for liver cirrhosis.
  • The number of fatalities in men due to liver cirrhosis is almost twice of that in women.
  • 10% of liver cirrhosis patients don’t show any noticeable symptoms; this is called as compensated cirrhosis.
Diarrhea:
  • Those who have diarrhoea can lose up to 20 litres of fluid every day.
  • Diarrhoea that lasts longer than 1-2 days is due to underlying health problems.
  • Stress and nervousness can cause diarrhea. This is because stress hormones tend to speed up bowel movement process.
  • There are 1.7-5 billion cases of diarrhea reported every year. Out of which 7% die due to diarrhoeal diseases.
Measles:
  • In case of exposure, 90% of the population which is not immune to measles will contract the infection.
  • Pregnant females infected with measles have an increased risk for complications such as early labor, miscarriage, and low birth weight infants.
  • Measles can cause severe diarrhea, middle-ear infection, life-threatening pneumonia and brain inflammation, and in some cases, it leads to death.
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 89,780 individuals died from measles in the year 2016 – most of them were children under the age of 5 years.
Neonatal Jaundice:
  • Studies suggest that roughly 60% of all babies suffer from neonatal jaundice.
  • The risk factors associated with this condition are being preterm, belonging to Asian or Mediterranean descent, and having a darker skin tone.
  • Neonatal jaundice affected babies should be breastfed at least 8-12 times a day for the initial days. This will help get rid of bilirubin fast.
  • For a 2 day old infant, a bilirubin level of 12mg/dL can be quite dangerous, but the same level for a 3 day old baby is considered relatively safer.
Trypophobia:
  • Commonplace harmless objects such as strawberries and lotus seed pods can trigger trypophobia in many.
  • This is not a medically recognized phobia; however, this condition has been widely studied and discussed since 2009.
  • Trypophobia, or in any other phobia in general is more prevalent among women than among men.
  • Trypophobia is believed to be co-existent with social anxiety disorder. Nearly 17% of people experiencing social anxiety disorder tend to develop depressive tendencies.
Sleep Disorders:
  • Surprisingly enough, high altitude(> 13200 feet) can also cause sleep disturbance. This is due to declining oxygen levels and changes in respiratory patterns.
  • 60% of physicians believe that insomnia is one of the most under-discussed issues that could potentially lead to bodily conditions.
  • Our circadian rhythm is designed in such a way that we are naturally predisposed to feel tired twice during the day – 2 am and 2 pm.
  • Shift workers (who are chronically deprived of 8 hours of night time sleep) have increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, gastric issues, and even cancer.
Lung Diseases:
  • Pneumonia can have more than 30 different causes.
  • In adults, women have a higher chance of developing asthma than men. In children, boys have a higher chance of developing asthma than girls.
  • African-Americans have a 2-3 times higher chance of developing asthma than any other racial group.
  • 60-85% of cases of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) remain undiagnosed in the United States.
Oral Leukoplakia:
  • Oral leukoplakia is the medical term for “white patches” formed in the oral cavity. In fact, it is the most commonly prevalent potentially malignant lesion of the oral region.
  • Oral cavity is not the only region where leukoplakia can develop. It can also occur in the gastrointestinal tract, the genitals, and the urinary tract.
  • Every year there are more than 300,000 cases of oral cavity cancers reported worldwide. In many of these, oral leukoplakia is one of the primary symptoms.
  • Though it can occur at any age, it is most commonly observed in people under the age of 40.
Athlete’s Foot:
  • Jock itch and athlete’s foot are both caused by the same fungus, tinea cruris. It must also be noted that these are not limited just to “jocks” and “athletes”.
  • Men get this fungal infection more than women do.
  • One of the most common reasons for the spreading of this infection is sharing towels, showers, or gym lockers with an infected individual.
  • At any given time, this infection might be prevalent among 15-25% of the general population.
Tongue Diseases:
  • The average size of the human tongue is 3.3 inches or 8.5 cm for men and 3.1 inches or 7.9 cm for women.
  • Dorsum, or the topmost layer of the tongue, is covered with tiny nodes called papillae. These contain taste buds and serous glands.
  • Each taste bud contains around 50-150 different receptors cells that enable taste detection.
  • The fact that different areas of the tongue taste different things is a myth.
Vitamins - Deficiency & Excess:
  • Altogether 40 vitamins and minerals are required by the human body to sustain a healthy living. These need to come from the diet as the body cannot synthesize these as required by the body.
  • In case you consume excess of water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B & C), they will be excreted through your urine.
  • Vitamins and minerals are not the only nutrients required by the body. Amino acids and essential fatty acids are also counted as nutrients.
  • The term “vitamins” has been derived from the words “vital” (because of their importance) and “amines” (since they were previously thought to be amines).
Excretory System Diseases:
  • The excretory system is not limited to the anus, rectum, kidneys, bladder etc. In fact, skin, lungs, and liver are also counted as a part of the excretory system.
  • An average person urinates about 3000 times in a year.
  • The human intestine is about 8.5 m long, roughly 27 feet.
  • A healthy urinary bladder can hold 24 ounces of liquid. That is equivalent to 2 soda cans.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can occur in any of the wrists, either the dominant or non-dominant.
  • CTS is most common among those who put repetitive strain on their wrists.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome can be treated without surgical methods as well.
  • Those who have been diagnosed with CTS feel numbness in their affected wrist. This numbness is caused due to the compression of the median nerve that is present in the wrist.
  • If CTS is left untreated it can lead to permanent nerve damage.
Blue Waffle Disease:
  • There is no scientific evidence that proves the existence of this disease. Hence, it is nothing more than an internet hoax.
  • The only medically-backed reason for the bluish coloration of the vagina and vulva is sexual assault (which is not the same as an STD).
  • Female patients of lichen simplex also show some level of dark-bluish coloration in the vulva region. But is not a bright blue color, as promoted by blue waffle believers.
  • The term "waffle" is a slang term for vagina.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia:
  • A person of any age can be diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • In people under the age of 20, ALL is the most common type of leukemia, accounting for 74% of all leukemia diagnosed in this age group.
  • Children younger than the age of 5 have the highest risk of developing ALL.
  • The average persons’ risk of developing this cancer is 1 in 1000. This risk is slightly higher in men compared to women, and higher is Caucasians than in African Americans.
Dizziness:
  • Older people with neurological disorders and/or chronic illnesses are more prone to dizziness.
  • Dizziness and related conditions are prevalent in 5-10% of the population, but this figure is as high as 40% in individuals over the age of 40.
  • An estimated 1.1% of the entire adult population of the USA show symptoms of chronic dizziness.
  • Dizziness is more often linked with inner-ear problems rather than disorders of the CNS (central nervous system).
Vaccines:
  • A British scientist, Edward Jenner, developed the first smallpox vaccination in 1796.
  • 2-3 million deaths are prevented each year due to vaccines.
  • Vaccines are not always administered in the form of shots; they can be given orally as well.
  • In the late 18th century, King Charles IV of Spain wanted to spread the smallpox vaccination. He used 22 orphan boys who were vaccinated and their blood was used to make the vaccination
Juvenile Diabetes:
  • Juvenile diabetes or Type-1 diabetes constitutes only 5% of all diabetes cases. Rest 95% are Type -2 diabetes.
  • This is more prevalent in Caucasian kids than among kids of any other ethnicity.
  • Every year, more than 40,000 new cases of juvenile diabetes are diagnosed in the USA alone.
  • It is expected that by the year 2050, 5 million Americans will be suffering from juvenile diabetes. This would include 600,000 youth.
Burkitt Lymphoma:
  • Burkitt lymphoma is a very rare disease in Western countries. But common in Central Africa.
  • It is names after the British surgeon Denis Burkitt who identified this disease in 1956 among children in Africa.
  • In Australia, the predicted cases of Burkitt lymphoma are 12 per year.
  • This condition is relatively common in children compared to adults. It makes up of 30% of all childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while making up 1% of adult lymphoma
Morning Sickness:
  • Contrary to the idea enforced by the name of the condition, morning sickness is not limited only to the morning hours. Neither is it restricted only to the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Those pregnant women who carry twins and/or have other placental complications have more severe bouts of morning sickness.
  • 15% of pregnant women don’t experience morning sickness throughout their course of pregnancy.
  • Around 0.3 to 2% of pregnancies are affected by hyperemesis gravidarum. It is a severe form of morning sickness that causes intense dehydration and weight loss.
Female Pattern Baldness:
  • Under normal condition, human beings shed 100-150 hair strands every day.
  • Sudden shedding of hair is more common in women than in men. This is usually caused by hormonal changes related to stress, childbirth, or menopause.
  • A significant chunk of female population suffering from hair loss and balding is due to DHT (dihydrotestosterone) sensitivity.
  • In case the hair is falling out in patches creating bald patches, it is due to an autoimmune disorder called Alopecia Areata.
Meningitis:
  • Bacterial meningitis, the most prevalent form of the disease, claims 170,000 deaths every year globally.
  • 10-20% of patients diagnosed with meningitis will die within 24-48 hours of detection, in spite of being provided with prompt medical attention.
  • Though anybody can acquire this deadly infection, children below the age of 5 years and adolescents within15-19 years form the most vulnerable demography.
  • The most disabling consequences of meningitis include permanent brain damage, seizures, deafness, and loss of limb due to septicemia.
Dental Care:
  • The most significant factor in the onset of dental issues is ignoring the early signs.
  • 25% of adults don’t brush their teeth twice a day.
  • Almost 50% of the global population consider only a toothbrush and toothpaste enough for oral care.
  • Less than 35% of people use mouthwash regularly.
Insect Bites:
  • Some of the most rampant and life-threatening diseases spread through insect bites are encephalitis, yellow fever, Zika virus infection, malaria, and dengue fever.
  • 75% of the entire known animal kingdom is comprised of arthropods. These are insects that live on land and have 6 legs.
  • When an insect stings you, the itching, pain, and reddish-coloration of your skin is nothing but an allergic reaction to the venom injected by the insect.
  • The main toxic component of a bee’s venom is melittin. This is chemically a peptide that contains roughly 50% of dry venom and leads to the destruction of human cells.
Memory Loss:
  • The most common cause of memory loss is aging. Other causes include dementia, Alzheimer’s, depression, and substance abuse.
  • The hippocampus (a horse-shoe shaped part of the brain) is responsible for emotions and long-term memory formation.
  • By the time human beings reach their 80s, they lose up to 20% of the nerve connections associated with the hippocampus which leads to memory loss.
  • According to studies, the human brain can store information about 7 different things for approximately 20-30 seconds in the short term memory.
Growing Pains:
  • As opposed to what the name suggests, the pains are not caused because of growing but along with growing.
  • Since there are no known causes for this condition; it is simply named as growing pains.
  • It is most commonly observed in children between the age groups of 3-5 years and 8-12 years.
  • No physical abnormality is associated with this condition.
Hematuria:
  • There are certain situations when blood in urine (hematuria) shouldn’t be treated as a major health concern – taking aspirin or consuming beets and rhubarb.
  • Usually blood in urine occurs as a result of UTIs (urinary tract infections) or bladder stones.
  • Smokers are 4-5 times more likely to develop bladder cancer and 2 times more to develop kidney cancer when compared to non-smokers.
  • Hematuria can occur in two forms – Gross (blood in urine is visible) and Microscopic (blood is visible only under microscope.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:
  • In the past 8 years, the number of ADHD cases diagnosed in the USA has increased by 42%.
  • Overall 6.1% of American kids are being medically treated with ADHD.
  • Men are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than women. According to the latest studies, 13% of males will be diagnosed with ADHD while this figure is 4.2% among women.
  • ADHD is not restricted to children only. In the USA, roughly 4% of the adult population experiences the symptoms of ADHD.
Heat Rash:
  • The medical term for tiny reddish bumps on the skin due to sweat accumulation is miliaria rubra.
  • The trapping of sweat within the pores of the skin causes irritation because human sweat is rich in salt.
  • If the sweat gets contaminated with pyogenic bacteria, it becomes miliaria pustulosis which leads to formation of pus.
  • Even in indoor working environment such as in case of power-plants, welding shops, steam tunnels etc can lead to formation of heat rashes.
Cold Sores:
  • Females (1 out of 4) are slightly more susceptible to cold sores than males (1 out of 5).
  • Oral herpes affects more than 70% of the entire American population.
  • Genital herpes and oral herpes (cold sores) are not caused by the same virus.
  • Even if the herpes virus is present in the body of an individual, it is not necessary that it will cause the onset of the infection. Many a times, the infection is curbed by body’s natural immunity.
  • Cold sores tend to manifest in the same location in case of recurrent cases.
Muscle pain:
  • Human body contains more than 600 muscles. Out of these, 200 are involved in walking.
  • These account for 35% - 40% of your body weight.
  • Muscle pain mainly occurs as a result of an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles which is natural to muscle metabolism.
  • Muscles create about 85% of total body heat.
Menopause:
  • Women hit menopause when they have had no menstrual cycles for a continuous period of 1 year.
  • Hormonal fluctuations in women start during their 30s or 40s. The phase of irregular periods (too heavy or too little) or absence of periods that gradually lead to menopause is called as perimenopause.
  • Menopausal women may experience a bone-density loss as high as 20%. This is a significant factor leading to osteoporosis.
  • If a woman has high cholesterol levels and/or high blood pressure, she becomes more vulnerable to heart diseases during and after menopause.
Mumps:
  • The pathogen responsible for mumps is RNA virus belonging to the genus Rubulavirus
  • The acute and tender swelling of the parotid gland in mumps occurs 16-18 days after the exposure to the virus in the majority of cases.
  • In very rare cases, 0.02-0.3% cases to be precise, patients develop encephalitis as a consequence of the mumps infection. This causes the maximum number of mumps-related fatalities.
  • Pregnant women who contract this infection during the first trimester are associated with a high risk of fetal death.
Angina:
  • 10 million people live with angina in the United States.
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) causes angina.
  • Different patients experience different types of symptoms of angina.
  • Race-wise and gender-wide prevalence( above the age of 20) of this condition in the USA (% of general population)
  • Caucasian: Men - 1%  Women- 1%
  • African American: Men - 4.4% Women 6.7%
  • Hispanics: Men - 3.5% Women 4.5%
Age-Related Macular Degeneration:
  • Those who are above the age of 75 years have a 30% higher chance of being diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • Women tend to develop AMD at an earlier age than men.
  • 11 million Americans have some form of AMD.
  • Caucasians are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with AMD than any other ethnicities.
  • AMD is an inherited disease in many cases.
  • The risk of developing AMD increases with age. It increases by 2% per year, every year for those between the ages of 50-59 years.
Urinary Tract Infections:
  • 1 in 5 women will have a urinary tract infection at least once in her life. 80% of them will have recurrent UTIs.
  • Women tend to have a higher chance of getting UTIs than men. Since their urethra is shorter it is easier for the bacteria to enter the bladder.
  • Pregnant women who have UTI have a higher chance of giving birth to premature babies or babies that are underweight at birth.
  • Wearing pantyhose or tight trousers tend to increase the chances of developing UTI. This is because they may irritate skin, trap heat, and may contribute to bacterial growth.
Dehydration:
  • 75% of the United States population is chronically dehydrated.
  • Dehydration causes fatigue.
  • Being hydrated can boost metabolism levels in the body.
  • Dehydration is one of the main causes for kidney stones.
  • It takes 45 minutes for the body to get hydrated.
  • A person can survive without water for 3 weeks.
Dry skin:
  • Having a hot shower can dry out the skin and hair, thereby causing dry skin.
  • Certain people are allergic to some soaps and detergents; these can irritate the skin and cause dry skin.
  • Skin tends to become dry due to prolonged hours of sun exposure.
  • Using a moisturizer or lotion right after a hot shower does not stop the skin from becoming dry.
  • Dry skin can be an indication of certain skin diseases.
Acute Renal Failure:
  • Diabetic nephropathy occurs in 15-40% of those who have been diagnosed with type-1 diabetes. This is one of the leading causes of kidney failure.
  • Diabetic nephropathy is commonly diagnosed among smokers and those who have high cholesterol levels.
  • Alcohol is a major cause of liver diseases which usually develop into kidney conditions.
  • If kidney stones are smaller than 4 mm in diameter they can be passed out through urine.
Ankle Osteoarthritis:
  • 15% of the world’s populations are affected by joint pains due to osteoarthritis.
  • Out of these, 1% are affected with ankle osteoarthritis.
  • Traumatic injuries such as fractures and severe sprains in the ankle tend to cause osteoarthritis in the ankle.
  • Those who have been diagnosed with arthritis due to hereditary factors tend to have ankle osteoarthritis.
  • Clubfoot tends to affect 1 in every 500-1,000 children.
Binge Eating Disorder:
  • Binge eating disorder (BED) was first recognized as a formal medical disorder in the 1990s.
  • 1-2 million Americans suffer from the BED.
  • Adolescents and young adults tend to suffer from binge eating disorder more.
  • 20% of those who have been diagnosed with BED are overweight.
  • BED is related to depression and anxiety.
Avian Flu:
  • Avian flu is commonly known as bird flu. The full name of the virus is Asian Avian Influenza A.
  • There are 16 types of avian flu.
  • Draughts are the main causes for the avian flu to spread. This is because all the birds tend to flock around one water body, thereby spreading the flu faster.
  • This flu can pass on from birds to human beings and is highly contagious.
  • This flu is caused due to the H5N1 virus. This virus was first isolated in 1996, in Southern China and Hong Kong.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children:
  • Activity deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and activity deficit disorder (ADD) are the same thing.
  • 4% of American adults above the age of 18 have been diagnosed with ADHD; it is not limited to children only.
  • Men have  4 times higher chances of being diagnosed with ADHD than women.
  • ADHD is most commonly diagnosed by the age of 7 years.
Ovarian Cancer:
  • More than 14o,000 American women die due to ovarian cancer every year.
  • It is one of the deadliest gynecological diseases.
  • There are more than 30 types of ovarian cancers.
  • If ovarian cancer is detected in its early stages (stage 1 and 2) there are 70-75% chances of treating the condition.
  • Ovarian cancer is the 5th deadliest cancer among women.
Heat Exhaustion:
  • Heat exhaustion tends to happen when the body loses water and salts, this happens through sweating.
  • Heat stroke and heat exhaustion are not the same thing. Heat stroke occurs when an individual has a fever along with unconsciousness due to prolonged heat exposure. Whereas, heat exhaustion is the condition that occurs just before the body is going to get a heat stroke.
  • Heat exhaustion kills 175 Americans every year.
  • Women have more sweat glands but those of men are more active. This makes them sweat more and get dehydrated at a faster rate.
Constipation:
  • 4 million people in the United States have constipation. Out of which 15-20% of them have chronic constipation.
  • Constipation can occur before or during women’s menstrual cycle.
  • Having a good amount of water can help in reducing the chances of constipation.
  • Consuming probiotics can help in reducing the chances of constipation as they help in regulating bowel movement.
Blood Clots:
  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 12-14% of the population of the world.
  • PAD is 6 times more common than HIV.
  • Polycythemia vera is a blood disease that is most common among those who are above the ages of 60 years. PV cases are rarely found in children and young adults. It is most common among men than women.
  • 300,000 people die due to obesity in the United States. It is the 2nd  leading factor behind premature death after smoking in the United States.
Bloating:
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common type of gastrointestinal disorder.
  • 10-15% of the world’s population is diagnosed with IBS. Bloating is one of the major symptoms of this condition.
  • Food such as beans, lentils, wheat, onion and garlic tend to cause bloating.
  • Stress can aggravate bloating.
Varicose Veins:
  • Varicose veins and spider veins are not the same, even though they have the same causes.
  • 25% of women and 15% men have varicose veins, in the United States.
  • Restless legs syndrome tends to overlap with varicose veins.
  • Varicose insufficiency is caused when the blood does not go up to the heart from the veins that are present in the legs. Instead, the blood flows back down the veins.
  • Varicose veins do not occur only in your legs, they can occur in any part of the body.
Arrhythmia:
  • 2 million Americans are living with a form arrhythmia called atrial fibrillation.
  • 1 in 4 adults who are above the age of 40 years develop an irregular heartbeat in the United States.
  • The heart beats 70 times per minute and 100,000 times per day.
  • Blood pressure and blood sugar tend to vary if a person suffers from irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • Arrhythmia is most commonly felt when a person goes to sleep.
Rheumatoid Arthritis:
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be diagnosed in people of any age. It is not a disease that is found only among the elderly.
  • Though osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis both affect the joints and cause pain, they are not the same. That is because they have different causes.
  • 3 million people in the USA have been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis.
Bruises:
  • Bruises color due to the accumulation of blood under the affected area.
  • Some people tend to bruise more than other.
  • As people age, their blood vessels become weaker, thereby becoming more susceptible to bruising
  • Due to the additional weight on the lower half of the body, obese or overweight people tend to bruise more on their legs.
Metabolic Disorders:
  • Diabetes (type 2) remains undiagnosed in as many as 1/3rd of the all the patients.
  • Type 2 diabetes has no symptoms at first.
  • Gaucher’s disease is an inherited disease. This disease is caused due to the lack of enzyme glucocerebrosidase in the body.
  • Gaucher’s disease was first described in 1882 by a French doctor named Phillip Gaucher.
Joint Damage:
  • In the USA, 10% of men and 13% of women will develop osteoarthritis by the age of 60.
  • Not every joint pain can be categorized as arthritis.
  • 2 million people have gout in the United States.
  • Osteoarthritis is also known as degenerative arthritis or ‘wear and tear’ arthritis. It is the most common type of arthritis.
Head Lice:
  • Head lice have been around since pre-historic times. There is evidence that shows mummies had head lice too.
  • An adult head louse is the size of the sesame seed.
  • Female head lice (louse) can lay up to 10 eggs per day.
  • Lice can hold their breath for up to 2 hours.
Skin Problems:
  • People of all ages and skin tones are prone to pigmentation. Though it is most commonly seen in those who have a darker skin tone.
  • 40-50 million people have acne in the United States.
  • Excessive stress can cause wrinkles.
  • Young adults between the age group of 15-25 years are affected by acne.
Pelvic Pain:
  • Mittelschmerz is derived from a German word meaning ‘middle pain.’ Mittelschmerz usually occurs 14 days prior to the next menstrual cycle.
  • Mittelschmerz is most common among women who are between the age group of 15-29 years. This condition is prevalent among colored and Hispanic women.
  • Adenomyosis is not the same as endometriosis. Adenomyosis is when endometrial cells exist and grow into the wall of the uterus. Endometriosis is when cells tend to plant in the regions outside the uterus.
LDL Cholesterol:
  • LDL cholesterol is short for Low-Density-Lipoproteins. It is the bad or harmful cholesterol.
  • Babies have 25-40 gm/dL of LDL levels while adults have 130-160 gm/dL of LDL.
  • 71 million Americans have high levels of LDL.
  • Men need to strictly monitor their cholesterol by the time they reach 45 years; for women, the age limit is 55 years. However, every adult should regularly monitor their cholesterol levels.
Laryngitis:
  • Women are more commonly affected by laryngitis than men.
  • Laryngitis is most common among children, as they tend to strain their vocal cords frequently.
  • Medical conditions such as bronchitis and vocal cord polyps (cysts) can lead to laryngitis.
  • A rare viral infection of diphtheria is one of the causes of laryngitis.
  • Overusing the vocal cords can increase the chances of developing laryngitis.
Kidney Failure:
  • 500 million people worldwide have some form of kidney damage.
  • Over 2 million people worldwide receive treatment for CKD (chronic kidney disease) by dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Those between the ages of 65-74 years worldwide have some form of CKD.
  • 13% of the US population has CKD.
Internal Bleeding:
  • 3 million people in the United States have some form of back or leg injury, one of the leading causes of internal bleeding along the limbs.
  • 60% injuries in a sports team tend to occur during the practice sessions and not during the actual game.
  • Physical child abuse can lead to a subdural hematoma.
  • A subdural hematoma is also known as subdural hemorrhage.
Tennis Elbow:
  • Tennis elbow is also known as lateral epicondilitis.
  • This condition can commonly be found among those who are between the ages of 35-60 years.
  • This injury is not necessarily caused due to the sport that it is named after; it can be caused due to repetitive and strenuous usage of the dominant arm.
Hives:
  • Hives are a known reaction to allergies.
  • 25% of cases of chronic hives are caused due to autoimmune reactions.
  • The symptoms of hives go away on their own. But in cases of chronic hives, the symptoms tend to last for at least 6 months.
  • Doctors suggest that those people stay away from highly allergic foods or items to prevent hives.
Parkinson’s Disease:
  • Parkinson’s disease has been known since the ancient times, it is called as ‘Kampavata’ in Ayurveda. ‘Kampa’ is the Sanskrit word for ‘tremor.’
  • Parkinson’s disease is named after a London doctor, James Parkinson, who wrote a long and detailed essay on this disease in 1817. The essay was titled “An Essay on the Shaking Palsy.”
  • In the 1940s and 1950s, surgeons started performing surgeries on the basal ganglia ( present in the brain). This showed an improvement in the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Osteoporosis:
  • Osteoporosis is derived from the Greek words ‘osteo’ meaning bone and ‘porosis’ meaning pore or passage.
  • Within 5-7 years of menopause women can lose up to 20% of their bone mass.
  • Those who suffer from an eating disorder such as anorexia, tend to have a higher chance of developing osteoporosis.
  • Caucasians and Asian women are at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.
Osteoarthritis:
  • Osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of arthritis affecting more than 30 million Americans.
  • OA is a leading cause of disability among people who are above the age of 60 years.
  • Osteoarthritis is said to affect 13.9% adults above the age of 25 years and 33.6% adults above the age of 65 years.
  • According to the WHO, 130 million people will be affected by OA by 2050, 40 million of whom will be severely disabled.
Melanoma:
  • Melanoma is only 1% of the total number of skin cancers that people are diagnosed with in the USA but the leading cause of skin cancer deaths.
  • Melanoma is commonly diagnosed in patients who are 63 years and above. However, it is the most common form of cancer in young adults, especially in young women.
  • Melanoma is known as a silent disease. This is because its appearance is similar to that of a mole.
  • It is important to diagnose melanoma at an early stage. Only then does it remain largely treatable.
Skin Tags:
  • Skin tags are non-cancerous overlaps of outer skin and inner skin.
  • Skin tags do not shrink on their own and need to be removed surgically.
  • Skin tags are common in those who are in their 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy, obese individuals, type 2 diabetics, and individuals above the age of 50.
  • Skin tags do not need to be removed unless they cause irritation.
Spinal Fracture:
  • The most common part of the vertebrae to get fractured is the mid and lower back.
  • 5-10% of spinal fractures are in the neck (cervical spine).
  • Roughly, 45% of all spinal injuries can be attributed to car accidents.
  • Every year 20% cases of spinal fracture are due to serious falls.
  • High impact sports cause 15% of spinal fractures each year.
  • Osteoporosis (condition of weakening bones) causes 700,000 spinal fractures each year.
Schizophrenia:
  • The word Schizophrenia literally means “split mind.” The term “Schizophrenia” was coined in 1908.
  • It is not a split personality or multiple personality disorder. It is a mental illness that is characterized by delusions and hallucinations.
  • Substance abuse makes the symptoms of schizophrenia worse.
  • It is said that if you smoke marijuana before the age of 15, there are 4 time the chances of you developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia.
Skin Problems in Children:
  • Approximately 31 million children and adults have been diagnosed with eczema in the USA.
  • 15-20% of infants have dry skin right from the birth.
  • Babies may develop diaper rashes in case there is a change in their diet or their mothers.
  • Acne starts at the age of 11 for girls and 13 for boys.
Infections:
  • The term “virus” is derived from the Latin word “poison.”
  • Bacteria are believed to have evolved 3 and a half million years ago.
  • Bacteria are used to make many of the food substances that we consume such as chocolates, coffee, vinegar etc.
  • Most adults will have fungal infections such as athlete’s foot at least once in their lifetime.
Yellow Fever:
  • The last major epidemic of yellow fever, in the USA,  was in 1905 in New Orleans.
  • The symptoms are visible 3-5 days post the mosquito bite. The symptoms are flu-like.
  • It is prevalent in the western, central and eastern regions of Africa, rural Africa, and South America.
Wisdom Teeth:
  • Wisdom teeth got their name because they grow between the ages of 17-25 years. They are also called third molars.
  • 85% of wisdom teeth will need to be extracted as they are difficult to clean, making them prone to infections and bacterial growth.
  • According to a Japanese study conducted in 2008, wisdom teeth can produce stem cells.
  • 35% of the world’s population don't develop wisdom teeth.
Weight Loss:
  • A 19th-century American food enthusiast Horace Fletcher came up with a diet called “Fletcherism”, where he argued that chewing food 32 times or till it reaches its liquid state could help avoid diseases and encourage weight loss.
  • Elvis Presley was a great fan of the “sleeping beauty diet.” Here, a person was sedated for a few days to make sure that they do not eat, thus resulting in weight loss.
  • In the 20th-century cigarette makers regularly marketed their brands by saying that cigarette smoking was a weight loss aid.
  • “Byron Diet” is named after a Victorian poet Lord Byron, who would eat potatoes dipped in vinegar to make him look thin and pale.
Testicular Cancer:
  • The average age to be diagnosed with testicular cancer is 33.
  • 6% of cases of testicular cancers are diagnosed in children and teens.
  • 8% of cases of testicular cancers are diagnosed in men over the age of 55.
  • In 2015, approximately 257,823 men were living with testicular cancer in the United States.
Summer Skin Hazards:
  • Sunburns tend to occur 3-5 hours post the sun exposure.
  • Caucasians with light hair color have a higher chance of getting a sunburn.
  • Heat stroke occurs when the body temperature rises to 106 degrees. This is a highly fatal condition.
  • Poison ivy allergies, bug-bites, and tick-bites are more commonly observed during the summers.
Bad Breath:
  • 2,000 years ago Hippocrates had created a mouth rinse made of herbs and wine to help rid bad breath.
  • Bad breath is also known as halitosis, which is derived from a Latin word ‘halitus’ meaning exhalation and a Greek word ‘osis’ meaning a condition.
  • 60% women and 50% men use mouth rinse in the United States.
  • 25% of the world’s population has chronic bad breath which is caused due to oral bacteria.
  • Morning breath (which is also considered as bad breath) is inevitable.
Fibroids:
  • 70-80% of all women may develop fibroids by the time they reach 50.
  • 12-25% have problems related to their fibroids such as heavy bleeding and pain.
  • 1 in 1,000 has cancerous fibroids called leiomyosarcoma.
  • Coloured women are 2-3 times more likely to have fibroids than Caucasian and Hispanic women.
  • Uterine fibroids can happen at all ages, but are common among women who are between the age group of 40-50 years.
Mad Cow Disease:
  • This disease was first noticed in England in 1970 where it was believed to be another disease known as scrapie.
  • This disease is very rare in the United States and Canada.
  • Mad cow disease was first isolated and studied in Britain in 1986.
  • It takes at least 5 years for the symptoms to appear completely.
Paragonimiasis:
  • There are more than 30 species of trematodes (flukes) of the paragonimus genus.
  • Out of these, 10 can cause infections in the human body.
  • The P.westermani species causes lung flu.
  • 20 million people are estimated to have been affected by this flu worldwide.
  • This flu was first noticed in Taiwan in 1879.
  • In Japan, this condition was caused due to the consumption of raw pork.
Cervical Dysplasia:
  • Cervical cancer has a high prevalence in Sub-saharan African countries, especially South Africa with 7,735 new cases being diagnosed every year here.
  • It's the most commonly occurring cancer among females (15-44 years) in South Africa.
  • In the United States, an estimate of 13,000 women had been diagnosed with cervical cancer in 2016 and more than 4,000 women succumbed to the disease.
  • Smoking, long-term use of oral contraception, and being overweight increases the chances of being diagnosed with cervical cancer.
Pregnancy:
  • The uterus expands up to 500 times its original size during the course of pregnancy.
  • Pregnant women have a 40-50% higher blood plasma volume.
  • The longest pregnancy was 1 year and 10 days.
  • Pregnant women and mothers can lactate immediately if they hear a baby cry, even if it’s not their own baby.
  • 1 in every 2,000 babies is born with a tooth.
Foot Problems:
  • There are 26 bones in each foot, with 33 joints, 19 muscles, 10 tendons and 107 ligaments.
  • Your feet contain 250,000 sweat glands.
  • Though varicose veins are commonly found in the lower part of your body, they can also appear in other parts of the body.
  • 25% of women and 15% of men with venous diseases been diagnosed with varicose veins in the United States.
  • 60-70% of those diagnosed with diabetes will have a moderate to a severe nerve problem.
Conception:
  • 1 in 10 fertile couples experience a problem in conception.
  • Babies born in the month of May are found to be the heaviest. They are 200gms heavier than the babies born in any other month.
  • At the exact moment of fertilization, the sex along with the genetic profile of the baby is determined.
  • 1 in 4 pregnancies end with a miscarriage.
  • The 1st test tube baby was born more than 30 years ago. Post which 4 million babies have been born using assisted reproductive technology.
Poison Ivy:
  • This plant can be found in North America, Japan, Taiwan, Japan, and Russia.
  • It cannot survive in altitude higher than 4900 ft. It can survive extreme climatic conditions.
  • 85% of the people who come in contact with this plant tend to develop an allergic reaction.
  • The plant should never be burnt as the fumes can a severe allergic reaction in the lungs.
  • This plant can grow in the form of bushes or vines. Bushes are 3 ft and 11 inc. tall, while the vines are 3.9-9.8 inc. in height.
  • Poison ivy can survive up to 2 years.
Sepsis (Blood Poisoning):
  • 20-30 million cases of sepsis are reported each year worldwide.
  • Sepsis is one of the leading cause of death in the case of hospitalized patients in the USA.
  • Every day, 38 patients are amputated worldwide owing to sepsis.
  • Septic shock is said to have the highest mortality rate among non-coronary ICU patients
Childhood Leukemia:
  • Children with certain genetic disorders such as Down syndrome have a higher risk of developing leukemia.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most common among children between the age group of 3-5 years.
  • Leukemia is the most common cancer in children and teens accounting for 1 out of every 3 cancers in this age group.
  • Studies reveal that every day 43 children are diagnosed with cancer globally.
Lactose Intolerance:
  • 75% of the world’s population will lose their ability to break down lactose at some point in their lives.
  • 30 million Americans below the age of 20 have been diagnosed with the inability to break down lactose.
  • Lactose intolerance is not an allergy; it is a digestive issue.
  • Once, babies stop breastfeeding the lactose breaking enzymes in their body tend to decrease.
Thrombocytopenia:
  • Thrombocytopenia can occur due to the use of certain drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, penicillin etc.
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenia is now known as immune thrombocytopenia.
  • ITP can be caused by rubella or German measles.
• This condition may develop after any kind of viral infection. • One drop of blood contains 1,500,000-4,000,000 platelets.
Connective Tissue Diseases:
  • Among all connective tissue disorders, Sjorgen's syndrome has the highest prevalence, with it being diagnosed in about 0.2-2% of the general population.
  • SLE or Systemic  Lupus Erythematosus is much more common among women ( in the childbearing phase) as compared to men. The prevalence is 6-10 times more in women than in men.
Sleep Apnea:
  • The word ‘sleep apnea’ is named after Greek words meaning “want of breath.”
  • This condition most commonly affects those who are between the ages of 55-60 years.
  • 22 million people in the United States have this condition.
  • 80% of moderate to severe sleep apnea cases still remain undiagnosed.
Gas:
  • Some of the enzymes that are found in your stomach such as proteases, amylases, and lipases are the same chemicals used by laundry detergent companies.
  • Your stomach does not do the entire digestion process. The digestion process is mainly taken care of by the small intestine that breaks down the food and passes the nutrients into the bloodstream.
  • Frequent burping happens if a person is swallowing an excessive quantity of air and it is not entering their stomach.
  • The enzymes present in the gut help regulate our stress hormone.
Subdural Hematoma:
  • Subdural hematoma in young adults and children may be caused due acute or severe head injuries.
  • Chronic subdural hematoma is seen among those who are above the age of 60 years.
  • More than 2.8 million cases of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) are reported every year in the USA.
  • Children who have a blood clotting disorder are at a higher risk of developing a subdural hematoma.
Pterygium (Surfer's Eye):
  • Pterygium is also known as surfer’s eye and farmer’s eye; this is because this condition is caused due to spending prolonged hours under the sun.
  • There is a 30-40% chance for the pterygium to grow back post surgery.
  • It is most commonly seen in people under the age of 40 years.
Vaginal Discharge:
  • Vaginal discharge is a normal bodily function. Vaginal discharge keeps the vagina clean and healthy by removing any bacteria that may be present in the body.
  • Vaginal discharge keeps the vagina slightly wet; if it is dry it is susceptible to infections.
  • If women tend to have high levels of stress, their vaginal discharge may increase.
  • Excessive amounts of vaginal discharge may be an indication of an STI.
  • Generally, women produce a teaspoon of vaginal discharge per day. But if they are stressed, sick or on their menstrual cycle, the amount of vaginal discharge may vary.
Overactive Bladder:
  • Men tend to experience overactive bladder more than women, especially above the age of 60 years.
  • 33 million Americans suffer from an overactive bladder.
  • The bladder can hold 400-500 ml of urine.
  • Humans tend to urinate 3,000 times per year.
Jock Itch:
  • Jock itch is a common term used to describe any rash that can be found in the male groin region.
  • Though it is most commonly seen in men, women get these rashes as well.
  • Jock itch is 3 times more common in men than in women.
  • This infection is common in a moist and wet environment.
  • Ringworm on the scalp is not necessarily the signature rings. It can be scaly and flaky just like dandruff.
Sensory Processing Disorder:
  • 1 in 20 children and adults worldwide may have sensory processing disorder (SPD)
  • It is a neurological disorder.
  • SPD can be mistaken for ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), but most of those who have SPD tend to have ADHD as well.
  • Heredity is said to be one of the causes of SPD thought the actual cause is still unknown.
  • Though sensory processing disorder is not autism, many of those who have been diagnosed with autism have sensory processing issues.
Cholera:
  • It can take almost 5 days for the symptoms of cholera to develop.
  • The first epidemic of cholera occurred in the 19th century in West Bengal, India. The disease spread to Southeast Asia, the Middle East, several European countries, and Eastern African nations via trade routes.
  • 3-5 million cholera cases are reported each year, with 100,000- 120,000 deaths due to this infection.
  • 80% of cases of cholera can be treated promptly by administering oral rehydration solutions.
Colon Polyps:
  • 10% of all polyps fall into the category of adenoma; a benign tumor occurring in the epithelial tissues.
  • Some colon polyps are benign while some can be precancerous or malignant.
  • Colorectal cancer is the 3rd most common cause of cancer worldwide in both the genders and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries.
  • The 5-year survival rate for those with stage I colon cancer is 92% while for those with stage IIA colon cancer’s 5-year survival rate is 87%.
Missed Period:
  • Stress is one of the main causes for a missed period. Emotional stress and anxiety can cause irregular periods.
  • Health problems such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome), thyroid disease, uncontrolled diabetes and uterine fibroids are other causes for a missed period.
  • Human, humpback whales, and elephants are the only animals that go through menopause.
  • In the middle ages, it was believed that red-heads were conceived during a period.
  • “Tampon” is French for “plug”
Shingles (Herpes Zoster):
  • In the USA, nearly 1 in 3 people will develop shingles at least once in their lifetime.
  • Anyone who has had chickenpox is susceptible to shingles.
  • The risk of acquiring shingles increases with age with half of the cases occurring in the 60-plus age group.
  • According to the CDC, there are 1 million cases of shingles in the US each year.
  • After you get chicken pox, the virus does not leave your body, it resides in your nerve tissue in a dormant state.
  • Shingle is a rash; it scabs over after 3-5 days.
  • Just over 10% of people with shingles develop complications in addition to blisters and infections.
Hot Flashes:
  • Hot flashes are common in women undergoing menopause. Affecting as many as 75% women.
  • Hot flashes are not uncommon in men. There is a less than 2% drop in the testosterone for men every 30 years. This is said to cause hot flashes.
  • Women can have hot flashes 10-20 years before and after menopause.
  • There are many causes and triggers of hot flashes in women. This does not occur only due to hormonal imbalance but also due to external conditions like excessive amounts of alcohol intake.
  • In Victorian time, hot flashes were called “hot blooms.”
Enlarged Prostate:
  • It is a common misconception that enlarged prostate is prostate cancer. Whereas prostate cancer and an enlarged prostate are two different things.
  • Enlarged prostate can be treated with medicines.
  • When men reach the ages between 55-60, their prostate gland which is 18 gms starts to enlarge. The measure of the enlarged prostate can vary from person to person.
  • Enlarge prostate can lead to many complications. Like – residual urine can in the bladder can become infected and or lead to the formation of bladder stones.
Mitral Valve Prolapse:
  • Most deaths due to mitral valve prolapse occur among the elderly. The mortality rate of MVP increases considerably after the age of 85.
  • Women generally have a higher mortality rate due to MVP.
  • Over 40% of patients with mitral valve prolapse also have an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system known as dysautonomia.
  • The human heart roughly weighs around 10-12 ounces (280-340 grams) in men and 8-10 ounces (230-280 grams) in women.
  • An adult heart beats 60-80 times per minute.
  • The heart beats 100,000 times per day (about 3 billion beats in a lifetime).
Neuropathy:
  • Approximately 50% of those with diabetes will be diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy.
  • Neuropathy is treatable in most cases.
  • Metformin (one of the most commonly prescribed drug for diabetes) increases the chances of developing neuropathy.
  • More than 100 types of peripheral neuropathies have been diagnosed with their own set of characteristics and symptoms.
  • Estimates of 20 million people in the United States have some type of peripheral neuropathic pain.
Pre-cancerous Skin Lesions:
  • More people are diagnosed with skin cancer each year in the US than all cancers combines.
  • 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer by the age of 70.
  • The average cost of treating skin cancer each year in the US is estimated at 1.8 million dollars.
  • More than 90% of skin cancers are caused due to sun exposure.
  • More than 1 million cases of skin cancer will be reported this year.
  • Men are two times more likely to develop skin cancer than women.
Swollen Feet:
  • Swollen feet are also known as edema.
  • Swollen feet can be a result of several chronic disorders such as Diabetes, nutritional deficiencies, and alcohol toxicity.
  • One of the leading causes of swollen feet, high blood pressure, is known as a silent killer since it manifests no evident symptoms in the initial stages.
  • There are 16 million people who have high blood pressure in the UK.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should not be taken without a prescription, as they have severe side effects. They can have severe side effects.
Foot Drop:
  • Foot drop affects both men and women. However, it is more common in men. The male to female ratio is approximately 2.8:1.
  • Both the feet are equally prone to developing this condition.
  • 3-13% of those who undergo surgery of the tibia ( the shin bone) subsequently experience foot drop.
  • Your feet contain 26 bones, 33 joints, more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments, and 250,000 sweat glands.
  • Toes can sometimes surgically replace thumbs.
Facial Hair:
  • About 5% of the women in the US experience hirsutism.
  • At times, unwanted facial hair runs in the family.
  • It is most common in people from the Middle East, South Asia, and the Mediterranean regions.
  • It is linked to high levels of the male hormone (androgens) present in the body.
  • Facial hair is present in up to 5-10% of women.
  • It can be caused by high levels of hormonal imbalance and medications.
Staph Infection:
  • Staphylococcus was first identified in 1880 in Scotland, by surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint.
  • The name of the bacterium is derived from the Greek-Latin words “staphyl” meaning “a bunch of grapes” and “coccos” meaning “berry.”
  • Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics including – penicillin, methicillin, amoxicillin and oxacillin.
  • Men above the age of 50 are at a higher risk of having this type of bacteria.
Porphyria:
  • Porphyria cutanea tarda occurs in the Caucasian population in the ratio of 1:25,000.
  • The exact prevalence is unknown but it likely ranges from 1 in 500 to 1 in 50,000 in the general population.
  • Fewer than 300 cases have been reported in the medical literature of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.
  • The famous artist – Vincent Van Gogh and his brother Theo might have suffered from porphyria.
  • King George III was also diagnosed with porphyria and so was his great-great-great grandson.
  • It is believed that this disease originated from the inter-family marriages among the European nobility.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS):
  • Even though it has been known for quite some time, only in the 1980’s did researchers start looking into PMS more seriously.
  • PDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) is an extreme form of PMS. The symptoms of PDD are the same as OMS, but more severe.
  • PMS also heightens the senses of some women.
  • The symptoms of PMS can start up to 10 days before women get their period.
  • PMS is common in women over the age of 30.
  • 1 in 3 women have PMS.
Urethritis:
  • Women in their reproductive age and young men between the age group of 20-35 years old are most commonly diagnosed urethritis.
  • Those with a history of STDs (sexually transmitted disease) are at a higher risk of developing urethritis.
  • This condition occurs in 4 million Americans every year.
  • Gonococcal urethritis amounts for approximately 20% of all urethritis cases worldwide.
Perimenopause:
  • The risk of osteoporosis increases as women enter the pre-menopausal phase, thus the daily calcium intake should be maintained at 1,200 mg.
  • The average age at which a woman attains menopause is 51; the menstrual cycles can end anytime between 45-55 years.
  • Stress, spicy foods, and caffeine can trigger episodes of hot flashes in perimenopausal women.
  • Since the menstrual cycles don’t stop completely during perimenopause, women can still get pregnant during this phase.
Quadriplegia:
  • Men suffer more spinal cord injuries than women.
  • In the United States, 82% men between the ages of 16-30 suffer from spinal cord injuries.
  • Before 1940, the life expectancy for those diagnosed with spinal cord injuries was 2 years, due to lack of proper treatment and antibiotics.
Erectile Dysfunction:
  • Studies show that 90% of those who suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) never go for treatment.
  • ED can occur in men of any age. Although it is common among men over the age of 75.
  • Regular sex (at least once per week) can help prevent ED.
  • ED is linked to dental health.
  • Japan has the highest self-reported incidents of erectile dysfunction. China is second and USA is third.
Nursemaid's Elbow:
  • The medical term for nursemaid’s elbow is “Pulled Elbow” or “Radial Head Subluxation”.
  • It is mostly seen in children below the age of 5-6 years. The prevalence is slightly higher among girls than boys.
  • Swinging a toddler by pulling their arms or wrists is the most common reason for the occurrence of this condition.
  • During the early childhood years, the ligaments that hold the bone of elbows in place are not developed fully and thus can be damaged easily.
Celiac Disease:
  • Nearly 3 million Americans suffer from celiac disease.
  • Those who have been diagnosed with celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten.
  • A person with celiac disease has to wait 6-11 years to be diagnosed with this disease as symptoms are not very evident.
  • There are more than 300 symptoms of celiac disease. Some people do not have any symptoms.
  • It is an autoimmune disease. Therefore, you cannot “grow out” of it.
Psoriasis:
  • In 1872, a dermatologist Heinrich Koebner made a major discovery about psoriasis when he noticed that skin that had been recently damaged by animal bites, tattoos or other trauma; were more likely to develop psoriasis lesions.
  • In 5th century BC it was noticed that Hippocrates (the founder or modern day medicine) used pine tar (obtained from pine trees) to treat psoriasis.
  • Researchers believe that 10% of the US population has the gene to potentially develop this disease. However, only 2-3% may actually get the symptoms.
  • Psoriasis can strike at any age. Although it is said that it is common among youth between the ages of 15-30 years. It is also known to affect seniors between the ages of 60-75 years.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia:
  • A person of any age can be diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • In people under the age of 20, ALL is the most common type of leukemia, accounting for 74% of all leukemia diagnosed in this age group.
  • Children younger than the age of 5 have the highest risk of developing ALL.
  • The average persons’ risk of developing this cancer is 1 in 1000. This risk is slightly higher in men compared to women, and higher is Caucasians than in African Americans.
  • In the United States, it has been estimated that 5,960 people of all ages will be diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia will be reported this year.
Endocrine System Disorders:
  • The human endocrine system consists of 8 glands that regulate metabolism, growth, sleep, and reproduction. These 8 glands are pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, pancreas, adrenal, testes (male)/ or ovaries (female).
  • The study of endocrinology can be dated back to ancient China (2000 B.C.). Chinese healers could extract sex hormones from human urine use it for healing purposes.
  • Two endocrine system conditions, namely hyperthyroidism, and menopause can cause osteoporosis. Thus, this bone disorder is often studied under endocrinology too
Dwarfism:
  • Dwarfism occurs in all races and ethnicity.
  • 80% dwarfs have parents of normal height.
  • Most types of dwarfism have some co-occurring of medical complications.
  • Dwarfism affects an estimate of 30,000 people in the US and 650,000 people worldwide.
  • Some famous celebrities who are dwarfs – Peter Dinklage, Meredith Eaton, Michael J Anderson, Jason Acuna and Kenny Baker.
ACL Injury:
  • 50% of those with an ACL injury will develop osteoarthritis in the coming years.
  • Female athletes have a higher risk of developing this injury compared to men, due to increases pelvic angles putting more strain on their knees.
  • Football, soccer, and basketball show a higher risk of ACL injuries. Though other athletes and non-athletes can also experience this injury.
  • 70% of ACL injuries are sustained due to non-contact sports while 30% are due to contact sports.
Fibromyalgia:
  • About 5 million people in the US who are 18 years or older have fibromyalgia.
  • Between 75-90% of people who are diagnosed with fibromyalgia are women. Men get diagnosed with this disease as well, but their symptoms are different altogether.
  • Many people with fibromyalgia have memory and concentration loss. This is called “brain fog” or “fibro fog.”
  • There is nothing that can be done to treat fibromyalgia.
Acid Reflux & G.E.R.D.:
  • This is a very commonly occurring condition with almost 60 million diagnosed cases in the USA alone.
  • There are two types of acid refluxes namely – heartburn reflux (causing burning sensation in chest) and throatburn reflux (burning sensation in throat and coughing).
  • The fastest growing cancer in the western countries, esophageal cancer, is closely associated with acid reflux.
  • During the 7 year period from 1998 to 2005, the number of hospitalizations due to GERD in the USA increased by a record 216%.
Grave's Disease:
  • The prevalence of Grave’s Disease in the USA is around 1 out of every 200 people that roughly translates to 10 million Americans.
  • Women are 7 to 8 times more likely to develop this condition.
  • The condition has been named after an Irish physician, Robert Graves, who first described and studied the symptoms of this type of hypothyroidism.
  • People who have been diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder are more likely to be diagnosed with Grave’s Disease.
Hemorrhoids:
  • Hemorrhoids occur commonly among all individuals. In fact, according to latest studies, 3 out of every 4 adults will experience hemorrhoids at least once in their life.
  • Aging weakens the connective tissues between the rectum and the anus making hemorrhoids more common among the aged population.
  • Contrary to popular belief, hemorrhoids are not caused by eating spicy foods. The biggest reason is constipation.
Rosacea:
  • Rosacea commonly affects middle-aged white-skinned women.
  • It affects more than 16 million Americans.
  • The cause is still unknown and there is no cure.
  • Bill Clinton, Diana, Princess of Wales and W.C Fields (actor during the 1920s and 30s) are some famous people who have been diagnosed with rosacea.
  • Over 3 million Canadians are diagnosed with rosacea.
Gestational Diabetes:
  • When a baby is born from a mother who has had gestational diabetes, they tend to be larger (macrosomia). Due to which the mother will have to go through a C-section. This is more common with babies over 400 grams.
  • These babies are more likely to need formulas as they are unable to maintain a stable blood sugar level.
  • Mothers with gestational diabetes are at a 50% chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 10 years of delivering their baby.
  • If the diabetes is poorly controlled, the baby has a 10% chance of being born with defects.
  • If the mother has gestational diabetes the father of the baby has a 33% chance of developing gestational diabetes as well.
Brain Cancer:
  • There are almost 700,000 people in the United Sates who have been diagnosed with brain cancer. Almost, 69,000 will be diagnosed this year.
  • In the United States, more than 28,000 children (0-19 years-old) are estimated to be living with brain cancer.
  • The most common type of brain cancer is secondary cancer – cancer from another part of the body has entered the brain.
  • The average survival rate for brain cancer – glioblastoma – is 10-12 months.
Mono In Teens:
  • Anyone can get mono, regardless of age. However, many older people have developed their immunity towards mono, while young people have not.
  • Mono can be diagnosed by the monospot blood test and the Epstein-Barr virus antibody test. Both these tests detect the presence of mono in the body.
  •  Most people have been exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mono. Even if you have never been sick, you could still be actively carrying the virus.
  • Since mono is a virus, it does not respond to antibiotics. The best way to treat mono is through bed rest and a high fluid intake.
Lupus:
  • Lupus means ‘wolf’ in Latin. The term was adopted because, when the disease was first discovered, the doctors thought that the rash on the face looked like a wolf.
  • This disease is popularly known as “the great imitator”. As the symptoms tend to appear like those of other diseases.
  • Since the exact cause of lupus is unknown, there is no known cure either.
  • Famous people with lupus – Seal, Paula Abdul, Selena Gomez, and Nick Cannon. Michael Jackson was said to have lupus before his death.
  • Lupus symptoms are not the same for everyone.
  • 90% of those who develop lupus are women. Men are affected by lupus as well and their diseases can affect some organs severely
West Nile Disease:
  • While the West Nile Disease manifests as a fatal neurological condition among humans, as high as 80% of infected people don’t show any symptoms.
  • This disease was first isolated in 1937, in the West Nile District of Uganda. In 1953, birds were identified as the carriers of the virus.
  • The most severe outbreaks of this disease have occurred in Greece, Russia, USA, Romania, and Israel.
  • In left undiagnosed, West Nile Disease can turn fatally invasive causing diseases such as meningitis, poliomyelitis, and encephalitis.
Pseudocyst:
  • About 10% of pseudocysts become infected.
  • 65% of pseudocysts cases get resolved.
  • Pancreatic pseudocysts account for approximately 75% of all pancreatic mass.
  • In 1991, D’Egidio and Schein described a classification of pancreatic pseudocyst based on the underlining etiology of pancreatitis.
Gaucher Disease:
  • Gaucher’s Disease is more prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews than among any other ethnicity. Among Ashkenazi Jews, the incidence is 1 out of 855 while in general population it’s 1 out of 40,000.
  • This disease is a genetic disorder which is inherited in the autosomal recessive pattern.
  • The disease has been named after Philippe Gaucher who identified this disease in 1882.
Hyperkalemia:
  • About 1-10% of all hospitalized patients in the emergency department (ED) are diagnosed with hyperkalemia.
  • An estimate of 3.7 million US citizens had hyperkalemia in 2014.
  • Hyperkalemia is prevalent in roughly 2-3% of the general population.
  • Those who suffer from chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus are 2-3 times more likely to get hyperkalemia.
Neutropenia:
  • The normal count of neutrophils in the human body ranges from 1.5 million to 8 million neutrophils per milliliter of blood.
  • Neutrophils protect your body from bacterial infections. So, a lower neutrophil count indicates a higher susceptibility to bacterial attacks.
  • Depending on the cause of neutropenia the patient may take a few months to years to get better. In many cases, this can remain incurable.
  • Low levels of neutrophil indicate the presence of other disorders such as anemia, dietary deficiency, Addison’s disease, and severe bacterial infections.
Endometriosis:
  • In the UK, 1 in every 10 women of reproductive age are diagnosed with endometriosis.
  • 10% of the women worldwide have endometriosis – that accounts for 176 million women worldwide.
  • The prevalence of this condition in women along with infertility is as high as 30-50%.
  • In the UK, this condition is the 2nd most common gynaecological condition.
Diverticulitis:
  • The complications associated with diverticulitis are abscess-formation, fistula, perforation in the colon, peritonitis, and severe intestinal obstruction.
  • 35% of Americans, between the age of 18-50 are diagnosed with diverticulosis while more than half of the population above the age of 60 has diverticulitis.
  • Every year, almost 200,000 people are hospitalized for diverticulitis in the USA alone.
  • According to studies, by the time they reach the age of 90, almost everyone will have developed some degree of diverticulitis.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea:
  • People with obstructive sleep apnea repeatedly stop breathing while they are asleep.
  • Untreated obstructive sleep apnea can lead to severe health complications like – heart diseases, stroke, high blood pressure and depression.
  • More than 22 million Americans are dealing with sleep apnea.
  • 80% of the moderate to severe sleep apnea patients are still undiagnosed.
  • Snoring does not always mean that the person has sleep apnea. And sleep apnea is not always equal to snoring. Many people diagnosed with sleep apnea do not snore at all.
Morgellons:
  • The existence of Morgellons disease is largely debated since there are no definitive studies to prove its occurrence or to diagnose it.
  • According to some studies, this condition is associated with Lyme disease, a disease caused by the bite of ticks.
  • Scientists have discovered that the skin lesions caused by Morgellons are composed of keratin and collagen tissues, instead of worms or parasites.
  • During the 4 year period when CDC was investigating this disease, only 41 patients were found all over with the Morgellons disease. The incidence rate was as low as 3.65 cases per 100,000.
Adenoiditis:
  • The adenoid glands are located behind the nose and the roof of the mouth, and just like tonsils, these help in warding off infections.
  • Adenoids start growing when a child is 3-5 years old and disappear by the time an individual hits the teenage years.
  • If a child suffers from more than 3 adenoid infections in a year, he/she becomes eligible for adenoidectomy or removal of adenoid glands.
  • In most cases, both the adenoid gland and the tonsils are removed if removal of even one of these is required.
Avascular Necrosis:
  • The other names by which avascular necrosis is known are aseptic necrosis and osteonecrosis.
  • Traumatic injury to the bone such as a fracture or excess steroid medication can cause avascular necrosis.
  • Several diseases of the blood such as sickle cell disease, Gaucher’s disease, and even thalassemia can lead to this condition.
  • More often than not, if there is a non-traumatic cause of the necrosis, multiple joints are affected by the condition.
Myositis:
  • The word myositis originated from two Greek words – ‘myos’ meaning ‘muscles’ and ‘itis’ meaning ‘disease’.
  • Myositis is said to affect those under the age of 20, with the peak onset between the ages of 30-60 years.
  • In the United State, it is said to affect 50,000-75,000 people every year.
  • It affects children among the age group of 2-5 years.
Moon Facies ( Cushing Syndrome):
  • This condition is also called as hypercortisolism and mostly affects people within the age group of 20-50 years.
  • If you are diabetic and/or have a high blood pressure, you have an increased chance of developing this condition.
  • Cortisol is produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The pituitary gland is responsible for its secretion.
  • The hormone cortisol protects the body from the effects of stress and also impacts protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
Atrial Fibrillation:
  • According to the CDC, 2.7 to 6.1 million Americans suffer from atrial fibrillation. The prevalence is higher among aged population.
  • Patients of atrial fibrillation have 4-5 times higher risk of experiencing a stroke as compared to those who are not diagnosed with this condition.
  • This condition is responsible for almost 750,000 hospitalizations and 130,000 fatalities every year.
  • It is estimated that by the year 2050, more than 15 million people will be affected by this condition in the USA alone
Chlamydia:
  • Chlamydia can cause serious and permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive health and fertility and may lead to ectopic pregnancies too.
  • Ejaculation by the infected male partner is not necessary for chlamydia to spread to others.
  • According to CDC, 1.4 million cases of chlamydia were reported in the year 2014 in the USA alone, but this number is far less than the actual figure since chlamydia remains largely unreported.
  • The pathogen responsible for chlamydia, ‘chlamydia trachomatis’, can also potentially infect the throat and the rectum.
Apert Syndrome:
  • Apert syndrome is also called acrocephalosyndactylia.
  • It was first described by Wheaton in 1894 and further investigated by Eugene Apert.
  • The term ‘acrocephalosyndactylia’ is derived from the Greek words, ‘acro’ meaning ‘peak’, peaked head syndrome, ‘cephalo’ also meaning peaked head and ‘syndactyly’ meaning webbing of fingers and toes.
  • Apert syndrome is known to affect 1 in 165,000-200,000 new born.
Brucellosis:
  • Although cases of brucellosis have been diagnosed worldwide, most cases are reported in the Mediterranean region thus it’s also called as Mediterranean fever ( also known as Malta fever)
  • The incubation period for the responsible for the infection, the Brucella bacteria, ranges from 5-60 days.
  • The number of cases of brucellosis reported yearly across the world is roughly 500,000. It is relatively rare in the USA, with not more than 100-200 cases/ year.
  • The earliest mention of brucellosis dates back to ancient times (more than 2000 years ago), by the Romans and Hippocrates.
Anorexia Nervosa:
  • There is a huge social stigma attached to Anorexia being considered as an actual disorder and hence only 1 out of 10 anorexic patients seek treatment for it.
  • Contrary to popular myth, men can suffer from anorexia too. 10% of all anorexia patients are males (a large percentage of men remain under or undiagnosed).
  • Anorexia is the leading cause of death among females in the age group 15-26. It is 12 times more fatal than any other cause of death such as accidents or chronic illnesses.
  • Anorexia records the highest number of deaths when compared to any other psychiatric disorder.
Brain-Eating Amoeba (Naegleriasis):
  • In the United States, between 2006-2015 the single-celled organism has affected 37 people.
  • The brain-eating amoeba is called naegleria fowlri.
  • According to CDC, this amoeba lives in living in warm water. Like – lakes, rivers, and hot springs.
  • It can survive in temperatures as high as 115 fahrenheit (46 degree celsius)
  • It does not live in the sea.
  • It enters the body through the nose and not by swallowing water.
Bladder Cancer:
  • Smoking increases your risk of developing cancer in the bladder by at least 2-4 times. Tobacco consumption is seen in 50% of all male and 33% of all female patients diagnosed with bladder cancer.
  • Men are more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer than women (ratio is 4:1) and it is most commonly prevalent among the Caucasians.
  • Recurrent bladder infections and/or kidney infections also increase one’s risk factor for bladder cancer.
  • There are almost 85,000 cases of bladder cancer cases reported in the USA along, out of which 65,000 are in males and 20,000 are in females.
Lyme Disease:
  • 1 out of every 4 patients with Lyme disease in the USA is a child. Except for Antarctica, incidents of Lyme disease have been reported in every continent.
  • This infection is called the “great imitator” as the symptoms closely resemble other illnesses such as Lupus, Bell’s Palsy, Fibromyalgia, Arthritis, and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
  • It cannot be transferred from an infected person to a healthy individual. Also, not all ticks will give you Lyme disease.
  • The characteristic symptom of Lyme disease is a skin rash that looks like a bull’s eye though not every infected individual will show such a symptom.
Bone Spurs:
  • Bone spurs, also known as osteophytes, are usually caused by degenerative arthritis and may or may not produce any noticeable symptoms.
  • Heel spurs, bone spurs present in the underside of the heel bone, are most painful when one takes the first step after getting up in the morning.
  • Bone spurs are also caused due to Forrestier’s disease or DISH – Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis.
  • Herbal remedies such as turmeric can be used to treat bone spurs. This is because turmeric has natural anti-inflammatory properties.
Anal Abscess:
  • In the United States, the estimate incidence rate is between 68,000-96,000 cases per year.
  • Perianal suppuration affects 1-2:10,000 per year and represents about 5% of all proctology consultations.
  • Men are affected more compared to women with a 2:1 ratio.
  • Frequently, this is a benign condition in infants.
Multiple Sclerosis:
  • Multiple Sclerosis or MS is prevalent in almost 2 million people across the globe, with almost 350,000 cases diagnosed in the USA alone.
  • The most common MS triggers identified by doctors are vitamin D deficiency, certain viral infections, and decreased exposure to natural sunlight.
  • The most debilitating symptom of MS is severe fatigue, which is observed in 75% to 90% of all cases.
  • Depression, anxiety, mood swings, and stress are commonly observed in patients diagnosed with MS. Stress is both a trigger and side-effect of MS.
Amyloidosis:
  • Amyloidosis is a relatively rare disease diagnosed in 200,000 Americans in total. It occurs in roughly 8 out of every 1 million people.
  • There are at least 15 different types of amyloidosis identified, each pertaining to one specific type of protein.
  • Primary amyloidosis, which is the most common form of amyloidosis, may occur in association with myeloma or bone marrow cancer.
  • Amyloid deposits that occur in the lungs, nasal sinus and windpipe can severely restrict air pathways causing trouble in breathing.
Avoidant Personality Disorder:
  • The diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is difficult to make for those who are younger than 18-years-old.
  • Most of the symptoms decrease in severity around the age of 40-50 years.
  • The cause of APD is unknown.
  • APD is prevalent in 1% of both male and female population.
Pleurisy:
  • Pleurisy is caused by the inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest cavity.
  • It can be caused by infections such as tuberculosis, immune disorders such as systematic lupus erythematosus ( SLE), rheumatoid arthritis etc.
  • Symptoms include – chest pain, aggravated breathing, shortness in breathing, local tenderness etc.
  • A large amount of fluid build-up in the lungs lining is known as pleural effusion.
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis:
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was first described by Bright in 1831 as a complication of the epidural and subdural infection.
  • This condition is very rare and life-threatening as a vein that is present at the hollow space beneath the brain and under the eye sockets gets blocked due to a blood clot.
  • This vein carries blood from the heart to the brain and vice-versa.
  • The main cause of CST is an infection, but other factors play a major as well.
Canker Sores (Apthous Stomatitis):
  • Canker sores are also called aphthous ulcers or stomatitis.
  • In North America, 20-50% of the population has this condition.
  • They occur due to certain food intolerance, stress or trauma.
  • They appear on the cheeks, gums, lips, tongue, top or floor of the mouth.
  • The sores develop within 24-48 hours. They take up to 7-14 days to heal without scarring.
Bursitis:
  • Bursitis is commonly caused by repetitive movement and hence has many names depending on the area affected by certain occupations – weaver’s bottom, clergyman’s knee, housemaid’s knee, and miner’s elbow.
  • The human body contains more than 150 bursae (padded sack-like structures found in the joint areas where friction is more).
  • A newborn baby has fewer bursae as compared to a 7 year old child. Bursae develop in the body as a result of increased physical movements and activities.
  • Some common forms of tendinitis (tenderness just outside a joint) are mostly diagnosed in sportsmen and athletes and are named accordingly – tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, swimmer’s shoulder, and jumper’s knee.
Non-Allergic Rhinitis:
  • It is a medical term that is used to describe a set of symptoms that resemble nasal allergy and hayfever but the actual cause is unknown.
  • Symptoms include – postnasal drips, runny nose, sneezing, and stiff nose.
  • In America, 58 million people have allergic rhinitis while 19 million have non-allergic rhinitis (NAR)
  • Allergic rhinitis is related to the immune system while non-allergic rhinitis is not.
Hodgkin's Disease:
  • In the United States, there are about 8,500 cases every year with 3,660 females and 4,840 in males.
  • There are about 1,050 deaths per year of which 430 are females and 620 are males.
  • It can be found in both adults and children, but it is commonly found in young adults in their early 20’s.
  • The risk of Hodgkin's disease arises again in late adulthood around the age of 55.
  • Hodgkin’s disease is also called Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a rare condition for children under the age of 5 to develop, but common for teenagers among the age group of 15-19.
Eye Twitching:
  • Eye twitching is scientifically called an eye spasm and blepharospasm.
  • We blink 15-20 times per minutes, 1,200 times per hour which adds up to 28,000 times per day.
  • Those who have eye twitching tend to blink up to 27 times per minute.
  • This condition is most common in middle-aged or elderly women.
  • The longest eyelash growth ever recorded is as long as 2.75 inches.
  • The eyelid is the thinnest layer of skin on the human body.
Bowel Incontinence:
  • In Australia, bowel incontinence effects up to 20% men and 12.9% women.
  • Around 77% of the elderly in Australia living in aged care facilities have this condition.
  • Bowel incontinence is one of the 3 major reasons for the admittance of aged care facilities.
  • It is the inability to control bowel movement, especially seen in elderly people.
Viral Gastroenteritis:
  • In Australia, viral gastroenteritis causes almost 50% of paediatric admissions. It is also a significant cause of death among young children.
  • Viral gastroenteritis causes 111 million episodes each year and about 25 million clinical visits. With 2 million hospital visits and 352,000-592,000 deaths every year.
  • According to the CDC, the noroviruse changes its game every 2-3 years by developing a new strain if virus.
  • Viral gastroenteritis is also called stomach flu and rotavirus gastroenteritis infection.
Vaginitis:
  • The most common conditions responsible for the inflammation of the vagina are bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and yeast infection.
  • Vaginal douching and frequently changing sexual partners increases the risk of vaginal inflammation.
  • Bacterial vaginosis can have serious consequences such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and even miscarriages.
Multiple Myeloma:
  • Multiple myeloma can occur in those regions where the bone marrow is active. In adults, these regions include the skull, spine, pelvis, ribs, and the shoulders.
  • The exact cause for multiple myeloma still eludes the medical community. The associated risk factors include genetic abnormalities and environmental toxin exposure.
  • The median survival associated with multiple myeloma is about 3 years, though there are patients who have lived for almost 10 years.
  • 96% of the diagnosed cases of myeloma are done in patients above 45 years and older. Only 1% of cases are detected people less than 32 years of age.
Rhabdomyolysis:
  • The first known case of rhabdomyolysis was in 1908 in Sicily.
  • 24% of cocaine users are reported to have rhabdomyolysis.
  • The muscle damage that occurs in rhabdomyolysis can be caused due to – crush injury, strenuous activity, electric shocks, heat strokes, infections, snakebites etc.
  • In the United States, rhabdomyolysis occurs in about 26,000 people every year.
Restless Leg Syndrome:
  • Restless Leg Syndrome or RLS is prevalent in almost 7% of the entire population and is more commonly found among pregnant women.
  • Iron, folate, and magnesium supplements can normalize dopamine levels and thus help in reducing RLS symptoms.
  • The chronic sleep interruption caused by RLS can trigger other conditions such as erectile dysfunction or even high blood pressure.
  • RLS has a strong genetic component associated with it and is most commonly diagnosed in people with Western European descent.
Plantar Warts:
  • Plantar warts, also known as foot warts, are caused by an infection spread by the HPV (human papilloma virus), the same virus that causes cervical cancer, genital warts, and some cases of lung cancer.
  • A subtype of plantar warts, known as “kissing warts”, occurs where two parts of the foot touch each other.
  • Since the incubation period of the HPV can be as high as 20 months, it becomes difficult to identify the exact time the virus was contracted.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes:
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is uncommon before the age of 50. It is most commonly diagnosed in people in their 70’s.
  • Approximately 10,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with MDS each year.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome is also called bone marrow failure disorder.
  • The overall incidence of MDS is higher in males compared to females (1.5 to 2.1)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome:
  • PCOS is a fairly common condition diagnosed in almost 5-10% of women of childbearing age in the USA. That translates to roughly 5 million women.
  • Studies suggest that only 50% of PCOS cases are diagnosed across the world. This means there are millions of women living with undiagnosed PCOS.
  • More than half of PCOS-diagnosed women are in diabetic or pre-diabetic stage.
  • The risk of heart attack in PCOS patients is 4-7 times more as compared to non-PCOS demography.
Genital Warts (HPV):
  • Studies indicate that 3 out of every 4 adult, in the reproductive age, have been affected with at least one sexually transmitted infection such as the genital warts.
  • The HPV or the Human Papilloma Virus infects more than 6 million Americans every year, half of which lie in the age group of 15-25 years.
  • Cervical cancer, which kills almost 500,000 women every year across the globe, is also caused by the HPV.
  • In most cases, (roughly 90%), the HPV disappears spontaneously within 2 years after the genital wart infection.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia:
  • Almost 95% of all cases of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ( CLL) begin in the B- cells or B- lymphocytes. These develop in the stem cells in the bone marrow.
  • Stem cells are the cells in the human body which have the capacity of turning into any type of cell such as skin, blood, liver, or even brain cells.
  • In the USA, every year 20,000 cases of CLL are reported. This is the most common form of leukemia in adults.
  • CLL is more common in males as compared to females. It is usually diagnosed among people in their middle age or older.
Urinary Incontinence In Women:
  • Bladder incontinence is a fairly common condition with more than 25 million Americans diagnosed with it.
  • Studies indicate that this condition is not only limited to the senior population, 25% of all women above the age of 18 have involuntary urine leakage.
  • Globally, 200 million people are reported to have shown symptoms of urinary incontinence.
  • 33% of men and women, within the age group of 30-70 years believe that urinary incontinence is a normal part of aging.
Genital Herpes:
  • Oral herpes ( caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1) can spread from the oral cavity to the genitals through oral sex. 50% of all genital herpes are caused by oral herpes.
  • Genital herpes is quite common in the USA with almost 776,000 cases of herpes infections reported every year.
  • Genital herpes caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 2 is more common among women than among men because the virus is more easily transferred from men to women during sexual intercourse.
  • Almost 80% of people with genital herpes are unaware of their condition since the symptoms are mostly mild to negligible.
Viral Meningitis:
  • According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the number of people hospitalized for vital meningitis ranges from 25,000-50,000 per year.
  • Currently, 85% of viral meningitis cases are caused by nonpolio enteroviruses.
  • More than 60% of viral meningitis cases are of children under the age of 3 months.
  • In North America, males between the age group of 16-21 are at higher risk of developing this infection. Men being 3 times more susceptible than women.
Painful Urination:
  • Since women have a shorter urethra than men, they are more likely to acquire urinary tract infections. This is because bacteria can enter the body through a shorter urethra more easily.
  • One of the biggest causes of UTI, E. Coli bacteria, is normally found in the intestines and the rectum. Owing to sexual acts, it can get transferred to your urethra.
  • Body-changes during pregnancy can also initiate UTI and other infections but during pregnancy the symptoms are less obviously felt by the infected individual.
  • Globally, 200 million women are affected every year with the schistosomiasis (a flat worm), which is drug-resistant bacteria causing UTIs.
Night Eating Syndrome:
  • Studies suggest that NES is prevalent among 1.5% of the general population; this figure goes as high as 25% among certain samples of obese population.
  • Persistent insomnia for more than 4-5 nights per week and feeling more depressed during the evening hours are the prime risk-factors.
  • Consumption of weird and toxic items may also associated be with this disorder such as raw bacon, cigarette butts, and even cleaning liquids.
  • It may be genetic in nature in many cases.
Pain Management:
  • Back pain is the most common pain condition. 27% of Americans state that back pains are the most common pain conditions followed by migraines which come up to 15%.
  • In the 19th century, physician-scientists discovered that opiates such as morphine could relieve pain.
  • Chemist Felix Hoffman developed aspirin from a substance in willow bark. Aspirin remain the commonly used pain reliever.
  • According to the National Center of Health Statistics (2006), approximately 76.2 million, one in every four Americans, have suffered from that lasts longer than 24 hours.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:
  • 10-15% experience Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) at least once in their life. Around the age of 20-24.
  • About 1 million American women in the unprivileged urban areas have this problem.
  • 33-50% of all cases of (PID) are caused due to chlamydia and gonorrhea.
Congenital Glaucoma:
  • While most cases of primary congenital glaucoma are sporadic, there might be occurrences of this condition being passed on from one or both parents to the offspring.
  • There is no cure for glaucoma. The vision loss caused by this condition cannot be reversed.
  • Early diagnosis of congenital glaucoma can help control the symptoms effectively in 80-90% of the cases.
Rotator Cuff Disorders:
  • As per the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, approximately 2 million individuals seek treatment for rotator cuff injuries every year in the United States.
  • The rotator cuff injuries can have a genetic component making it common in certain families.
  • Individuals above the age of 40 years are at a greater risk of the rotator cuff injuries.
Seasonal Affective Disorder:
  • The prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD is always concurrent with major depressive conditions.
  • Violent tendencies and insomnia are common during summers while over-sleeping and eating are found more during cold days.
  • Women are 4 times as much likely as men to be diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder. The most common age group is 18-55 years.
  • Contrary to popular myth, Seasonal Affective Disorder is more influenced by light (presence or absence of it) than compared to seasons. Melatonin secretion is at the crux of depression and also SAD.
Scalp Psoriasis:
  • As per the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2014), approximately 6.7 million adult individuals in the United States have psoriasis.
  • Males and females are at equal risk of getting psoriasis.
  • Psoriasis is not contagious. It cannot spread by touching the skin patches.
Shin Splints:
  • The medical terminology for shin splints is medial tibial stress syndrome.
  • Wearing ill-fitting shoes and walking/ running on uneven surfaces can trigger this kind of pain.
  • Regular runners should buy new footwear for every 400 miles they run on one pair of shoes.
  • Both, flat-footedness and having too high arches on feet can cause shin splints.
Snapping Hip Syndrome:
  • Also known as coxa saltans, iliopsoas tendinitis or dancers hip.
  • It can be audible with a snapping, popping noise which causes pain or discomfort.
  • This snapping in most cases is due to the movement of a muscle or tendon over a bony structure in the hip.
Strep Throat:
  • Even after starting an antibiotic regimen, for the 1st 24 hours the bacteria can spread from the infected person to others.
  • There are 3 groups of streptococcus bacteria – Group A is found on the skin and inside the throat, Group B tends to live in the intestinal tract, and Group C is found mostly in animals.
  • Strep throat bacteria can lead to potentially fatal infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis.
  • 10% of all cases of influenza reported worldwide are also accompanied by strep throat.
Stye:
  • A stye affects only one eye, but there can be more than one at a given time.
  • It is a red, painful lump that is present at the edge of the eye. It looks like a boil or a pimple.
  • A stye is of two types – hordeolum – is the blockage of one of the sweat glands found in the skin or at the base of one of the eye lids. Chalazion – blockage of an oil gland which is unique to the eyelids.
Syphilis:
  • There are many stories related to the spread of this disease. Many believe that it was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus in 1493. It is one of the oldest recorded STIs.
  • The other names for syphilis include – “Cupid’s Disease”, “syph”, “The Pox”, “French Disease”, and even “Italian Disease”.
  • The name of the disease has been derived from the name of a mythical shepherd in a famous Italian poem, Syphilus.
  • Contrary to popular myth, you CANNOT get syphilis by using an infected toilet seat. This is because the microbe cannot survive for long outside the human body.
Tendinitis:
  • A condition in which the tissue (tendon) connecting the bones becomes inflamed.
  • This condition is most often caused due to the repetitive and minor impact on the affected area or due to a sudden injury.
  • Though this condition can occur in any tendon in the body, it is most commonly found in – shoulders, elbow, wrist, knee, and heel.
  • According to the U.S. bureau of labour statistics, tendinitis is the reason more than 70,000 people miss work each year.
Temper Tantrum:
  • Temper tantrums are most commonly found among kids within the age group of 2-4 years.
  • These are considered as a normal part of growing up. These are caused by need for independence coupled with cognitive immaturity, both of which are normal for kids this age.
  • The prevalence of temper tantrums varies from 23% to 85% among toddlers.
  • At this age, the receptive language is more than a 1000 words but the expressive language is hardly 150-200 words.
Blindness:
  • According to the WHO, there are almost 285 million people across the globe that have visual impairments and out of these 39 million are blind (2010 report).
  • 90% of the individuals affected by visual impairment belong to low and middle income countries.
  • Roughly 8 out of every 10 blind people are above the age of 50 years.
  • Studies indicate that 80% of all visual impairments and cases of blindness are either preventable or treatable.
Thyroid Nodules:
  • In the United States, the nodular disorder of the thyroid gland is relatively prevalent among adults, with an overall prevalence of 4-7% in the general population.
  • These are 3 times more common in women than in men. About 30% of 30-year-old women have a thyroid nodule. This ratio is 1:40 among men.
  • This refers to an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that form a lump within the thyroid gland.
  • The great majority of thyroid nodules are not serious and do not cause any symptoms. Thyroid cancer accounts for only a small fraction of thyroid nodules.
Transient Ischemic Attack:
  • The symptoms and triggers for a TIA are exactly the same as that of a stroke. The only difference is that this ends before brain damage occurs.
  • It takes less than 60 minutes for the TIA to onset and subside.
  • Nearly 40% of all individuals who have had a TIA will experience a stroke as well. 50% of these strokes will occur within few days of the TIA.
  • Every year almost 50,000 Americans suffer from TIA and it is commonly diagnosed in people above the age of 60 years.
Tick Bites:
  • Ticks are scientifically classified as Arachnids ( the spider family) and fossils indicate that they have been in existence since almost 90 million years.
  • There are more than 800 different families of ticks found across the globe yet only 2 among these cause diseases and infections.
  • Ticks can cause extremely fatal diseases among animals such as the Texas Fever ( bovine babesiosis) which kill 90% of calves .
Ulcerative Colitis:
  • Getting an adequate amount of sleep post-treatment is very important in order to prevent future flare-ups of the pain.
  • Around 10-25% of patients with ulcerative colitis have a family history of the condition.
  • Ashkenazi Jews are highly susceptible to Ulcerative Colitis, which is also known as Crohn’s Disease.
  • The adverse effects of ulcerative colitis are not just limited to the intestines only. It can affect joints, skin, eyes, and even the kidneys.
Anencephaly:
  • 3 out of every 10,000 live pregnancies (USA) will show symptoms of anencephaly. There are almost 1200 cases of anencephaly reported in the USA every year.
  • The most effective way to prevent the onset of anencephaly in the fetus, the expecting mother should consume at least 400mcg of folic acid/day.
  • Studies have shown that with the advent of folic acid-fortified cereals in the American market, the prevalence of NTDs (neural tube defects such as anencephaly) has decreased by 28%.
  • Anencephaly-affected infants have a very limited lifespan. Most of these end up as stillbirths or die within a few hours of birth.
Nail Fungus: • Nail fungus or Onychomycosis cases comprise of 30% of all skin infections. These are prevalent among almost 5% of the global population. • Toenail infections are mostly caused by dermatophyte fungi whereas Candida is responsible for fingernail infections.
  • 33% of all diabetic patients suffer from nail fungus. Similarly, psoriasis patients have a 56% higher risk of acquiring nail fungus infections.
  • Heavy perspiration, especially in the foot, makes one more vulnerable to nail fungus infection.
Headache:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the estimated prevalence of headache disorders is approximately 50% globally (with symptoms occurring at least once a year).
  • Females are more likely to get a severe headache or a migraine as compared to males. According to the World Health Organization (W.H.O.), the ratio of females and males affected by a migraine is 2:1.
  • The most common type of a headache is a tension headache. It often occurs in females above the age of 20 years.
  • According to W.H.O., in the current scenario, only 40% of the total population having migraine has been diagnosed with it.
Aging:
  • It is estimated that the maximum human lifespan is approximately 121 years.
  • It is estimated that by the year 2030, nearly 71.5 million individuals in the United States will be 65 years old and above; nearly 10 million will cross the age of 85 years.
  • The lifespan of a red blood cell is around 120 days.
  • The lifespan of tortoises is estimated to be in excess of 150 years.
Infertility:
  • Infertility affects males and females equally.
  • Approximately 10% of cases of infertility result from unknown factors.
  • Approximately 10% of females between the age group of 15 to 44 years are diagnosed with difficulties in conceiving or staying pregnant.
  • It is estimated that 8 to 12% couples experience fertility issues across the globe.
Ingrown Hair:
  • While ingrown hair can be found anywhere on the body where hair grows, these are most commonly found in areas such as the armpits, legs, and the face (where the hair is coarse).
  • Certain studies indicate that these are more common among people with a darker skin tone and those who have naturally curly hair.
  • If ingrown hair is picked with a sharp object, it can become infected.
Kidney Cysts:
  • As per the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, simple kidney cysts are observed in nearly 25% of individuals of the age around 40 years and 50% of individuals of the age around 50 years.
  • The body can function with only 1 kidney.
  • The kidney receives around 20% of the blood pumped by the heart.
Juvenile Macular Degeneration:
  • Juvenile macular degeneration (JMD) has several variants such as Stargardt disease, Stargardt macular dystrophy, or fundus flavimaculatus, Best disease etc.
  • Stargardt disease is the most common form of JMD while the Best disease is the second most common form of JMD.
  • Nearly 95% of cases of juvenile macular degeneration are caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in the ABCA4 gene; approximately 5% of the cases result from other rarer mutations in different genes.
Acne:
  • As per the Academy of Dermatology (AAD), acne is the most common skin condition in the United States affecting approximately 40 to 50 million individuals.
  • Over-exfoliating and over cleansing can aggravate the condition instead of clearing up the blemishes.
Burns:
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), fires cause the death of approximately 180,000 individual in a year across the globe.
  • As per the 2015 Global Health Estimates, nearly 95% of fatal fire-related burns take place in low- and middle-income countries.
  • As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 300 children between the age group 0 to 19 years are treated in emergency rooms every day for burn-related injuries. Out of this number, approximately 2 children fail to survive.
Alcohol abuse:
  • The human brain physically adapts to alcohol consumption. It treats alcohol as a new environment and changes brain connections to perform effectively in the presence of alcohol. But the brain cannot un-adapt from this which results in addiction.
  • Women absorb alcohol more and their bodies process it slower as compared to men. Thus there is a greater risk of bodily damage in women.
  • In the USA, almost 17 million adults have an alcohol abuse disorder. This is roughly 7% of the entire population.
Anemia:
  • Iron is not the only essential nutrient whose deficiency can cause anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency or folate deficiency can also result in anemia.
  • Due to a lack of EPO of erythropoietin, people on dialysis often tend to become anemic. EPO is produced by healthy kidneys.
  • Young women are at the highest risk of getting anemia. This is majorly because of monthly menstrual cycles. People who are frequent blood donors are also at risk.
  • In a healthy human body, RBCs live for up to 120 days after which they are systematically replaced by bone marrow, spleen, and the liver.
Hypothermia:
  • Hypothermia can do a lot more than just causing your body to shiver. It can impair motor function and even affect your ability to speak.
  • The normal human body temperature is 98.6 F. In many people, hypothermia can set in as soon as the body temperature drops by even a degree.
  • As soon as the outside temperature falls below 50F, the conditions become conducive to hypothermia.
  • Drinking adequate amount of water can help in preventing hypothermia as water is effectively capable of storing enough heat.
Congestive Heart Failure:
  • The term “congestive” refers to the fact that there is fluid accumulation in different parts of body due to improper circulation of blood within the body.
  • Congestive heart failure doesn’t necessarily mean that your heart has stopped beating. It means that the heart is unable to adequately pump blood.
  • Currently almost 5 million Americans are affected by heart failure and this figure is expected to double in the next 5 years.
  • 1 out of every 100 individuals above the age of 65 years is affected by heart failure.
Epilepsy:
  • Epilepsy is not a rare condition. In fact, the number of individuals with epilepsy in the USA is twice the number of people with other major disorders ( cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy) all combined.
  • 1 out of every 1000 patients with epilepsy succumbs to death because of it. Prolonged seizures can also be fatal.
  • Every year 22,000 to 40,000 epilepsy patients die due to prolonged seizure attacks.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome:
  • Certain environmental factors such as exposure to stress and childhood abuse can add to the risk of irritable bowel syndrome.
  • It affects around 25-45 million Americans, where 2 out of every 3 patients are female.
  • Globally it affects 10-15% of the entire population, with most patients being under the age of 50.
  • IBS is different from IBD (irritable bowel disorder). The latter occurs in case of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Allergies:
  • Asthma and allergic rhinitis affects more than 24 million Americans including 6 million children. Allergies are the 6th leading cause of chronic illnesses in the USA and they cost around $ 18 billion annually.
  • Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal condition and can be triggered by certain drugs, medicines, and even insect bites.
  • The most common food allergens are peanuts, milk, and shellfish.
Enlarged Liver:
  • Fatty liver occurs when the fat content of the liver increases beyond 5% of the liver’s weight.
  • Milk thistle or holy thistle has been used for more than two millennia to treat liver and gallbladder conditions. It is one of the most researched herbs in the world for treating liver conditions.
  • Common infections such as mononucleosis and malaria can lead to swelling up of the liver of left untreated.
  • Obesity is the leading cause of enlarged liver and other liver disorders in the USA. There are more than 30 million Americans diagnosed with some form of liver condition.
Cataracts:
  • 1 out of every 6 Americans above the age of 40 is diagnosed with cataract. The prevalence of cataracts in USA is as high as 50% among the people above the age of 70.
  • Smoking, steroid medications, and even obesity can lead to cataracts.
  • No medication or eye drops will cure this condition. Surgery is the only treatment option. And it is a permanent cure for cataract.
  • Almost half of all the cases of blindness are due to cataract. That translates to roughly 50 million cases of cataract-induced blindness worldwide.
Immune System Disorders:
  • The first line of defense in our immunity system is the WBCs or the white blood cells. Lymphocyte, a type of WBC, “remembers” microbe invasions that help the body to fight the infection faster in the future.
  • Cortisol, a steroid hormone produced when your body is under stress, inhibits the working of the immune system.
  • There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune diseases such as Lupus, Crohn’s Disease, Celiac Disease, and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Skin Rashes:
  • The most common forms of skin rashes are eczema, hives, athlete’s foot, and poison ivy. These could be due to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections.
  • Studies suggest that high sugar consumption is linked to the formation of skin rashes. Sugar is an inflammatory and acidic substance that causes bodily inflammation.
  • Many autoimmune disorders such as Lupus give rise to characteristic butterfly rash formation on the skin.
Autism:
  • According to the CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, nearly 1 in 59 children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
  • Boys are more susceptible to ASD as compared to girls. As compared to girls, these disorders are 4 times more common among boys.
  • The estimated prevalence of ASD in Asia, Europe, and North America is found to be around 1 to 2%.
  • The chances of a second child being affected by ASD are around 2 to 18% for parents who already have a child affected by ASD.
Smallpox:
  • The smallpox vaccine cannot render protection after the development of the smallpox rash.
  • As per the World Health Organization, even one confirmed case of smallpox can be considered an international health emergency.
  • Smallpox is considered to be one of the world's most devastating diseases known to the human race.
  • The last known case of smallpox was reported in Somalia in the year 1977.
  • Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Assembly on the 8th of May 1980, after a global campaign of surveillance and vaccination.
Coughs:
  • Washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds is advised in order to prevent getting infected by the flu virus.
  • The flu virus can infect a healthy individual if he/she comes within a distance of 6 feet from the infected person.
  • As per the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), more than 50 million American individuals have seasonal allergies.
  • Allergies are found to be the 6th most common cause of chronic illness in the United States.
Sore Throat:
  • In roughly 1/3rd of cases of sore throat among children, the cause of the infection is bacteria – mostly streptococcus. The rest cases of sore throat are viral.
  • Mononucleosis or the kissing disease is also a widespread reason for sore throat. It is caused by the Epstein Barr virus and is very common among the young American demography.
  • Though such cases are rare but certain STDs such as gonorrhea or chlamydia can cause a sore throat.
  • Excessive talking or yelling can also cause a sore throat.
Snoring:
  • As per the British Snoring & Sleep Apnoea Association, in the year 2009, there were nearly 15 million snorers in the United Kingdom that comprised of 10.5 million males and 4.5 million females.
  • The snoring sounds range from 50dB to 100dB – this is comparable to the sound made by a pneumatic drill.
Neck Pain:
  • Neck pain can also be a symptom of a heart attack (generally accompanied by other symptoms).
  • ‘Text neck’ or ‘tech neck’ are the conditions in which inappropriate use of technology/gadgets leads to neck pain.
Stomach Flu:
  • There are more than 20 million cases of stomach flu reported every year in the USA alone.
  • The name stomach flu is misleading. The actual name for the condition is viral gastroenteritis and has got nothing to do with the virus that causes “flu” or influenza.
  • There are more than 20 million cases of stomach flu reported every year in the USA alone.
  • The name stomach flu is misleading. The actual name for the condition is viral gastroenteritis and has got nothing to do with the virus that causes “flu” or influenza.
Stress:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly one-fourth to one-third of workers in the United States report high levels of stress at work.
  • Stress is not bad in all situations. It proves to be lifesaving in certain situations.
  • Stress is caused due to a hormonal response that initiates in the brain.
  • Females are more prone to stress as compared to males.
Sunburn:
  • You can get sunburnt even if you stay protected by UV blocking windows in cars and buildings. This is because this kind of glass can only filter out UVA rays but not UVB.
  • The SPF number is not an exact measurement of the protective power of the sunblock. SPF 30 or SPF 40 doesn’t mean it is twice as effective as SPF 15.
  • The probability of an individual getting skin cancer doubles if he/she has had more than 4-5 episodes of sunburn.
  • People living closer to the equator and along higher altitudes are more prone to getting sunburn
Teething:
  • Numbing gels and medications with benzocaine can sometimes prove lethal if used for babies less than 2 years of age. They might lead to a fatal condition known as methemoglobinemia.
  • Homeopathic teething products have not been approved by the US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) for safety or effectiveness.
  • First teeth of the baby to erupt are the lower central incisors. These erupt around 6 months of age.
  • Babies have a total of 20 teeth which shed before the eruption of their permanent counterpart.
Benign Tumours:
  • Environmental toxins such as tobacco and hazardous radiations, genetics, and stress – all of these are linked to the formation of benign tumors.
  • These are very commonly prevalent. In fact, many studies reveal that as high as 9 out of 10 women have benign breast tissue changes.
  • Different types of benign tumors include lipomas, adenomas, myomas, and fibroids.
  • Even though a benign brain tumor is doesn’t cause cancer but it can still cause headaches, eye sight issues, and poor memory.
Vertigo:
  • According to the Vestibular Disorders Association (VEDA), nearly 1 out of 1000 individuals is affected by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
  • Bouts of vertigo may result due to an inner ear infection as ears help to maintain balance owing to the fluid present in them.
Eating Disorders:
  • Eating disorders are classified as mental conditions since they arise as a result of trauma, anxiety, depression, negative body image, and low-self esteem.
  • Of the approximately 24 million Americans diagnosed with eating disorders, almost half of them meet the criteria for depression.
  • Only 1 out of 10 individuals affected with eating disorders seek treatment. Only 35% of those consult a center/ body that specializes in eating disorders.
  • Anorexia nervosa is the leading cause of death among women within the range of 15-24 years.
Insulin Resistance:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), every 1 in 10 individuals in the United States has diabetes which comes to more than 30 million Americans.
  • Out of all the cases of diabetes in the United States, 90 to 95% have type 2 diabetes.
  • It is estimated that in around 75% of cases of type 2 diabetes in children, a close relative also has the same disorder.
  • Fat distribution matters when it comes to insulin resistance. Abdominal fat deposition is riskier as compared to the fat deposited in hips and thighs.
Spider Bites:
  • The majority of the spiders found in the USA are non-poisonous but bites from both poisonous and non-poisonous spiders causes skin rashes and irritation.
  • The most commonly found poisonous spiders are Brown Recluse and Black Widow spider.
  • Only the female spider of the black widow species is poisonous.
  • Antarctica is the only continent where spiders aren’t found. Spiders consume more insects than all the birds and bats collectively eat.
Ringworm:
  • Contrary to popular belief ringworm is not caused by worms, it is caused by a fungus called dermatophytes.
  • Children under the age of 15 are highly susceptible to get ringworm.
  • Ringworm eats away at keratin, which can be found in the skin, hair, and nails.
  • The symptoms of ringworm appear after a few days of being exposed to the fungus.
  • The animal carriers of the fungus rarely show any symptoms of the infection.
Menstruation:
  • During the course of a lifetime, a woman will spend 3,500 days menstruating.
  • Elephants, humpback whales, and human beings are the only 3 mammals to undergo menopause.
  • A female child is born with 2 million egg cells. By the time she reaches puberty, 40,000 are left, out of which fewer than 500 eggs are released.
Hernia:
  • Men are more prone to hernias than women. This is because the inguinal canal that forms during gestation might not close completely in male babies, leading to vulnerability to hernia.
  • If left untreated, intestinal hernias can get affected by gangrene which is highly fatal.
  • There are no medicines that can treat hernia. Surgery is the only option to correct it.
Bone tumor:
  • Not every bone tumor will progress to bone cancer. The most common symptom is a gradual build-up of pain.
  • Benign( non-cancerous) bone tumors are more common than malignant ( cancerous) bone tumors.
  • The human bone is strong enough to support 12,000 pounds of pressure per square inch.
  • Advanced stage of breast, lung, or prostate cancer can spread to the bone and cause bone cancer.
Anthrax:
  • Inhaling anthrax spores is the only method of getting the inhalation anthrax infection. It is the most dangerous form of the disease.
  • The most recent outbreak of anthrax was in Siberia, Russia, in the year 2016. The infection took a toll on the lives of 2,000 reindeer and made at least 13 Siberian individuals ill.
  • The anthrax spores can survive in the soil for a duration of around 48 years.
Bed Wetting In Children:
  • Sleep apnea, chronic constipation, sexual abuse etc. can cause bed-wetting in children.
  • Children urinate more frequently as compared to adults. Children usually urinate around 10 to 12 times in a day.
Insomnia:
  • Jetlags, shift-works, and following poor sleep hygiene can cause acute insomnia lasting from 1 day to few weeks.
  • Chronic insomnia is more common than previously thought. It is prevalent among 10% of the entire global population.
  • 40 million Americans suffer from insomnia every year. It more common among women and elderly crowd.
  • Opposed to popular myth, alcohol suppresses body’s natural sleep cycle and disrupts REM state of sleep.
  • People engaged in long-term shift work have unnatural sleep cycles that leads to overall health deterioration.
Kidney Infections:
  • Most cases of kidney infections result from poorly treated urinary tract infection.
  • In more than 80% of the kidney infections, E.coli is involved.
  • The human kidneys collectively filter 150 quarts of blood each day and form 1-2 quarts of urine.
  • A UTI can cause chills and fever which cause it to be mistaken with the flu.
Coronary Artery Disease:
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes the death of more than 370,000 persons making it the reason behind the highest number of deaths of males and females in the United States.
  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease.
  • On an average, 71 million American adults (33.5%)have high levels of the bad cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
Lice Infection:
  • The scientific name for the head lice is Pediculus Humanus Capitis, and is different from the lice that attack the body and the pubic hair region.
  • It is very common among school going children and there are roughly 6 – 12 million cases of lice infestations reported every year.
  • Contrary to popular belief, head lice infestation doesn’t mean that the affected person is unhygienic. Anybody can get lice infection.
  • The life cycle of a louse includes the nits or the eggs, the nymphs which are not completely adults, and the adult lice.
Spine Curvature Disorders:
  • Usain Bolt - the Olympic gold medallist, has scoliosis.
  • Smoking is considered to be the leading preventable cause of neck and spine disorders.
  • Females are much likely to experience the progression of scoliosis as compared to males.
  • S-shaped curves are more likely to worsen as compared to C-shaped curves in patients with scoliosis.
Cavities:
  • It is estimated that plaque build-up on teeth initiates within 20 minutes after eating.
  • In the United States, dental caries (cavities) is considered to be the most common dental disease.
  • Your oral health is a gateway to your overall health. Several oral diseases can lead to severe medical conditions. For instance, gum problems can lead to uncontrolled diabetes and cardiac issues.
Fatigue:
  • Approximately 20% of the individuals in the United States consider fatigue as interference in their normal lives.
  • Nearly 40 to 80% of cases of fatigue are due to mental or emotional causes. However, physical causes contribute to around 20 to 60% of the cases.
  • Fatigue can occur even without the presence of any underlying health condition.
  • The only muscle that never gets fatigued is the heart. The average human heart beats 60 to 100 times in a minute pumping around 2500 gallons of blood in a day.
Appendicitis:
  • It is one of the most commonly prevalent causes of abdominal pain. Globally, 5-7% of the entire population will experience appendicitis.
  • 80% of all cases of appendicitis can be treated with the help of antibiotics.
  • Recent studies suggest that the appendix might not be a completely vestigial organ. It might be a place for healthy gut bacteria to grow and multiply.
  • When the inflamed appendix ruptures, the pain goes away. This makes the individual vulnerable to peritonitis, a life-threatening infection.
Hair Loss:
  • Hair analysis can be done in order to test for illegal drug use or to conduct criminal investigations.
  • It is estimated that we lose nearly 50 to 100 hairs normally every day.
  • Heat deteriorates the protein structure of the hair; exposing it to heat treatment (such as curlers, straighteners etc.) or chemical treatment can make it fragile and prone to breakage.
  • Traction alopecia (loss of hair due to tight pulling) is a condition resulting from a very tight hairstyle (such as a tight ponytail).
  • It is usually believed that the genes responsible for hair fall are inherited from the mother which is a myth. Genetic hair loss can be inherited from either side of the family.
Birth Asphyxia:
  • There are almost 900,000 infant deaths every year around the globe due to birth asphyxia.
  • Premature babies and babies whose mothers were affected by conditions such as gestational diabetes or preeclampsia are at more risk of birth asphyxia.
  • The mortality rate of birth asphyxia is as high as 50%. 80% of the surviving infants will develop severe neurological conditions such as cerebral palsy.
  • In newborn babies, the brain accounts for 10% of the total body weight.
Frostbite:
  • Once the temperature falls below 20 degrees Fahrenheit and the wind speed is roughly 20 mph or more, it will take only a few minutes for frostbite to occur.
  • Individuals who suffer from diabetes, have had a recent injury/surgery, or indulge in alcohol consumption are more susceptible to frostbite.
  • A milder version of frostbite is called as a frostnip.
  • Tissue damage due to frostbite is most severe when the skin is exposed to dangerously low temperatures and freezing occurs over an extended period of time.
Bradycardia:
  • It refers to a state where the heartbeat slows down to less than 60 beats per minute causing sudden drop in blood pressure and oxygen.
  • Abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland, such as hypothyroidism can also slow down your heart beat.
  • The value 60 beats per minute shouldn’t be taken as the strict limit for assessing the onset of bradycardia. It is common for physically active adults to have a resting heart beat lesser than 60 beats per minute.
  • The human heart has a naturally in-built pacemaker which is the sinoartrial node. It sends electrical signals which complete the process of circulation; the systole and diastole.
Botulism:
  • The pathogen responsible for causing botulism, Botulinum Clostridium, has been used by many terrorist organizations as a bio-weapon but no attempts have been successful till date.
  • This pathogen originates from the soil and thrives in low-oxygen conditions.
  • It is fairly rare condition with an average of 110 cases reported per year in the USA. Out of these, 1/4th are food-borne , 70% are cases of infantile botulism, and the rest are caused by open wounds.
Deviated Septum:
  • Famous personalities who had a deviated nasal septum are Jennifer Aniston, Cameron Diaz, Josh Hutcherson, Ashlee Simpson and many more.
  • It is estimated that around 80% of the population has a deviated nasal septum to some extent.
Down syndrome:
  • In the United States, Down syndrome is the most commonly diagnosed condition that is caused by a chromosomal abnormality.
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in the United States, Down syndrome affects around 1 in every 700 newborn babies which comes to around 6,000 babies in a year.
  • Babies born to females conceiving after 35 years of age are more likely to be affected by Down syndrome.
Asbestosis:
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 125 million individuals experience workplace exposure to asbestos.
  • Exposure to asbestosis is considered to be as one of the 5 most common risks arising from construction work.
  • Asbestosis is a rare and chronic condition. A chronic exposure to a substantial amount of asbestos over a duration of 20-30 years can cause asbestosis.
Anaphylaxis:
  • Anaphylaxis is considered to be the most severe form of allergic reaction as it might involve several systems of the body.
  • It is estimated that around 600,000 individuals in Canada are at risk of getting anaphylaxis owing to allergies to certain foodstuffs and insect stings.
  • There are no contraindications for using the epinephrine auto-injector in case of an emergency. Thus, in doubtful cases, one should not hesitate in using it.
Anhidrosis:
  • Hypohidrosis is another related condition where an individual sweats less than normal. Both anhidrosis and hypohidrosis can be fatal in nature.
  • Chronic conditions which can cause anhidrosis include Sjogren's syndrome, Amyloidosis, diabetic neuropathy, and alcoholic neuropathy.
  • On an average, a human body contains around 2.6 million eccrine sweat glands.
Aspergilloma:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects around 1 to 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis.
  • It is estimated that out of the total adult asthma patients worldwide, approximately 2.5% have ABPA which comes to around 4.8 million individuals.
  • Around 400,000 individuals also suffer from chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) out of the 4.8 million individuals having ABPA.
Cardiac Tamponade:
  • It is estimated that around 2 individuals in every 10,000 individuals in the United States suffer from cardiac tamponade due to a disease.
  • Heart disease is the foremost cause of death for both males and females. Heart diseases account for more than half of the deaths in the year 2009 in the United States.
Hiccups:
  • ‘Singultus’ is the medical terminology for hiccups. The term originates from the Latin for the act of catching one’s breath while crying.
  • It is observed that the fetus in the womb also hiccups.
  • It is estimated that an average bout of hiccups lasts for around 5 minutes.
Bronchiectasis:
  • Bronchiectasis is a condition that can develop at any age.
  • Common variable immunodeficiency, HIV/AIDS, and similar immunodeficiency disorders can increase the risk of bronchiectasis.
  • Out of all the affected individuals, around two-thirds are females.
  • In case of children, the condition more commonly occurs in boys as compared to girls.
Leprosy: • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), at the end of 2015, the global prevalence of leprosy was 176176 cases which come to around 0.2 cases per 10,000 individuals.
  • The incidence of the disease was found to be 213899 in the year 2014 and 215656 in the year 2013.
  • The last Sunday of January each year is observed as the World Leprosy Day.
Albinism:
  • The incidence of albinism is roughly 5 cases per 100, 000 people in the USA and Europe but in other parts of the world, it is higher.
  • Albinism is not limited only to human beings. Technically, every living organism can undergo the particular genetic mutation that leads to albinism.
  • In the African nations of Tanzania and Burundi, there is one case of albinism reported every 1500 people.
  • The rate at which albinism affected individuals synthesize vitamin D is 5 times that of dark-skinned people.
Empyema:
  • The name of this disease has been derived from the Greek word “empyein” which roughly translates to “producing pus”.
  • Staphylococcus Aureas is the number one cause of empyema infections in adults , constituting roughly 90% of all cases of lung infections in children and infants.
  • Empyema is not restricted only to the lungs. This has been observed in the gallbladder and in the pelvic region as well.
Ectopic Pregnancy:
  • Only half of the women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy show all the three classic symptoms of the condition namely abdominal pain, an absence of menses, and abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • The prevalence of this is condition is around 1-2% of all pregnancies.
  • Before the advent of surgical intervention for ectopic pregnancies, the mortality rate due to this condition was as high as 50%.
Beriberi:
  • The word beriberi has been derived from Sinhalese language meaning “ I can’t, I can’t” – which reflects the gradual crippling of the patient due to the disease.
  • The prevalence of beriberi is high in the south-east Asian countries and could be linked to high consumption of white rice.
  • There are two types of beriberi – dry and wet. Dry beriberi affected the central nervous system whereas wet affects the cardiovascular system.
  • Cerebral beriberi, which is mainly caused by chronic alcoholism, is also known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Acute Pericarditis:
  • In most cases of pericarditis, the exact cause of inflammation remains unknown. Doctors contend that it could be linked to a viral infection.
  • When there is a large accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, it results in pericardial tamponade, where the heart can’t pump blood properly.
  • The pericardium or the sac that envelops the heart consists of two layers – visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium.
Lisp:
  • The medical name for this condition is stigmatism. It occurs when an individual can’t pronounce the sibilant consonant sounds (s or z containing words).
  • According to the latest research, 1 out of every 6 Americans suffers from some sort of language and communication disorder.
  • In some cases, children who are subject to deep emotional stress or trauma may develop lisping.
  • One theory suggests that overuse of pacifiers or too much thumb-sucking could lead to the onset of lisping.
Cat-Scratch Disease:
  • This is a relatively uncommon disease caused by the bacterium, Bartonella henselae, and is transferred from cats to human beings.
  • While cats and kittens carry the pathogen, they don’t suffer from the infection. In fact, 40% of all cats carry this microbe at any given point of time.
  • In very cases, a cat-scratch infection can lead to an oculoglandulor syndrome which may cause blindness.
Throat Cancer:
  • Throat cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 65-80% worldwide.
  • Men have a 5 times higher chances of developing throat cancer than women.
  • Throat cancer is common among African-American men compared to Caucasian and Hispanic men.
  • Throat cancer is more prevalent in those who are above the age of 65 years.
Actinic Keratosis:
  • This condition is also known as solar Keratosis as it is common among fair-skinned individuals with years of sun exposure.
  • These could become cancerous in nature.
  • People who expose their bodies to indoor tanning radiations often develop this condition.
  • Almost 420,000 cases of skin cancer in the USA alone can be attributed to indoor tanning, out of these 168,000 are cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
Diplopia:
  • High alcohol consumption and intake of few recreational drugs can result in temporary double-vision or diplopia.
  • There are certain chronic disorders which can lead to the onset of diplopia – diabetes, stroke, thyroid dysfunction, and multiple sclerosis.
  • Childhood-onset of strabismus (misalignment of eyes) can also be a contributing factor.
Cerebral Cavernoma:
  • Approximately 20% of cases of cerebral cavernoma depict inheritance as a cause.
  • Around 75% of the total brain mass comprises water.
  • The brain can survive without an oxygen supply only for around 4 to 6 minutes.
Trichomoniasis:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 7 million individuals in the United States have trichomoniasis.
  • Out of the affected population, only 30% develop any symptoms of trichomoniasis.
  • Trichomoniasis affects around 2 million females in the United States, of the age group 14 years to 49 years.
  • Females are more susceptible to trichomoniasis as compared to males.
  • Older females are more likely to get infected as compared to younger females.
  • After being infected, an individual might experience symptoms within 5 days to 28 days.
  • Low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds) is commonly observed in babies born to infected mothers.
Myopia:
  • The onset of myopia generally occurs during the age group of 6-12 years. This condition worsens with age.
  • If a child’s both parents are nearsighted, it is highly likely that the child will be myopic too.
  • Professionals who work too much on computers and/or use a microscope a lot tend to develop myopia.
  • In the figure “20/20” (measure of eyesight), the numerator refers to the distance of 20 feet and the denominator refers to smallest size of the letter you can read. This means that 20/15 refers to better vision than 20/20.
Cervicitis:
  • It is estimated that more than half of all the females may develop cervicitisat least once during their adult lives.
  • Early initiation of sexual activity can also lead to cervicitis.
  • The prevalence of cervicitis is found to be around 18,000 females in every 100,000 females diagnosed with the gonococcal infection.
  • The prevalence of cervicitis is found to be around 7,400 females in every 100,000 females diagnosed with HIV/AIDS infection.
Narcolepsy:
  • Narcolepsy affects roughly 200,000 Americans and 3 million people globally, yet only 1/4th of these individuals seek medical help.
  • Although the onset of narcolepsy has no fixed age, it is most commonly experienced among people with 10-30 years of age.
  • Often narcolepsy gets confused with depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and insomnia during diagnosis.
  • Many individuals with narcolepsy experience cataplexy. Cataplexy is the condition where there is a sudden loss of muscle tone (either full body or a relatively minor part), due to a strong emotional reaction.
Addison's Disease:
  • The prevalence of Addison’s disease is found to be around 40 to 60 individuals in the population of 1 million.
  • Addison’s disease affects males lesser when compared to females.
  • Around 8,400 people in the United Kingdom have Addison's disease.
  • The destruction of 90% (at least) of the adrenal cortex is found in cases of Addison’s disease.
  • Both the adrenal glands weigh only 8-10 grams together.
Aortic Dissection:
  • 50% of all patients who have experienced an aortic dissection are above the age of 60 years.
  • The main causes of an aortic dissection include congenital heart conditions, high blood pressure, or trauma/injury to the chest.
  • Type A aortic dissection can be treated via surgery, while type B requires only medication. Nevertheless, both could be highly fatal.
Cervical Polyps:
  • Cervical polyps usually occur in about 2 - 5% of females.
  • Cervical polyps usually occur in females over 20 years of age who have had children.
  • It is estimated that around 99% of the cervical polyps are benign and have a size less than 1 cm.
Gonorrhoea:
  • Gonorrhea can occur in any sexual active person through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. It can be transmitted from an infected mother to the fetus.
  • In most patients of gonorrhea, especially in female patients, this condition usually goes undetected because it doesn’t produce very noticeable symptoms.
  • Genital douching or washing will not prevent the onset of this infection.
  • If a patient has been diagnosed with any sexually-transmitted infection, such as chlamydia, he/she becomes more susceptible to gonorrhea.
Skin irritation:
  • Anti-aging creams may irritate the skin owing to its retinoid content.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis and rosacea worsen during the winter season.
  • Moist clothes worn in winter can lead to yeast infection and skin irritation.
Proctitis:
  • Inflammation of the rectal area is most common among men around the age of 30 years. It is more common among male homosexuals.
  • There a number of STDs which can cause proctitis – gonorrhea, syphilis , candidiasis, and genital herpes.
  • Non- STD reasons for proctitis are ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease).
  • Patients of cervical, rectal, or prostate cancer who undergo radiation therapy are also highly susceptible to proctitis.
Urinary Problems:
  • Females are 10 times more prone to get a urinary tract infection as compared to males.
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization, approximately 50% females had a urinary tract infection at some point in their lives.
  • Around 10 to 20 million individuals in the United States have urinary incontinence.
Hypotension:
  • The upper number in your BP reading indicates the systolic pressure which is pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts. The lower number is the diastolic pressure that is the measure of arterial pressure when the heart relaxes.
  • During pregnancy is somewhat normal for the blood pressure to dip a bit low. It usually is around 100/90.
  • Postural hypotension is the most common form of hypotension. This occurs when a person stands up or sits up suddenly.
Cold Intolerance:
  • The structure that is responsible for controlling bodily temperature is the hypothalamus, located in the brain. Dysfunctioning of this structure could result in cold intolerance.
  • Thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism can also affect the way your body reacts to external temperature.
  • Anorexic patients, due to an extreme shortage of fat deposition in their bodies, are inherently intolerant to colder temperatures.
  • Studies suggest that even though women have an average higher core body temperature, their hands and feet are 2-3 degrees colder than those of men.
Eye Fatigue:
  • More than 2 out of every 5 Americans report using digital devices for more than 2 hours per day and more than half the population uses two digital devices at the same time.
  • Due to eye strain, the eyes tend to get watery or dry.
  • 50% or more computer users are said to experience CVS (computer vision syndrome) or computer eye fatigue.
Acoustic Neuroma:
  • Acoustic Neuroma, also known as vestibular schwannoma, occurs when there are tumours formed on the vestibulocochlear nerve (the 8th cranial nerve).
  • The human body consists of two vestibulocochlear nerves, each running from the inner ear to the brain.
  • This is a very rare condition; the chances of an individual being diagnosed with this condition are 1 out of 100,000.
  • 95% of the cases of Acoustic neuroma are sporadic in nature. Only, 5% are genetically transferred.
Meningioma:
  • In the United States, Meningioma accounts for 37% of primary brain tumors.
  • An estimate of 29,320 people will be diagnosed with Meningioma this year.
  • Incidence rates increase with age, with a dramatic increase in adults who are 65 years and older.
  • It is rarely found in children.
  • Black men and women are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with meningioma than white men and women.
Phlebitis:
  • Phlebitis is NOT caused by a bacterial infection in every case and thus may not require antibiotics prescribed for every patient.
  • The correct diagnosis of phlebitis requires duplex ultrasound scan as other infections such as cellulitis and lymphangitis also produce similar symptoms.
  • Since it directly results in DVT/PE ( deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism), many experts opine it to be renamed to superficial venous thrombosis.
  • In patients diagnosed with phlebitis the absence of varicose veins indicates blood clotting disorder or even cancer.
Dry Mouth:
  • Many prescription drugs are known to have caused dry mouth. These include antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, and even certain forms of sedatives.
  • A deficiency of vitamin A and riboflavin can also cause dry mouth.
  • It is medically known as xerostomia and is a subjective condition (the patient complains of the onset of relative dryness in the oral cavity).
Hydrocele:
  • Though hydroceles are associated with males, it can occur in females too. It is termed as Hydrocele of canal of nuck.
  • Most cases of hydrocele, which are present from the birth, resolve within the first year.
  • There may be other reasons for scrotal swelling apart from the hydrocele. It could be a hernia, a tumor, or a varicocele (engorged testicular veins).
  • While hydroceles are normally painless, larger hydroceles can make it uncomfortable to walk or perform sexual activities.
Pressure ulcers:
  • These are commonly known as “bedsores”. The medical name for the same is decubitis ulcers.
  • The most frequently affected areas include the tailbone area (sacrum) and lower-back side of the hip bones (ischium).
  • Almost 1 million people are affected by pressure ulcers every year in the USA. The total treatment expenditure associated with this condition is $ 1 billion.
  • 2 out of every 3 individuals with pressure ulcers are above the age of 70 years.
Ascites:
  • Liver cirrhosis is the leading cause of ascites; it is responsible for almost 80% of all reported cases of ascites in the USA.
  • 10% of all cases of ascites are caused by cancer.
  • Ascites is one of the most evident symptoms of the Budd Chiari syndrome. This is also known as hepatic vein thrombosis.
Hemochromatosis:
  • A healthy adult contains roughly 3-4 grams of iron in his/her body. Out of this, about 1 mg of iron is lost through sweat glands and inner linings of the intestines.
  • Women lose around 1mg of iron for each day they menstruate.
  • The actual amount of iron accumulated in the body of an adult male with hemochromatosis is about 20 grams.
  • Excessive iron deposition in the body could lead to shrinking of testicles, impotency, cardiac disorders, and even diabetes.
  • Genetic inheritance of the disease is the biggest cause of hemochromatosis. This condition is present in an individual from birth, but the symptoms may start appearing at a much later age.
Enlarged Heart:
  • If your blood pressure is consistently higher than 140/90, then there are high chances of thickening of cardiac walls. This happens because the cardiac muscles have to work harder to keep up with the high blood pressure.
  • Enlarged heart could also result from congenital heart defects. Currently there are more than 1 million Americans living with congenital cardiac disorders.
  • The medical term for enlarged heart is cardiomegaly and it is most often diagnosed during routine heart x-rays.
Lymphangitis:
  • The most common pathogens causing lymphangitis are Streptococcus and Staphylococcus bacteria.
  • Other infections that involve lymph nodes include cat scratch disease, rabbit fever, dental abscess, and even bubonic plague.
  • In many cases, it is often accompanied by cellulitis, a bacterial infection in the inner layers of the skin.
  • The human body contains hundreds of lymph nodes spread throughout the body. These are pea-sized nodes, which help in removing toxins from the body.
Nipah Virus Infection:
  • Domestic animals such as pigs can get mild to severe form of the disease due to the Nipah virus.
  • After the second annual review of World Health Organization in February 2018, Nipah virus was again included in the list of Blueprint priority diseases.
  • At present, there are no methods to treat the virus in humans or animals. The treatment only renders supportive care.
  • During the Nipah virus outbreak in the year 1999, around 265 individuals were affected and more than 100 were recorded.
  • 1 million pigs were euthanized to control the outbreak in 1998-99.
  • As per theWorld Health Organization, more than 600 cases of human infection with NiV have been recorded between the years 1998 to 2015.
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma:
  • In the UK, there are around 13,700 new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases every year. This accounts for 38 every day.
  • This is the 10th most common cancer.
  • It is the 11th most common cause of cancer deaths, accounting for 3% of all cancer deaths, in the UK.
  • Since the early 1970’s non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality rates have increased by more than 82%.
Rheumatic Fever:
  • The bacteria responsible for the onset of rheumatic fever, Streptococcus A, is also linked to the toxic shock syndrome and “flesh-eating” disease.
  • Children between the ages 5 and 15 are most commonly affected by rheumatic fever.
  • This usually happens when the complete course of antibiotic dosage for strep throat is not taken by the concerned patient or the symptoms for the same disease remain neglected.
  • Around 40-80% of all patients diagnosed with rheumatic fever develop some form of cardiac disorder. It could also result in pancarditis ( total inflammation of heart).
Metatarsalgia:
  • This condition is also known as stone bruise and is quite common among athletes and high-impact sports players.
  • Studies reveal that 1% of the entire global population will experience inflammation or pain along the metatarsals at least once in their lifetime.
  • It is often associated with another condition known as Morton’s neuroma, which also causes pain and inflammation of the concerned nerve.
Biliary atresia:
  • Biliary atresia is one of the most common fatal hepatic conditions among infants, affecting 1 out of every 10,000 to 15,000 live births.
  • Female infants are more susceptible to this condition and it is most common among babies of Asian descent.
  • 1 out of every 10 infants with biliary atresia also shows symptoms of congenital cardiovascular defects and disorders of the intestines and spleen.
  • If left untreated, it could cause severe cirrhosis of the liver within 6 months. Only a successful liver transplant would help the child survive.
Lipodystrophy:
  • The name of the condition comes from “lipo” which means fats and “dystrophy” which means hindered growth. It literally means abnormal loss of fats from the body.
  • Face is the most common place from where fat loss occurs. Fat deposition mainly occurs at the back of the neck, chest, and abdominal region.
  • This condition was earlier called as “Crix Belly” because it was commonly seen among people who took the drug  Crixivan or Indinavir.
  • The enlarged breasts among female patients of lipodystrophy can be quite painful.
Werner’s Syndrome:
  • This condition is also known as accelerated or adult progeria.
  • The condition has been named after the German scientist, Otto Werner, who first observed the symptoms of premature aging among 4 siblings in the year 1904.
  • This is a relatively rare disorder reported in 1 out of 100,000 live births globally, though the incidence of Werner’s syndrome is slightly higher among Japanese and Sardinian populations.
  • The main cause of fatality among patients of Werner’s syndrome is either cardiovascular disorder or cancer.
Yeast Infection:
  • Oral yeast infection, also known as thrush, is not limited to infants only. Recent studies suggest that 1 out of every 4 adults experience oral thrust owing to lack of oral hygiene.
  • Since high blood glucose levels encourage yeast growth, diabetics are more prone to developing yeast infection.
  • Genital yeast infection can also develop in males. If a man has unprotected sex with a woman with vaginal thrush, he may end up with a yeast infection too.
  • Several studies indicate that yeast infection can be linked to increased probability of developing Multiple Sclerosis.
Skull Fracture:
  • Bleeding from ears is a sign of a fractured skull. This is because blood might have collected behind the ear drum due to the trauma or injury.
  • In many cases, there might be a discharge of a clear fluid from the ears or nose. This is nothing but the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • X-rays are hardly of any help in case of skull injuries. CT scan and MRI are helpful in detecting the extent of the injury.
  • Loss of balance, troubled speech and lack of coordination indicate brain damage due to the skull fracture.
Autoimmune Hepatitis:
  • Women are 4 times more likely than men to acquire autoimmune hepatitis.
  • 25-50% of all individuals with autoimmune hepatitis will develop other autoimmune conditions such as celiac disease or Hashimoto’s disease.
  • Patients of autoimmune hepatitis have to mostly refer to a gastroenterologist or a hepatologist to seek treatment.
  • It was earlier named as “lupoid hepatitis” since it was commonly prevalent among lupus patients.
Brain Arteriovenous Malformation:
  • This is a rare condition affecting less than 1% of the population.
  • While this condition can occur in any part of the body, the brain and the spine are the most commonly affected areas.
  • 3 out of every 100,000 individuals will have cerebral AVM (located in the brain) and has high as 50% will experience abnormal bleeding.
  • The mortality rate associated with an AVM hemorrhage is roughly 10%.
Hydrocephalus:
  • Hydrocephalus may occur in individuals at any age. But the condition is commonly seen is babies and seniors over the age of 60.
  • Babies born with congenital hydrocephalus may suffer from permanent brain damage.
  • The hydrocephalus treatment will not reverse any brain damage that has already taken place; it will only prevent further brain damage.
  • In case of hydrocephalus ex-vacuo, a type of hydrocephalus that occurs as a result of a traumatic injury or a stroke, the tissues in the brain may actually shrink.
Dystonia:
  • The visible symptoms of dystonia such as rapid eye movements and muscular tremors appear more elevated under stressful conditions.
  • While the exact cause is still unknown, many studies point to the fact that it may be caused due to damage to the basal ganglia in the brain.
  • Botox is considered as a popular and effective therapy for treating dystonia symptoms.
  • Dystonia has no direct effect over cognitive powers of an individual but it might be comorbid with depression and anxiety.
Psoriatic Arthritis:
  • 15-25% people with psoriasis (a condition where the skin forms scabs that are itchy and dry) soon develop inflammation in the joints (psoriatic arthritis).
  • This type of arthritis causes inflammation in the spine (spondyloarthritis).
  • Those who have psoriatic arthritis can develop inflammation in their tendons, cartilage, eyes, lung lining and in rare cases the aorta.
  • This happens when the infection tends to attack the healthy cells and tissues.
Portal Hypertension:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 1 in every 3 individuals in the United States has high blood pressure. The total figure comes to around 75 million
  • Out of the total hypertensive individuals in the United States, only 54% have their blood pressure levels under control.
Bunions:
  • Bunions may be hereditary.
  • Females are approximately 10 times more prone to bunion deformities as compared to males.
  • Around 85% of individuals have legs of two different sizes. This discrepancy might cause bunion deformity on the longer foot.
Seasonal Allergies:
  • As per the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), more than 50 million American individuals have seasonal allergies.
  • Allergies are found to be the 6th most common cause of chronic illness in the United States.
  • The annual expenditure in the United States due to allergies is estimated to be around $18 billion.
Acute Liver Failure:
  • Approximately 50% of the acute liver failure patients report kidney failure as well.
  • Researchers are developing a range of artificial hepatic assist devices that can help to execute the functions of the liver in case of acute liver failure.
  • Xenotransplantation is a new kind of liver transplant that is being researched on; in this method, the liver is taken from a nonhuman animal source.
  • As per the American Liver Foundation, around 35% of the chronic alcoholics develop alcoholic hepatitis.
Hyperemesis Gravidarum:
  • Not more than 3% of pregnant females get hyperemesis gravidarum.
  • The symptoms are at their worst at around 9 to 13th week of pregnancy.
  • Approximately 20% of females may require medical care for hyperemesis gravidarum throughout gestation.
Tinnitus:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 4±3.4 million individuals experience tinnitus out of 222.1±3.4 million American adults.
  • Approximately 7.2 % of individuals consider tinnitus as a major problem in contrast to around 41.6% individuals who consider it a minor problem.
  • According to CDC, only 49.4% of individuals suffering from tinnitus seek medical attention.
  • Out of all the cases of tinnitus discussed with a physician, around 45.5% were recommended medications, 9.2%-hearing aids, 4.9%- masking devices, and 0.2%- cognitive-behavioral therapy.
  • Tiny hair cells present deep inside the ear are responsible for the sense of hearing.
Acute Cholecystitis:
  • In the United Kingdom, gallstones affect around 1 in every 10 adults.
  • Females are more prone to acute cholecystitis as compared to males as the incidence of gallstones is more in females.
  • You can survive without a gallbladder.
  • In a day, the liver produces around 500 to 1000 ml of bile; the gallbladder can concentrate it up to tenfold and store 30 to 50 ml of the denser bile.
Brainstem Strokes:
  • Vertigo and dizziness are the two most common symptoms of a brain stem stroke.
  • Approximately 1% of stroke patients can suffer from psychosis in the form of hallucinations or delusions.
  • Brain stem stroke can result in a serious complication known as locked-in syndrome. It is a condition in which the entire body gets paralyzed, except for the eye muscles.
  • Stroke is the 5th most common cause of death in the United States. It is responsible for the deaths of around 130,000 people a year.
  • In the United States, someone dies of a stroke every four minutes.
  • Every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke.
Dental Fluorosis:
  • Freezing or boiling water does not remove fluoride. Methods such as reverse osmosis, distillation, deionization etc. can remove the fluoride content to a large extent.
  • Fluorosis usually occurs in children with excessive fluoride ingestion during the teeth forming years (8 years and above).
  • As per the American Academy of Pediatrics, children should visit the dentist regularly by their first birthday.
  • As per the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value for fluoride in water, chronic exposure to fluoride level more than 1.5mg/liter of water can cause fluorosis.
Placenta Previa:
  • In the third trimester of pregnancy, the incidence of placenta previa is found to be 1 female in around 200 pregnant females.
  • After the 20th week of gestation, the incidence of placenta previa is approximately 4 females in every 1000 pregnant females.
  • The chief indicator of placenta previa is painless (in most of the cases), bright red vaginal bleeding during the second half of pregnancy.
  • You are at higher risk of having placenta previa if you have more than one child, history of a uterine surgery, twins or triplets etc.
Eye-sight problems:
  • According to the latest assessment done by the World Health Organization in the year 2010, cataract contributes to 51% of the world blindness, which comes to around 20 million people.
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (W.H.O), astigmatism is one of the major causes of childhood blindness.
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a blindness prevalence of around 8.7% making it the 3rd most common global cause of visual impairment.
  • Vitamin A supplements can decrease the rate of child mortality by around 34% in regions having vitamin A deficiency as a public health issue. The cost of one dose of vitamin A is only 5 US cents.
Lactic Acidosis:
  • Lactic acid is formed as a product after the breakdown of glucose.
  • Lactic acidosis can be caused by vitamin B deficiency.
  • Exercise can improve the performance of the brain and sharpen the memory.
  • The amount of calories burnt by your body in resting phase increases if your muscle mass increases.
Giant-Cell Arteritis:
  • Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a condition affecting the blood vessels of an individual and usually occurs with a condition known as polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
  • PMR is observed in 58% of cases diagnosed with GCA.
  • The most common symptom of GCA is a new, persisting headache.
  • Older adults, chiefly above the age of 50 years usually get this disease.
Budd-Chiari Syndrome:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this syndrome occurs in 1 individual out of every 100 000 individuals present worldwide.
  • A hypercoagulable state is usually identified in around 75% of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS).
  • Around 25% of cases of BCS have more than one etiologic factor leading to the condition.
 
Asperger’s syndrome:
  • The term Asperger is derived from a study conducted in 1944 by an Austrian pediatrician- Dr. Hans Asperger
  • The term “Asperger’s” is nowadays substituted by the term “High Functioning Autism”.
  • As per the information furnished by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – 5 (DSM5) in May 2013, Asperger’s Syndrome is no longer a separate disorder and has been replaced by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
  • As per the data furnished by the World Health Organization, the incidence of Asperger syndrome is around 1 in every 160 cases.
Arteriosclerosis:
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for the highest number of deaths of males and females in the United States. It kills more than 370,000 individuals in a year.
  • Every year approximately 735,000 Americans have a heart attack out of which around 525,000 have it for the first time.
  • In the United States, about 610,000 people die of heart disease every year–which comes to around 1 in every 4 deaths.
  • Around half of the Americans(47%) have at least one of these three risk factors for heart disease (high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and smoking).
Osteomyelitis:
  • The overall prevalence of osteomyelitis is around 1 in every 5000 children.
  • Neonatal prevalence is around 1 in every 1000 cases.
  • The incidence of osteomyelitis in individuals with sickle cell anemia is around 0.36% per year.
  • The prevalence of osteomyelitis after foot puncture is around 16% and approximately 30% to 40% in individuals with diabetes.
  • The incidence of vertebral osteomyelitis is roughly 2.4 cases in a population of 100,000.
Lazy Eye:
  • Lazy eye or amblyopia affects approximately 2% to 3% of the population in the United States.
  • Among children, young adults, and middle-aged adults, amblyopia is found to be the most frequent cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment.
  • Amblyopia is the cause of vision loss in approximately 2.9% adults.
  • Amblyopia can affect 2% to 4% of preschoolers in the United States.
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), out of 7 preschoolers, only 1 receives an eye exam, and out of 4 preschoolers, only 1 receives some sort of vision screening.
Septic Arthritis:
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are more than 100 types of arthritis.
  • Patients receiving medications injected directly into a joint are at high risk of septic arthritis.
  • Knees and hips are most commonly affected by septic arthritis.
  • Every year around 20,000 cases of septic arthritis occurs in the United States.
  • Arthritis is the leading cause of disability among adults in the United States.
  • Osteoarthritis is the most widespread form of arthritis, which affects around 31 million individuals in the United States.
Sickle cell disease:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the sickle cell disease affects approximately 100,000 individuals in the United States
  • In the year 2010, the total incidence of the sickle cell trait in the United States was around 15.5 cases per 1,000 births.
  • Around 1 in every 13 Black or African-American babies is born with a sickle cell trait.
  • In the year 2005, the medical expenditures for children with the sickle cell disease were around $14,772 for patients with employer-sponsored insurance and $11,702 for patients with Medicaid.
Arm fracture:
  • Arms are the most commonly broken bones in adults whereas the collar bones are the most commonly broken bones in case of children.
  • It is estimated that around 1out of every 5 falls may lead to a serious injury such as fractures or head injury.
  • Around 2.8 million individuals are treated each year in the emergency department due to fall injuries.
  • Falls are believed to be the most common cause of traumatic brain injuries (TBI).
Concussion:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered as a major cause of death and disability in the United States.
  • It is estimated that in the United States, every day approximately 153 individuals die from injuries such as the traumatic brain injury.
  • In the year 2013, traumatic brain injuries contributed to the deaths of almost 50,000 individuals in the United States.
  • In the year 2013, falls were the major cause of TBI. Falls comprised of about 47% of all the TBI visits to the emergency departments, for hospitalizations and death.
Gilbert’s Syndrome:
  • Gilbert’s syndrome is named after a French gastroenterologist, and is sometimes referred to as ‘unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia’
  • It is an inherited condition caused by a mutated gene.
  • The incidence is estimated to be around 1 case per 1,000,000 births, with only some hundred individuals worldwide having been reported to be suffering from this disease.
  • After puberty Gilbert syndrome is diagnosed more frequently in boys than in girls. The male-to-female ratio for Gilbert syndrome ranges from 2:1 to 7:1.
  • Around 60% of all babies have jaundice. The bilirubin levels typically peak when the baby is 3 to 5 days old.
Cellulitis:
  • Conditions such as diabetes and HIV/AIDS can increase the risk of cellulitis.
  • Excessive use of the hot tub might also cause cellulitis.
  • Skin infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria is difficult to treat as it does not respond well to antibiotics
  • The skin is the first line of defense for the body. It acts as a physical barrier to protect the entry of microbes and foreign bodies.
  • Skin is the largest organ in the body. The area occupied by our skin is approximately 1.73m2.
  • Skin plays a vital role in the regulation of the body temperature.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta:
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta is the most commonly occurring inherited connective tissue disorder that principally affects the bones.
  • It is estimated that around 25,000 to 50,000 individuals in the United States are affected by osteogenesis imperfecta.
  • There are 4 types of osteogenesis imperfecta. The type II has the most severe clinical manifestations and usually proves fatal soon after birth.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic condition that is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition.
Arachnoid Cysts:
  • The typical symptoms associated with arachnoid cysts are as common as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and vertigo.
  • This condition is detected by diffusion-weighted MRI scan. This helps in differentiating arachnoid cysts from other types of cerebral cysts.
  • Men are 4 times more likely to develop arachnoid cysts than females. Also, the symptoms start appearing before the age of 20.
  • Primary arachnoid cysts, which are present in the brain from birth, develop during the early weeks of gestation (when the spine and brain are being formed).
Wound debridement and dressing:
  • The manual removal of dead tissues (necrotic tissues) from the point of wound is called as active debridement.
  • Larval debridement is a component of active debridement in which maggots or their larvae are placed at the site of wound and allowed to eat away the dead cells.
  • There are certain types of wounds which will usually require manual debridement, such as pressure ulcers.
  • If a wound is not debrided properly, it may cause the infection to spread into the bloodstream and ultimately require amputation of the infected area.
Arachnoiditis:
  • The inflammation of the arachnoid layer can cause scarring of the tissues and severely impact the spinal cord.
  • The diagnostic procedure, myelogram , which employs the use of a particular dye is believed by many to have caused arachnoiditis in many patients. This method has been discontinued.
  • Aggravated fungal meningitis and even tuberculosis can lead to arachnoiditis.
Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding:
  • Imbalance in estrogen and progesterone levels is responsible for abnormal vaginal bleeding in most cases.
  • It could be an indication of cancer or uterine fibroids.
  • It is commonly observed among teenage girls and pre-menopause women.
  • Statistically speaking, women who suffer from abnormal vaginal bleeding miss out on 3.5 weeks of work on an average.
Brain Cysts:
  • The possibility of having arachnoid cysts is four times more in males as compared to females.
  • In most of the cases, symptoms of arachnoid cysts develop before the age of 20 years; usually, they develop in the first year of life.
  • Cysts usually have a structure similar to a sac containing pus, fluid or gas. Cysts are usually noncancerous in nature.
  • The brain contains around 100 billion neurons (nerve cells) which come to around 13 times the total human population on the earth. The brain also contains a trillion glial cells.
  • The length of the blood vessels in the brain comes to around 150,000
  • The speed of processing information in the brain ranges from 0.5 meters per second to 120 meters per second.
Silicosis:
  • Silica has been classified as a human carcinogen by the U.S. government (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)) since 2000.
  • Silica is principally made up of quartz dust.
  • Silicosis is an untreatable condition. However, it is preventable.
  • The size of respirable particles ranges from less than 1 micrometer to as big as 30 micrometers.
  • During the years 1968–2002, approximately 74 million deaths in the U.S. occurred due to silicosis. Out of the total number of deaths, 98% were males.
Tremor:
  • There can be a neurological cause of bodily tremors such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, or even Parkinson’s disease.
  • Heavy metal poisoning, alcohol abuse, liver failure, or consumption of corticosteroid drugs might be also the underlying reason.
  • If the tremor exists without any underlying cause or condition, it is called as essential tremor.
Colloid Cyst:
  • The first case of the colloid cyst was reported in the year 1858 by Wallmann.
  • The colloid cyst formation usually initiates during the embryonic formation of the central nervous system.
  • The cyst is named after a gelatinous material present in it known as the colloid. The cyst also contains some minerals, cholesterol crystals, and blood.
  • Untreated colloid cysts may lead to complications such as a brain hernia or even death (due to the pressure buildup).
  • Colloid cysts of the third ventricle of the brain are uncommon and comprise around 0.3% to 2% of all of the brain tumors.
  • Only 2% dehydration can affect the cognitive skills, memory, attention.
Niemann-Pick disease:
  • The Niemann-Pick disease is named after German physicians Albert Niemann and Ludwig Pick.
  • There are approximately 1,200 cases of the Niemann-Pick disease worldwide. Most of them are type B.
  • Type C Niemann-Pick Disease (NPC) has an estimated number of 500 cases diagnosed worldwide.
  • Niemann-Pick Disease is always fatal. In Type C, the sufferers usually die before the age of 20 years. Moreover, some of them die before 10 years.
  • Acid sphingomyelinase enzyme deficiency results in Niemann-Pick Disease, type A and B.
  • Individuals suffering from the type A Niemann-Pick Disease (NPA) usually die between the ages of 2 to 4 years.
Deep Vein Thrombosis:
  • Deep vein thrombosis does not cause a heart attack or stroke unlike the arterial thrombosis (clot in an artery in the brain or the heart) which might cause.
  • Increased estrogen levels can add to the risk of having deep vein thrombosis.
  • Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism causes the death of around 100,000 individuals in the United States each year.
  • Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) affects around 1 or 2 in every 1000 individuals in the United States every year.
  • Around 10% to 30% individuals die due to DVT/PE within one month of diagnosis.
  • Around 5% to 8% of the U.S. population has inherited thrombophilias (a genetic risk factor) that increases the risk for thrombosis.
Sitophobia:
  • It is also known by the names cibophobia and sitiophobia.
  • The name has been derived from the Greek words “Sitos” which refers to food or bread and “phobos” which means fear.
  • Anorexia nervosa, a manifestation of sitophobia, is found more commonly among women than in men (9:1 ratio).
  • There are certain cases of sitophobia where the patient is phobic of only one particular group or type of food such as dairy products.
Stickler syndrome:
  • This syndrome was first described by Gunnar B. Stickler in the year 1965.
  • There are 6 variants of stickler syndrome depending on the genetic cause and the clinical manifestations of the condition.
  • Stickler syndrome is observed in around 1 in every 7,500 to 9,000 newborns.
  • Type I is the most common variant of the condition accounting for around 80% to 90% of all the cases.
  • The risk of the syndrome being passed on to the children from the parents with Stickler syndrome is estimated to be around 50%.
Salivary Gland Infection:
  • According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), dehydration can make you prone to salivary gland infections.
  • Chronic smokers are at a high risk of getting salivary gland infections.
  • An individual has 3 pairs of major salivary glands.
  • There are around 600 to 1000 minor salivary glands located in the mouth, lips, and throat.
  • The saliva has an enzyme called ptyalin or salivary amylase that helps in the digestion of starch. The enzyme converts starch into a sugar known as maltose.
Bruxism:
  • In many cases, the individual suffering from bruxism doesn’t realise he/she has bruxism unless he/she goes for a dental check-up.
  • Bruxism is most common among the age group 25-44. Around 8%-10% of the entire global population has some degree of bruxism.
  • 20% of children under the age of 11 suffer from bruxism.
Lipoma:
  • In less than 5% of people affected by lipomas, these occur in multiple sites.
  • Genetics don't play a significant role in case of benign lipomas. But, there is a higher likelihood of malignant lipomas being transferred from parents to offspring.
  • One of the inherited conditions that results in lipoma tumors is Gardner Syndrome.
  • While the exact cause is still unknown there are several risk factors such as highly sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and family history of lipomas associated with this condition.
Ear pain:
  • The external human ear (earlobe) grows throughout the lifetime.
  • Ears help to maintain balance owing to the fluid present in them. Thus, vertigo is a common symptom in case of ear infections.
  • The number of hair cells present in the ear is more than 20,000.
  • The ears are self-cleaning. The ear wax is sticky in nature and can trap dust and foreign bodies thereby protecting the inner ear. However, excessive ear wax should be cleaned (only by a professional).
  • Hearing can be damaged in just 7.5 minutes on exposure to sounds at 120 decibels.
Hypersplenism:
  • Hypersplenism is often associated with infections such as mononucleosis, endocarditis, and toxoplasmosis.
  • An enlarged spleen can compress the stomach as a result of which the patient feels full after eating less food and may complain of indigestion.
  • The major function of the human spleen is to remove old and damaged RBCs and purify the blood.
Ataxia:
  • The name ataxia in Greek literally means “without order”, which refers to the un-coordinated movement of body and muscles due to the condition.
  • Ataxia can be inherited in the form of Freidrich ataxia, Machado-Joseph disease, or ataxia-telangiectasia.
  • The areas of the brain affected by ataxia are cerebellum, cerebral cortex, pons, and substantia nigra.
  • In many patients, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis could lead to ataxia.
Pulmonary Embolism:
  • Pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (PE/DVT) affects around 900,000 people in the United States every year.
  • Pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (PE/DVT) is the cause of death of around 100,000 individuals in the United States each year.
  • A big pulmonary embolus can immediately cause the death of a person.
  • It is estimated that the percentage of deaths (within one month of diagnosis) of individuals affected by PE/DVT is around 10% to 30%.
  • Sudden death is the first symptom experienced by 25% of the individuals having a pulmonary embolism.
Cervical Cysts:
  • Nabothian cysts are quite common and are, in many cases, considered a normal part of the cervical anatomy.
  • Women who practice unsafe sexual acts are most likely to develop cervical cancer. It is usually diagnosed with a Pap smear.
  • A majority of cervical cysts are asymptomatic, i.e; they don’t lead to any observable symptoms.
Embolism:
  • Experts contend that up to 10%- 30% of patients diagnosed with DVT/PE (deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism) will succumb to the disease within 1 month of diagnosis.
  • In 1 out of every 4 such patients, the first symptom of the presence of the embolism is death.
  • Cancer patients, especially the ones undergoing surgery or chemotherapy are the ones who are most likely to develop DVT/PE.
Dysphagia:
  • The word dysphagia cites its origin from the Greek language. ‘Dys’ signifies difficulty and ‘phagia’ means to eat.
  • Dysphagia affects approximately 10 million people in the United States making it one of the most commonly diagnosed swallowing disorders.
  • Around 1 in every 17 individuals in the U.S. will experience some form of dysphagia in their lifetime.
Ventricular diseases:
  • Approximately 610,000 individuals die of heart disease in the United States every year, which comes to around 1 in every 4 deaths.
  • The CHD (Coronary Heart Disease) is the most common type of heart disease, killing over 370,000 individuals
  • Heart disease is the foremost cause of death for both males and females. Heart diseases account for more than half of the deaths in the year 2009 in the United States.
  • According to the data furnished by the CDC (Center for Disease Control), around 735,000 Americans suffer from a heart attack. Out of this figure, around 525,000 have a first attack and 210,000 have already had an attack previously.
  • The human heart is about the size of a large fist.
Tachycardia:
  • The elevated heart beat levels in tachycardia can range anywhere between 100 to 400 beats per minute.
  • Stress and over-consumption of caffeine can also be responsible for tachycardia.
  • Paroxysmal tachycardia can occur without any trigger or cardiac abnormality.
  • Foods rich in potassium can help control the symptoms as potassium is a natural vasodilator that can decrease the blood pressure and strain on arteries.
Astigmatism:
  • An irregularly shaped cornea (the outer transparent layer of the eye) or the lens of the eye is the cause of astigmatism.
  • There are three kinds of astigmatism: myopic (nearsighted), hyperopic (farsighted) and mixed (combination of near and farsighted).
  • Astigmatism can cause headaches, eye strain, and fatigue.
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), astigmatism is one of the major causes of childhood blindness.
  • Though astigmatism can be hereditary, the exact cause is unknown.
  • Astigmatism is usually present since birth.
Endometritis:
  • According to a study conducted in Italy and published in the year 2018, out of 95 females who had fertility issues, more than half of them were suffering from chronic endometritis.
  • A research published in the year 2016 suggests that chronic endometritis can affect fertility by increasing the possibility of frequent miscarriages and by preventing the fertilized egg from implanting into the uterus lining.
  • Cesarean delivery can also lead to endometritis. Endometritis is common in cesarean delivery as compared to vaginal delivery.
  • Endometritis is different from endometriosis as the latter is not caused by an infection of the uterus.
  • Endometriosis is a condition where the lining of the uterus proliferates externally and causes pain in the abdomen or the pelvic region.
Cerebral Aneurysm:
  • In the United States, the incidence of a ruptured aneurysm is around 10 per 100,000 individuals per year; that comes to around 30,000 individuals per year in the United States.
  • Around 3 to 5 million individuals have a cerebral aneurysm in the United States.
  • Cerebral aneurysms usually occur in individuals between the ages 30 years to 60 years.
  • The size of the cerebral aneurysms can be as big as 25 millimeters or more.
  • Most of the cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic.
  • If the Computed Tomography (CT) scan is performed within 72 hours of the onset of a headache, 93% to 100% of all aneurysms can be detected.
Cauda Equina Syndrome:
  • The name literally translates to “tail of a horse”, which refers to the bundle of nerves located at the end of the spinal cord.
  • It is a very rare condition; it occurs in one out of 33,000 to 100,000 people worldwide and is associated with Paget’s disease.
  • The numbness caused by this condition is called as “saddle anesthesia”.
Folliculitis:
  • Folliculitis is also known by the name “barber’s itch”.
  • Wearing very tight clothes or accumulation of sweat can also lead to folliculitis.
  • Folliculitis cannot occur on palms and soles of the feet because these places do not have any hair follicles.
Herniated Disc:
  • While most cases of herniated discs are painful, in many cases the patient might not feel any pain at all.
  • Pain due to a herniated disc is not localised to the back alone, it can spread to the buttocks, thighs, calves, and the feet too.
  • The most common area of disc herniation is between L4 and L5 (4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae).
  • Surgical intervention to treat a herniated is an extremely risky affair. There are high chances of an infection spreading or the surgery failing, leading to worsening of symptoms.
Thyromegaly:
  • Goiter or an enlarged thyroid is seen more among people living in underdeveloped or developing countries due to lack of iodine in diet.
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune condition that triggers enlargement of the thyroid gland.
  • Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can contribute to thyromegaly.
Oligohydramnios:
  • Around 1 out every of 8 females whose pregnancies last two weeks past the due date develops oligohydramnios.
  • The amniotic fluid is a sterile yellow colored fluid that surrounds and cushions the fetus during gestation (pregnancy).
  • Amniotic fluid is composed of water, nutrients, antibodies, and hormones.
  • As it develops, the fetus breathes and swallows the amniotic fluid.
  • The fetus starts urinating around the 8th week. After the 10th or 11th week, the fetus starts drinking a mix of the amniotic fluid and urine. Eventually, most of the amniotic fluid is composed of its urine.
Bacterial Vaginosis:
  • Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common infection of the vagina affecting females of the age group of 15 years to 44 years.
  • According to the data furnished by the CDC (Center for Disease Control), the prevalence of BV in the United States in the year 2016 was around 21.2 million (29.2%) in females of age group 14 years to 49 years.
  • According to the Center for Disease Control, around 84% females suffering from BV do not have symptoms.
  • Urinating, washing the genitals or douching after a sexual intercourse cannot prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV) or any sexually transmitted disease (STD).
  • Bacterial vaginosis can increase the likelihood of having other sexually transmitted diseases.
Chikungunya Fever:
  • The word ‘chikungunya’ is derived from the Kimakonde language. It signifies ‘that which bends up or to become contorted’, owing to the symptoms faced by the suffering patient. Joint pain (arthralgia) in the patient leads to changes in posture and may cause stooping.
  • The disease can be misdiagnosed as dengue or zika as they have similar clinical manifestations.
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), the disease first came into the picture during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in the year 1952.
  • The disease mostly affects the populaces of Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Carotid Artery Disease:
  • When there is a larger deposition of plaque in the arteries resulting in hardening and narrowing of the blood vessels, it is called as atherosclerosis.
  • There are 2 common carotid arteries in the human body – located on either side of the neck.
  • Within a few minutes of blood supply being blocked from reaching the brain, the brain cells begin to die.
  • Women above the age of 75 years are more likely to develop this condition. It is more common among men, below 75 years.
Calluses:
  • Calluses are larger in size as compared to corns and have ill-defined margins. Corns, on the other hand, are well-defined, circular and compact structures.
  • Irritation, pressure or friction might cause callus formation.
  • Calluses are pale or yellowish in color and less sensitive to touch as compared to the surrounding normal skin.
  • Calluses are typically formed in the weight-bearing regions.
  • Calluses are usually painless.
  • Calluses can be found on the hands of guitarists, gymnasts, weight-lifters, tennis players, manual laborers etc. as their hands are repeatedly exposed to friction.
Hemolytic Anemia:
  • RBCs make up almost 40% of human blood and are carriers of oxygen throughout the body.
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia might be linked to onset of other medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and even thyroid and kidney disorders.
Foot Corns:
  • The name corn is coined due to its resemblance to a kernel of corn.
  • Corn has a central core of hard material and is thereby different from a callus.
  • Corns are usually painful when pressed while calluses are usually painless.
  • Corns and calluses affect around 20% to 65% of people above 65 years of age.
  • Corns are also known as helomas or clavi.
  • There are two variants of corn- soft corn (heloma molle) and hard corn (heloma durum).
  • Corns usually occur on the non-weight-bearing parts of the skin.
  • Your foot contains around 250,000 sweat glands.
Aneurysm:
  • 1 out of every 50 Americans has an unruptured aneurysm, which roughly translates to 6 million people.
  • 4 out of 7 people who do survive a ruptured aneurysm tend to develop severe physical disabilities.
  • It is important to diagnose this condition since there are no initial visible symptoms and initial hemorahhge can lead to death.
Winter skin hazards:
  • In winters, the skin might become sensitive to hot showers. Hot showers deprive your skin of all the essential oil and leave it dry and itchy.
  • Having a dry skin is a condition known as xerosis.
  • Moist clothes worn in winter can lead to yeast infection and skin irritation.
  • You need sunscreens in winters too! No matter how cold it might get outside, wearing a sunscreen is essential for protection against harmful UV radiations.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis and rosacea worsen during the winter season.
  • Humectants such as glycerine, propylene glycol, hyaluronic acid etc. are oil free and absorb moisture from the air.
Impetigo:
  • The pathogens responsible for causing impetigo (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) are the same as the ones causing strep throat.
  • In many cases, impetigo is confused with blisters and rashes caused by contact with poison ivy.
  • Heat, humidity, crowded places, and soiled diapers – all of these can give rise to this infection.
  • If left untreated, the pathogen can enter the bloodstream and lead to severe infections such as pneumonia.
Ventricular hypertrophy:
  • In many cases, ventricular hypertrophy arises as a result of aortic stenosis or high blood pressure.
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy is more common among highly trained professional athletes.
  • Structural changes to heart caused as a result of high blood pressure, in turn leads to more cardiovascular issues.
  • In many patients, ventricular hypertrophy might be present for a long duration of time without leading to any visible or observable symptoms.
Baldness:
  • Genetic hair loss can be inherited from either side of the family.
  • Hair loss is not always due to the damage to the hair shaft. Harmful effects on the hair follicle or the root of the hair can also cause hair fall.
  • Hair is the second fastest growing tissue in the human body after the bone marrow.
  • Only 1% of the world’s population has red colored hair making it the rarest hair color in the world. Black is the most common hair color.
Ankle sprain:
  • The ankle is the most commonly sprained joint in the human body.
  • Approximately 50,000 individuals living in the United Kingdom suffer from ankle sprains every day.
  • Approximately 2 million ankle sprains occur every year in the U.S.
  • Around 25% of all bones in the human body are located in the feet as each foot has 26 bones. Additionally, it has 33 joints, 19 muscles, 107 ligaments, and 19
  • Factors like poor nutrition, increased body mass, and incorrect posture can increase the chances of getting an ankle sprain.
Asthenia:
  • Some famous personalities having myasthenia gravis are- David Niven, Aristotle Onassis, Sir Lawrence Olivier and many more.
  • Around 20% of asthenia patients remain undiagnosed.
  • The only muscle that never tires out is the heart. The average human heart beats 60 to 100 times in a minute pumping around 2500 gallons of blood in a day.
  • To move one step forward, you have to use 200 muscles of the body.
  • It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
  • Muscles make up around 40% of the total body weight.
Spina Bifida:
  • Neural Tube Defects (NTD) affect every 7 out of 10,000 births in the United States.
  • Out of all the permanently disabling birth defects, spina bifida is the most common in the United States. Out of 4 million newborn babies, it affects around 1500 to 2000 babies.
  • Approximately 166,000 individuals with spina bifida live in the United States.
  • There are three types of spina bifida: meningocele, myelomeningocele and, occulta.
  • The most common site of spina bifida is the lower back.
Myocardial infarction:
  • The main cause of heart attack or myocardial infarction is coronary artery disease.
  • Around the world, one heart attack occurs every 20 seconds and one individual dies due to a heart attack every minute.
  • A silent heart attack occurs without any symptoms and is common among diabetes patients.
  • The cost associated with heart attacks is more than $60 billion/year, which includes hospitalization, medication, and doctor charges.
Prostatitis:
  • Prostatitis commonly affects males between the age group of 30 to 50 years. Prostatitis is the most common issue related to the prostate gland in males under the age of 50 years.
  • Approximately 10 to 12% of all males experience symptoms related to prostatitis. Prostatitis affects approximately 10 to 15% of the U.S. male population.
  • The prostate is a small gland of the size of a walnut.
  • Around 2 million visits per year to the outpatient urology department in the United States are made due to prostatitis.
Weight gain:
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 2.8 million people die worldwide each year due to obesity.
  • Overall health risks increase if the waist circumference measurement is greater than 35 inches in females and greater than 40 inches in males.
  • Safe and reasonable weight loss is losing 1 to 2 pounds in a week.
  • Daily intake should be reduced by 500 to 1000 calories in order to reduce around 1 to 2 pounds in a week.
  • In order to lose weight, approximately 60 to 90 minutes of moderate physical activity is required daily.
Peptic Ulcers:
  • Contrary to popular belief, a majority of stomach ulcers aren’t a result of spicy/oily food or stress. They are caused due to a bacterial infection of H. pylori.
  • More than 300,000 individuals have to undergo surgical intervention for treating peptic ulcers due to its chronic nature.
  • Prolonged consumption of drugs such as aspirin and NSAIDs is another major reason for peptic ulcers.
  • Peptic ulcers are more widespread in the western countries, with almost 10% of the population getting peptic ulcers at least once in their lifetime.
Burning mouth syndrome:
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) affects approximately 1% of the adult population.
  • Deficiency of nutrients such as zinc, folate, iron etc. can also cause BMS.
  • BMS is also known as stomatodynia.
  • Females have a predilection towards BMS. It is 5 times more common in females as compared to males.
  • Just like inimitable fingerprints, humans have unique tongue prints and tooth prints.
  • The tongue is the only muscle that is attached at only one end.
  • The tongue does not get swallowed as it is attached to the floor of the mouth through the frenum. The base of the tongue is also anchored to the floor of the mouth.
Vitiligo:
  • The average age for onset of vitiligo is in the mid-20s.
  • Around 15-25% of people suffering from vitiligo also get affected by at least one more autoimmune disorder.
  • Globally, vitiligo affects between 0.5-1% of the population.
  • About 1/5th of people with vitiligo have at least one close relative who is also suffering from this disorder.
Ankylosing spondylitis:
  • Apart from the spine, ankylosing spondylitis can affect the other joints, eyes and several internal organs.
  • Genetics plays an important role in causing the disease. However, only 1 to 5% of individuals having the HLA-B27 gene develop ankylosing spondylitis.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis mainly occurs between 17 years to 45 years of age.
  • The stooped posture caused by ankylosing spondylitis is known as kyphosis.
  • The most common complication of ankylosing spondylitis is the fusion of the spine.
Enteritis:
  • As per information furnished by the World Health Organization (W.H.O), Campylobacter is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world.
  • Campylobacter is 1 of 4 chief global causes of diarrheal diseases.
  • The campylobacter infection is usually foodborne and can spread through undercooked meat, raw milk etc.
  • The small intestine is the longest organ in the human body that measures up to 6 meters (20ft) in length.
Bone fracture:
  • Globally, osteoporosis results in over 8 million fractures every year.
  • Worldwide, there is an osteoporotic fracture taking place every three seconds.
  • 1 in every 3 women over the age of fifty experiences osteoporotic fractures.
  • Nearly 75% of distal forearm, spine, and hip fractures occur in patients who are 65 years old or more.
Cholecystitis:
  • More than 90% of cases of cholecystitis occur due to the presence of gallstones, which lead to the blockage of the cystic duct.
  • Gallstones are mainly formed from the hardening of cholesterol.
  • If left untreated, cholecystitis may lead to life-threatening complications such as necrosis or rupture of the gallbladder.
  • More than 80% of individuals having gallstones are asymptomatic.
  • The best investigative procedure for gallstones is ultrasound.
  • Though the gallbladder stores bile juice (which is required for digestion), it is not an essential organ.
Blood thinners:
  • Blood thinners do not change the consistency of the blood or make it less thick. Blood thinners prevent the formation of unwanted and harmful clots in your blood vessels.
  • Blood thinners increase the risk of bleeding. During anticoagulant therapy, you might experience frequent instances of nose bleeding, internal bleeding, bruises, heavy menstrual periods, bleeding gums, prolonged bleeding etc.
  • Many blood thinners might cause birth defects.
Acanthosis nigricans:
  • If you have type 2 diabetes or are overweight, chances of developing this type of skin pigmentation is high.
  • Drugs such as niacin or OCPs (oral contraceptive pills) can also play a role .
  • One should cut back on sugar and starch intake to witness improvements.
  • Many opt for cosmetic procedures such as chemical peeling or laser therapy in order to get rid of the dark patches.
Leukocytosis:
  • Certain medications which are used in the treatment of inflammations, mental disorders, respiratory issues, or cancer can cause the WBC count to surge.
  • The process used to decrease the WBC count is known is leukapheresis. In this, the blood is drawn from IV, WBCs are removed, and then the blood is again supplied back to the patient.
  • WBCs make up only 1% of our bloodstream. Our body produces 100 billion WBCs every day.
  • A healthy adult should have 4,000-11,000 WBC count/ mL of blood.
Spinal cord tumors:
  • Most of the diagnosed spinal cord tumors are secondary stage or metastatic stage cancers.
  • Even if the spinal cord tumor is non-cancerous, it can still have life-threatening repercussions.
  • There are no known causes of spinal cord tumors. No specific defective gene has been identified.
  • Having the disease neurofibromatosis 2 can increase one's likelihood of developing spinal cord tumors.
Dyspepsia:
  • Dyspepsia is a chronic disease that could last for years.
  • NSAIDs, antibiotics, and estrogen tablets are found to cause dyspepsia in many patients.
  • This type of GI dysfunction is not observable through naked eyes or the microscope
Leukoplakia:
  • Those who have AIDS or cancer might develop a distinct type of leukoplakia called as "hairy leukoplakia". The white patches are fuzzy which give a hair-like look.
  • Abrasions on tongue due to rough edges of teeth or ill-fitting dental crowns could be a reason.
  • Red-colored lesions or patches, known as erythroplakia, is an indication of precancerous stage.
Metal toxicity:
  • The most highly toxic and polluting metals are mercury, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, and lead. These are also called heavy metals and POPs (persistent organic pollutants).
  • Leaded fuels, industrial wastes, smelting of ores, and leaching of toxic metals into water bodies due to acid rains are the leading causes of metal toxicity
  • Increased exposure to mercury can cause irreversible damage to the kidney and to the central nervous system.
  • Numerous herbal and ayurvedic supplements have found to be contaminated with lead.
Dyslexia:
  • The word dyslexia has Greek roots which literally mean “dys” -difficult and “lexis” – language. It was initially called as reading blindness.
  • Most cases of dyslexia go undiagnosed and it is found in both genders equally.
  • There are no cures for dyslexia. There are different methods to enable the dyslexic child to learn and understand the language as opposed to usual methods.
  • Alexander Graham Bell, Whoopie Goldberg, Steve Jobs, Galileo Galilei, and Steven Spielberg are some of the noted personalities who struggled with dyslexia.
Glycemic Index:
  • Glucose is the substance that gets most readily absorbed in the blood. That is why it has the highest GI value (100).
  • The higher is the glycemic index, the faster it gets absorbed into the blood stream.
  • A glass of sugary aerated drink, around 250 ml, has a GI value of 63. The value for white bread is 73 and baked potato is 85.
  • Amongst fruits, grapefruit has one of the lowest GI value. Its GI value is 25 whereas for raw banana is 52.
Scoliosis:
  • There are almost 3 million cases of scoliosis diagnosed ever year in the USA alone, with a majority of these prevalent among children aged between 10-12.
  • There are no known preventive measures against this condition.
  • Only 30% of the patients require bracing and 10% require surgical intervention.
  • Experts contend that if surgery is required, the sooner it is done, the better is the prognosis.
Bacterial infections:
  • Though the word bacteria is often associated with a negative tone, a majority of bacteria are actually good for your health.
  • A human body plays host to roughly trillions of healthy bacteria, most of which thrive in our intestinal tract.
  • Bacteria take one of these three shapes - rod-shape( bacilli), spherical (cocci), and helix-shaped (spirilla).
Amoebiasis:
  • There are almost 500 million cases of amoebiasis recorded every year, a majority of which happen in tropical and sub-tropical countries.
  • This disease spreads mostly when drinking water or food has been contaminated with human feces.
  • Immunocompromised individuals such as pregnant women, infants, elderly people, and cancer or AIDS patients are most likely to suffer from this condition.
Tongue infections:
  • Both Kawasaki disease and scarlet fever can cause red pigmentation of the tongue.
  • Several medications such as NSAIDs or ACE inhibitors can lead to swelling of the tongue.
  • The most common form of oral cancer is SCC or Squamous cell carcinoma.
  • White discoloration of the tongue can arise from a number of diseases such as thrush infection, leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, or linea alba.
Orofacial cleft:
  • It is one of the most common congenital disorders found in new-born babies.
  • It is observed more in male babies as compared to female, the ratio being 3:2.
  • The prevalence of orofacial clefts can range anywhere between 1 in 500 to 2500 live births. It is most commonly found in babies of Asian ethnicity.
Diphtheria:
  • In 1921, there were 206,000 cases of diphtheria diagnosed in the USA. By widespread use of vaccinations, this was reduced to just 2 cases from 2004 to 2015.
  • The worldwide prevalence of this disease is around 7,321 as per a 2014 report.
  • The bacterium responsible for diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheria) causes the inflammation of cardiac muscles and nerves which can cause paralysis and is highly fatal.
Hyperventilation:
  • This condition is called the “silent epidemic’ since it is closely associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders.
  • Hyperventilation causes increase in the alkalinity of the body by a sudden decrease in the amount of carbon-dioxide present in the bloodstream.
  • It is observed in 30% of all asthmatic patients and is more common in women than in men.
  • Episodes of anxiety and hyperventilation are closely associated and often form a vicious cycle.
Spondylitis:
  • Ankylosing spondylitis is most commonly prevalent among young people, within the age group of 15-35, whereas spondylitis is generally seen in people above the age of 40.
  • Spondylitis maybe genetic in nature in many cases.
  • Men are more susceptible to developing of cervical spondylitis than women. Males account for 80% of all spinal related injuries
Rett syndrome:
  • This neurological condition, though primarily affecting girls, is also observed in boys too.
  • It is a very rare disease with prevalence being as low as 1 in every 10,000-15,000 live female births.
  • There are prenatal tests to detect Rett syndrome in the unborn baby.
  • Bruxism or teeth grinding, delayed skull growth, and panic-like episodes are frequently observed in individuals with Rett syndrome.
Otitis media:
  • By the time they reach 3 years of age, 75% of children would have suffered from at least one episode of otitis media.
  • Passive smoking, weak immune system, not being breastfed, and a familial history of auditory canal infections can increase the likelihood of otitis media.
  • Ear infections are less common among adults as compared to children.
Lead Poisoning:
  • No amount of lead exposure is deemed safe for human beings, especially children.
  • Exposure to lead in pregnant women can cause severe birth complications such as pre-term birth, miscarriages, still-born babies and several developmental issues in the baby.
  • The levels at which children absorb lead from the surroundings is 4-5 times higher than those of adults.
  • Lead immediately mixes with the bloodstream and reaches vital organs such as liver, kidneys, brain etc.
Bell’s palsy:
  • This condition is named after the surgeon, Sir Charles Bell, who studied the facial nerve and was able to link it to the facial paralysis condition.
  • Bell’s palsy is not a result of a stroke but is due to a traumatic injury to the facial nerves.
  • Facial nerves have complex functions in the human body. Hence, any damage to these nerves can degenerate a number of facial features and processes.
  • It affects both genders equally. It is more commonly prevalent in patients with diabetes or upper respiratory tract disorders.
Rabies:
  • Rabies can be acquired from both domestic and wild animals.
  • Almost 95% of all rabies cases are reported in Asia and Africa with 99% of these cases occurring as a result of dog-bites.
  • Almost 59,000 fatalities occur every year due to rabies.
  • Rabies can only be transferred from animals to humans, hence it is known as a zoonotic disease.
Hypermetropia:
  • Vision defects, such as hypermetropia or hyperopia, are commonly categorized as refractive errors.
  • In the USA, over 60% of the population require vision correction out which 30% of individuals are presbyopic or “far-sighted”.
  • Long exposure to computer screens is the leading cause of occupation-related vision impairment.
  • Individuals with hyperopia have smaller eye-balls compared to people with normal eyesight.
Traumatic fractures:
  • Osteoporosis is the leading cause of fractures worldwide with 1 osteoporosis-related fracture occurring every 3 seconds.
  • Nearly 75% of all hip fractures occur in women. In case of men, especially below 50 years of age spinal fractures are more common.
  • In young population, traumatic femur fractures occur as a result of high-impact and multi-system trauma. In old people, it is usually associated with low-energy impacts.
  • The bones of wrist, hips, and spine are most vulnerable to traumatic fractures.
Edema:
  • Consumption of a lot of salty food can cause edema because the body will try to dilute the extra salt with water and retain it for a longer period of time.
  • Sometimes, blood clots and varicose veins may also result in the swelling of the legs (usually just one) similar to edema.
  • It is more a symptom of an underlying disorder rather than being a disease itself.
  • Pulmonary edema occurs as a result of fluid-retention which moves towards the lungs which may cause severe respiratory issues.
Polycystic Kidney Disease:
  • Individuals who have polycystic kidney disease (PKD) also show cyst-formations in other organs such as liver, pancreas, spleen, and the gut region.
  • Not every patient of PKD suffers from kidney failure but the incidence can be as high as 50%.
  • Currently, around 500,000 people in the USA are suffering from PKD.
Giardiasis:
  • Giardia intestinalis or Giardia lamblia is the most commonly occurring intestinal parasite in the world, affecting roughly 1/5th of the general population.
  • This is the number one cause of non-bacterial diarrhea in the USA.
  • Since it’s highly prevalent in areas with poor sanitation, people in developing countries face are at higher risk for this disease.
  • The Giardia lamblia parasite can survive in chlorinated water for 15 minutes. It can, thus, cause infection in people even if the water contains chlorine.
Klinefelter’s Syndrome:
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome was first recognized in 1942 by Dr. Harry Klinefelter, as a malfunction of the endocrine system.
  • The prevalence of this disorder may be as high as 1 out of every 500 male births.
  • 10% of boys diagnosed with Klinefelter’s syndrome also fall into the autism spectrum.
  • This disorder is not a genetically transferred condition. It occurs as a result of some issues during the egg development stage of the fetus.
Male pattern baldness:
  • In almost 95% of all men suffering from hair loss, male pattern baldness is the reason. Currently, 35 million American men experience this form of baldness.
  • 66% of men start observing the signs of hair loss and loss in the shine of the hair by the time they reach the age of 35. 25% of the men start noticing this by the age of 21.
  • There is an increase in the number of people opting for hair restoration procedures. Roughly 800,000 men and women sought this treatment in the year 2008 alone.
  • Genetics has a strong role to play in the onset of male pattern baldness. 30 million women and 50 million men experience baldness due to genetic factors.
Hearing Loss:
  • In the USA, roughly 48 million people suffer from some degree of hearing loss. The chances of having impaired hearing increases with increase in age.
  • 1 out of every 3 individuals above the age of 65 experiences loss of hearing to some extent.
  • Hearing loss acquired at the workplace or educational settings make up for more than 60% of all the reported cases.
  • 0.2-0.3% of children born in the USA having some form of congenital hearing problem.
Gout:
  • Due to increase in the obesity rates in the USA, gout prevalence is at an all-time high with roughly 8 million people in the USA alone suffering from it.
  • Gout manifests in intermittent periods of flares (sharp pains) and remission (no symptoms).
  • The most commonly affected joints are the big toes, knees, ankles, and other toe joints.
  • 5% of all arthritis cases are caused by gout.
Gallstones:
  • Most of the gallstones are created out of an excess accumulation of cholesterol.
  • It is most commonly found in pregnant women, elderly population, and obese individuals.
  • In almost all cases where gallstones are detected, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery is prescribed to remove the gallstones.
  • There are no visible symptoms of gallstones. They are not even detected via x-rays.
Chronic Pelvic Pain:
  • Roughly 15% of women in the USA within the age group of 18-50 suffer from chronic pelvic pain which goes undiagnosed.
  • Pelvic floor muscles are responsible for bladder control, supporting pelvic organs, and facilitating pain-free sexual activities.
  • For pelvic pain to be categorized as chronic it needs to be lasting longer than 6 months and shouldn’t be showing improvements through usual treatment protocols.
Chronic Kidney Disease:
  • 2 million people are on dialysis globally, yet, this huge number represents only 10% of all the people who actually need it.
  • Due to a scarcity of resources and proper medical care, millions die because of CKD every year.
  • Diabetes and high blood pressure are closely associated with the onset of such renal dysfunction. 1 out of every 3 diabetic patients and 1 out of every 5 high blood pressure patients are diagnosed with CKD.
Tapeworm infection:
  • Tapeworm infected human beings spread tapeworm infection when they defecate in the open as their feces contain tapeworm eggs.
  • Globally, around 100 million cases of tapeworm infections are reported every year.
  • Many people sell tapeworms as a measure of weight loss, though this practice is largely illegal.
  • The longest tapeworm is the beef tapeworm which can grow as long as 30 feet.
  • These parasitic worms don’t have a digestive tract; every part of their body absorbs food and lays eggs.
Proteinuria:
  • People who have kidney functioning 60% lesser than that of normal levels have high chances of suffering from proteinuria.
  • Diabetes and high blood pressure increase your chance of developing protein urea.
  • This condition is also referred to albuminuria because albumin is the type of protein whose excess levels are detected through the tests.
  • Proteinuria is detected by the dipstick test in which a urine test strip is inserted in the urine sample and change of color is noted to identify the underlying disorder.
Thalassemia:
  • There are two categories in which thalassemia can be divided – alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia; according to the type of haemoglobin component missing from the blood.
  • Having severe childhood anemia is the most noticeable symptom for detecting thalassemia.
  • This condition is also known by other names such as Constant Spring, Cooley’s anemia, and Hemoglobin Bart Hydrops Fetalis.
  • It is transmitted only by genetic inheritance. It is the most common genetic disorder found in general population.
Lymphoma:
  • In the USA, 1 person is diagnosed with blood cancer every 3 minutes. Every 9 minutes, 1 person succumbs to death.
  • The Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common types of cancer in the USA; 4% of all cancers detected fall in this category.
  • It has been estimated that around 80,500 people (including adults and children) will be diagnosed with this condition by the end of 2017. The number of such fatalities is approximated around 21,200.
Toxic Shock Syndrome:
  • Toxic shock syndrome or TSS affects more women than men, because of use of menstruation-related products such as tampons (90% of all TSS cases).
  • Surgery, insect bites, injury, and even burns can cause staph/strep bacterial invasion leading to TSS.
  • 1 or 2 out of every 100,000 women acquire this infection. It is a relatively rare infection.
Muscular dystrophy:
  • The incidence of DMD or BMD (Duchene/Becker muscular dystrophy) was as high as 2.37 million men in the USA alone, according to a 2007 report.
  • Duchene muscular dystrophy can be detected in a fetus during pregnancy.
  • There are no preventive measures against this condition. 1 out every 3000 babies are affected by this condition in the USA.
  • It is prevalent more in males than in females. The first signs of muscular deterioration are seen in the muscles of upper legs and arms.
TMJ - Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction:
  • TMJ dysfunction affects around 35 million Americans, which is 12% of the entire population.
  • Under this condition, one of the 12 cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve, is severely affected. These cranial nerves are responsible for 80% of all the sensory inputs to the brain.
  • In most cases, TMJ dysfunction symptoms disappear gradually, without any medical intervention.
  • Women are 2-3 times more likely than men to experience the TMJ pain.
Premature Birth:
  • Babies born before the completion of the 37th week of pregnancy are called as pre-term babies. In severe cases, a baby might be born ever before the completion of 28th Such babies are extremely pre-term.
  • The number of babies being born in pre-term state globally is 15 million, every year.
  • Though there are a lot of factors linked to a baby being born pre-term, in many cases the reason is not identified.
  • Complications resulting from such a birth are the leading cause of fatalities in children under the age of 5 years.
Lower Back Pain:
  • 80% of Americans suffer from backaches. There has been a considerable increase in the number of people reporting lower back aches.
  • More women experience lower back pain as compared to men (30.2% vs. 26.4%).
  • Pregnancy and a largely sedentary work style are the biggest contributors to lower backache.
  • Other factors which could be held responsible are stress, sports injuries, obesity, poor posture etc.
Thrombophilia:
  • Thrombophilia is not a rare condition; almost 2 million people suffer from this condition annually in the USA alone.
  • Abnormal blood clots kill almost 200,000 Americans every year.
  • This is a highly fatal disease as roughly 10-30% of patients diagnosed with thrombophilia die within a month of detection.
  • The condition relapses once every 10 years in 1/3rd of the patients.
Prickly Heat Rash:
  • The medical term for prickly heat rashes is Miliria.
  • It is usually found more in infants and children because their sweat glands are not properly developed; hence they often trap the sweat.
  • If the body is not able to cool down by adequately releasing sweat, heatstroke may result.
  • Prickly heat rashes generally clear up within a few days.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome:
  • More than 2.5 million Americans have been diagnosed with this disease.
  • The name “chronic fatigue syndrome” is largely considered a misnomer by the medical community; a more suitable name for the condition has been set as “systemic exertion intolerance disease”.
  • In a majority of cases, the suffering experienced by the individuals is trivialized and nor given proper attention by others.
  • Disturbed slumber, impaired cognition, frequent headaches and sore throats, and weakened immune systems – these are other major symptoms of the condition in addition to the fatigue.
Bed Bugs:
  • Due to more population density and increased mobility, urban areas tend to have 3 times more bed bug infestations than rural areas.
  • One bed bug, on an average, lays 1-5 eggs per day and can produce more than 500 eggs over its course of life.
  • Bed bugs have high survival capacity; they can thrive in temperatures nearing to freezing point to more than 120 F.
  • They have huge blood-sucking capacity too; they can suck blood almost 7 times their body weight.
Zika Virus Infection:
  • The Zika Virus is spread by the bite of the infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. The latter is also responsible for spreading yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya.
  • The last recorded outbreak of the Zika virus, which was located in Brazil, is theorized to have escalated during the football World Cup in 2014.
  • Almost 90 million people in Latin America were at a risk of contracting this disease, with almost 1.7 million population being expecting mothers.
  • There have been more than 2300 reported cases of Zika virus-induced microcephaly.
Itching:
  • The most causes of itching are allergies, eczema, insect bites or microbial attacks, pregnancy, rashes, and dry skin.
  • The medical term for itching is “Pruritus”.
  • Overall body itching could be a warning sign for underlying liver disorders.
  • Stress and sunburn are also responsible for causing unexplained itching.
Hand Fracture:
  • For individuals lesser than 75 years of age, wrist fracture is the most common type of bone fracture. For people above this age, hip fracture is the leading type of fracture.
  • Contrary to common belief, 40% of all fractures occur at home.
  • There are more than 6.3 million cases of fractures reported every year in the USA.
  • Hand fractures constitute almost 10% of all the fractures.
Cheilitis:
  • This condition is referred to by many names – angular stomatitis, perleche, angular cheilitis etc.
  • It mostly occurs in those children who drool while eating and/or who fall sick too often.
  • In stressful situations, our body’s immunity system weakens. This weakened immune system is responsible for cheilitis hence it’s more common in kids, pregnant women, and the elderly.
  • In severe cases, cheilitis may leave behind semi-permanent scars which are visible when one opens the mouth.
Keratitis:
  • A dry eye condition or a scratched cornea makes the eye susceptible to keratitis.
  • The main culprit is the deficiency of vitamin A, which is linked to poor vision too.
  • In case of dendritic keratitis, the lesions look like veins of a leaf.
  • People living in farm-like conditions generally develop the fungal type of keratitis.
Ingrown Toenail:
  • An ingrown toenail can also occur as a result of fungal infections or losing a nail due to injury.
  • Developing an ingrown toenail could be hereditary sometimes.
  • Around 18% of the entire adult population of the USA experiences this condition at least once.
  • People with big toes or more-than-normal curved toes are more prone to developing an ingrown toenail.
Hyperthyroidism:
  • Women are 10 times more prone to hypothyroidism than men.
  • 1 out of every 500 pregnancies is linked with this condition.
  • Thyroid malfunctioning affects more than 20 million people worldwide.
  • 80% of all the Graves disease cases occur in women.
  • Hypothyroidism is 8 times more common than hyperthyroidism.
  • This condition is largely acquired genetically.
Flat Feet:
  • There are 26 bones, 33 joints, 107 ligaments, 19 muscles, and more than 250,000 sweat glands in each human foot.
  • Flat feet are prevalent in almost 20%-30% of the entire population.
  • Flat feet do not always exist since birth. One can have acquired flat feet condition owing to certain injuries or illness or even aging.
  • During running, the feet experience a pressure as high as the 3-4 time your body weight.
Scarlet Fever:
  • The bacterium Streptococcus or group A strep is the microbe responsible for this infectious disease, although only 10% of the group A strep bacteria release toxins which lead to scarlet fever.
  • The group A strep bacteria is found most commonly on a patient’s skin and throat.
  • This disease mostly affects children and teenagers within the range of 5-15 years, with a characteristic skin condition resembling sandpaper.
  • 80% of individuals affected by this disease are below 10 years of age.
Shoulder Fracture:
  • The shoulder bone is medically known as proximal humerus. The humerus bone is the largest bone in the upper body.
  • According to a 2000 report, the number of shoulder fractures occurring yearly is more than 700,000.
  • The older you get, the more likely you are to suffer from a bone fracture. If you have had a prior fracture, your chances of experiencing another fracture increase by 80%.
Pus:
  • The main constituents of pus are white blood cells, infection-causing microbes, and some amount of decomposed body tissues.
  • Depending upon the nature and magnitude of the infection, the pus could be green, yellow, or brown in color.
  • Pus is a protein-rich fluid since it contains leukocytes (white blood cells).
  • One liter of cow’s milk contains roughly 200 million pus cells.
Leptospirosis:
  • Outbreaks of leptospirosis mostly occur after heavy rainfall and flood. This disease is more commonly prevalent in countries with tropical or sub-tropical climate.
  • It is largely a non-contagious disease; human-to-transference of the infection is rare.
  • Contact with animal urine is one of the most common causes of leptospirosis. The microbe enters our system through cuts on our skin or mucous membranes.
  • Men are more affected leptospirosis than women. One of the reasons could be that the occupations which are high-risk factors for this disease (agriculture, sewer workers, and meat- shop workers) are male-dominated.
Bowel Obstruction:
  • Intestinal adhesions (bands of scar tissues), Volvulus (entangling of intestine), and Herniation are the major reasons for mechanical bowel obstructions.
  • Non-mechanical obstruction (where peristalsis is not involved) can occur as a result of appendicitis, poor mineral absorption, use of opioids or liver malfunction.
  • 1 out of every 4 cases of small bowel obstruction demands surgical intervention.
Lockjaw:
  • The name lockjaw has been derived from the classic symptom of this disease causes spasms in the muscles of the jaws. The word tetanus originates from the Greek word “taut” which means tight or pulled.
  • Lockjaw is more common in regions with a hot and humid climate and soil is rich in organic matter.
  • The number of worldwide fatalities has decreased from 356,000 to 59,000.
  • Though the name suggests that it affects the muscles of the jaws only, lockjaw can, in fact, cause muscular spasms along chest, neck, and torso areas too.
Rickets:
  • This disease largely disappeared after the 1940s largely because of the fact that margarine and cereals were infused with vitamin D. But with children now spending lesser time outside, many experts believe this disease might make a return.
  • Rickets is most prevalent in children belonging to the age group 6 months to 3 years.
  • Children with darker skin are more prone to rickets since their bodies synthesize lesser vitamin D when compared to light-skinned children.
Coma:
  • The word Coma has Greek origins and literally means deep-sleep.
  • It is caused by an injury to the brain which can happen due to bleeding in the brain, oxygen deficiency, or increased cranial pressure.
  • Out of all comatose individuals, around 67% will recover from the condition while the rest 33% will succumb to death within the coma.
  • People above the age of 40 show poorer recovery rate from the coma state.
Freckles:
  • Individuals with freckles have a unique MC1r gene, which is also associated with red hair. Hence people with freckles will often have red hair.
  • Freckles are a result of the production of pheomelanin, which protects skin from harmful UV rays.
  • The scientific word for freckles is ephilis.
  • Freckles pose no health dangers, unlike moles.
Prolapsed Uterus:
  • This condition has been documented in ancient Egyptian texts (1500 B.C) and has also been mentioned in Greek medical texts during the time of Hippocrates.
  • 14% of the women in the USA showed classic symptoms of uterine prolapse. 44% women showed some degree of prolapse, if not all.
  • Women who have a BMI higher than 35 are at more risk of developing this condition.
  • Smoking is a leading cause for prolapsed uterus since nicotine decreases the elasticity of pelvic floor muscles.
Birthmarks:
  • Birthmarks are nothing more than clusters of malformed pigment cells or blood cells.
  • Vascular birthmarks can be both – congenital or acquired. They occur in 1 out of every 10 babies.
  • 1 out of every 3 infants is born with a birthmark. Girls usually have twice as many birthmarks than boys.
  • Opposed to many cultural myths, a birthmark is not caused by the activities of the expecting mother. There are no known causes for the appearance of birthmarks.
Preeclampsia:
  • The exact cause of the disease is still largely unknown even though this condition has been studied since the past 2000 years.
  • Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of deaths during childbirth, responsible for almost 13% of all maternal deaths.
  • In a study conducted in 2002, roughly 6.6 million women suffered from preeclampsia.
  • It is one of the main reasons doctors advise for the premature birth of babies. In developed countries, around 15% of premature births are due to preeclampsia.
Postpartum Infections:
  • The onset of almost 94% of all postpartum infections occurs after the individual has been discharged from the hospital.
  • These infections usually begin 48 hours after the birth of the child.
  • If the placenta is not completely removed during the childbirth, it may lead to postpartum infections.
  • If the amniotic fluid has been infected during the time of pregnancy, the woman is at a higher risk of acquiring these infections.
Undescended Testes:
  • It affects only 3% - 4% of baby boys at birth. 50% of these are self-corrected by the age of 3 months.
  • In 5% of all undescended testes cases, one side testes is completely missing.
  • Individuals suffering from undescended testes have higher chances of developing testicular cancer.
  • It can be broadly classified into categories – congenital and acquired. Congenital happens when the condition is present from the birth and acquired in those who develop is after the birth.
Dementia:
  • Dementia is often misunderstood as a single disease, whereas in reality, it refers to a group of diseases which are mostly related to severe memory loss and personality changes.
  • It affects more than 47 million people worldwide. More than half of these belong to low and middle –income nations.
  • Each year around 10 million new cases of dementia are being reported, making it as frequent as 1 case reported every 3 seconds.
Ovarian Cysts:
  • About 5-10% of women suffering from ovarian cysts undergo surgery for the removal of ovarian cysts.
  • Only 13-21% of ovarian cysts are cancerous.
  • The ovarian cyst may well need surgery if a woman is past menopause.
  • Around 8% of premenopausal women have large cysts which require treatment.
Fibrocystic Breast Changes:
  • Mostly affecting women over the age of 30, this condition is mostly linked to hormonal fluctuations during menstrual cycles.
  • Due to the similarities in lumps formations, this condition can often mask breast cancer.
  • Controlling and reducing menstrual irregularities is critical in treating fibrocystic breast changes.
  • Monthly breast exams and yearly medical evaluations can help in early diagnosis of the condition.
Rectal Prolapse:
  • In general, it affects women more than men. 80% of all rectal prolapse patients are females.
  • Almost 50% of all suffering from this ailment experiences the issue of fecal incontinence.
  • Rectal ulcers and constipation are also largely observed in rectal prolapse patients.
  • Excessive pushing during defecation is the leading cause for rectal prolapse.
Transverse Myelitis:
  • There are two age groups where this condition is observed widely – 10-19 years and 30-39 years.
  • Almost 1400 cases of transverse myelitis are reported every year. Currently, over 33,000 Americans are suffering from this disorder.
  • More than half of the reported cases of transverse myelitis are idiopathic in nature.
  • Though the exact cause of this disease still eludes the scientific community, it has been majorly linked with other diseases such as rabies, syphilis, Lyme’s disease, and even chickenpox.
Spinal Stenosis:
  • Spinal stenosis might not show symptoms in many. It will be detected only through X-rays or MRI scans.
  • Spinal stenosis can lead to serious medical complications such as troubled breathing, loss of bowel and bladder control, permanent nerve damage and even death.
  • It is prevalent in 8% - 11% of the entire population of the USA and is most commonly observed in people above the age of 50.
Trigeminal Neuralgia:
  • This disease affects one out of every 15,000 to 20, 000 people and is most commonly found amongst women over the age of 50.
  • The presence of this disease is both remitting and progressive in nature. The episodes of pain might disappear for weeks and months, but this period of remission will decrease gradually. The subsequent episodes become worse.
  • About 150,000 cases of trigeminal neuralgia are diagnosed every year.
Sleeping Sickness:
  • The trypanosome parasites are categorized into two groups based on their location – Trypanosoma brucei found in the sub-Sahara region of Africa (Tsetse fly) and Trypanosoma cruzi found in South America (kissing bug).
  • Pets and domestic animals can also serve as a host to trypanosome parasites.
  • The rural demography of sub-Saharan Africa is most vulnerable to this disease owing to the large breeding of the tsetse flies in this region.
  • Effective screening methods have reduced the number of reported cases. In 2009, the number was first brought down below 10,000 and in 2015, it was as low as 2800.
Huntington Disease:
  • Though it mostly affects adults in their 30s-40s, there is a rare form of this disease called as juvenile Huntington’s disease, which begins in the childhood or teenage years.
  • Juvenile form progresses more rapidly than adult version of the disease.
  • 30% to 50% of children diagnosed with Huntington’s disease will experience seizures.
  • The prevalence of this condition is 5 to 7 out of every 100,000 people , yet in certain regions of Venezuela its is as high as 700 in every 100,000.
Dislocated Jaw:
  • Owing to the U-shape of the lower jaw, it is more vulnerable to injuries and half of the times it will fracture in multiple places.
  • Though it is most commonly caused by a trauma or physical impact, a dislocated jaw can also happen due to non-trauma reasons too such as chewing.
  • Chewing and yawning are the leading causes of non-traumatic jaw dislocations.
  • Dental procedures, vomiting, and even certain surgeries are responsible for jaw dislocations non-trauma type
Postpartum Depression:
  • Postpartum depression is very different from the colloquially termed “baby-blues” which affects around 80% of new mothers.
  • Every year, postpartum depression affects around 11%-20% of all the women who give birth.
  • In the USA, around 600,000 women have diagnosed with postpartum depression annually.
  • Postpartum depression affects more people than leukemia, lupus, Parkinson’s disease, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s combined.
Dyscalculia:
  • 3-6% of the population is estimated to be affected by developmental dyscalculia.
  • Normal children are able to recall arithmetic facts about 3 times better than children with developmental dyscalculia.
  • In primary schools, around 5% of children are affected by dyscalculia.
  • 20-60% of those affected by dyscalculia have other co-morbid disorders like dyslexia and attention deficit disorder
Hay Fever:
  • Globally, hay fever affects about 10-30% of the population.
  • About 7.8% of adults in the U.S. have hay fever.
  • Allergy shots help in reducing symptoms of hay fever in around 85% of people with hay fever.
  • It is most common in the age group of 15 to 59 years.
Dysentery:
  • Globally, dysentery can result in about 1.1 million deaths every year.
  • The rate of misdiagnosis of bacillary dysentery in all age groups is about 23.
  • 99% cases of dysentery take place in developing nations.
  • No major war from Peloponnesian War (in 431 B.C.) to World War II has been fought without troops getting affected by dysentery.
Abscess:
  • 10% of patients develop a repeat abscess within next 12 months.
  • Most common sites for abscesses are ear and leg.
  • About 50% of people with perirectal abscesses can have swelling around their rectum.
  • There are more than 10 million cases of abscess in India every year.
Cluster headache:
  • In cluster headache, 52% of patients are anancastic (those who have compulsive-obsessive behaviors and thoughts).
  • The male to female sex ratio for cluster headaches is 2.1 to 1.
  • Around one in thousand people suffer from cluster headache.
  • In men, cluster headaches usually peak when they are in their 40s.
Deafness:
  • In the U.S., about two to three out of every thousand children are born with a certain level of hearing loss in both ears.
  • More than ninety percent of deaf babies are born to parents with normal hearing capacity.
  • The most significant level of hearing loss is seen in people in the 60-69 age group.
  • About 15% of adult people in the U.S. report some type of hearing problem.
Kawasaki Disease:
  • Earlier, it was known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome.
  • There are no exact diagnostic tools for detecting Kawasaki disease.
  • 1 out of 50 children suffering from this condition may develop a heart condition.
  • It is non-contagious in nature.
  • It is most commonly found in children of Asian and Pacific ethnicities and affects children who are less than 5 years of age. Boys are more susceptible than girls.
  • In the continental USA, this disease affected around 9-19 children out of every 100,000 kids.
Genetic diseases:
  • Many mental disorders and behavioral issues are genetically inherited, such as substance abuse, anxiety, ADHD, anorexia etc.
  • Cystic fibrosis is a fatal disease in children that is genetically inherited. It affects 1 out of every 3200 Caucasian births.
  • 80% of all rare diseases are genetic in nature. Only 5% of these diseases have known treatments.
  • HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria are some of the most communicable diseases which can occur due to genetic influence.
Neural tube defects:
  • Babies with severe form of neural tube defects (NTD) are either stillborn or die within a short span after the birth.
  • The most common form of neural tube defects is the spina bifida, a condition in which the backbones are not fully formed around the spinal cord.
  • In the USA, the spina bifida is detected in 7 out of every 10,000 births. Another neural tube defect, anencephaly, is diagnosed in 1200 new-born babies annually.
  • The neural tube is formed during the 6th week of pregnancy, during the embryonic stage.
Alcoholism:
  • Young people (15-24) involved in drinking alcohol are 7.5 times more likely to experiment with illegal drugs. There is a strong link between heavy alcohol consumption and cocaine use.
  • Alcohol consumption is linked with almost 40% of all reported violent crimes. It is associated with the three leading causes of deaths namely accidents, homicides, and suicides.
  • Alcoholism is the 3rd leading cause of fatalities, in the USA, which is preventable in nature. The other two are smoking (tobacco consumption) and unhealthy diet (mostly obesity).
  • Alcoholism claimed the lives of almost 3.3 million people in 2012, which was 5.9% of all global deaths.
Muteness:
  • Selective mutism is studied as an extreme form of social phobia.
  • Selective mutism can be effectively treated with Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT).
  • Majority of children, who suffer from muteness, or even selective mutism, have a genetic tendency for anxiety. They are highly likely to develop anxiety disorders.
  • People with selective muteness have an over-reactive amygdale (the fight-or-flight response centre in our brains).
  • Children who suffer from this condition are observed to have a severely inhibited personality type, right from the birth.
Tonsillitis:
  • Human beings have 4 different kinds of tonsils – palatine (at the back of the throat), lingual (base of the throat), tubal, and adenoidal.
  • Tonsillectomy procedure has been a part of human civilization for the past three millennia.
  • Tonsillar cancer is a sexually transmitted disease spread by the HPV virus.
  • It is most commonly diagnosed in children within the age group of 4-7 years. It is rarely seen in adults over the age of 40 or infants less than 2 years of age.
SARS:
  • The earliest reported case of SARS occurred in February 2003, in Asia. It took only a few months for this massive epidemic to spread across over 12 countries in the Americas, Europe, and other Asian countries.
  • From November 2002 to next year July, around 8000 plus cases of SARS were reported out which 774 cases succumbed to death.
  • In March 2003, it was declared as a “Global threat” by WHO.
  • Since 2004, no SARS outbreak has been reported anywhere.
Plantar Fasciitis:
  • Plantar Fasciitis is the number one cause of heel pain.
  • People within the age-group of 40-60 years are more susceptible to this condition since the tissues of the heel start losing out on their elasticity.
  • 10% of the entire global population will experience this pain at some point in time.
  • The total load your feet carry throughout an average day is almost equivalent to a fully-loaded cement truck.
  • 25% of the American population has the flat-foot condition, which increases the likelihood of developing this condition. People with very high arches also have an increased tendency for Plantar Fasciitis.
Dysgraphia:
  • The term “Dysgraphia” is derived from a Greek word which in English translates to “impaired at writing by hand”.
  • Individuals with dysgraphia are often misdiagnosed with dyslexia.
  • It is estimated that approximately 5% of the population has dysgraphia.
  • According to an online survey conducted by the National Center for Learning Disabilities (New York) in the year 2012, approximately 66% of the population is unaware of dysgraphia.
  • There are 5 subtypes of dysgraphia identified by researchers till date- spatial dysgraphia, dyslexic dysgraphia, visual dysgraphia, motor dysgraphia, and phonological dysgraphia.
Dyspraxia:
  • Dyspraxia affects men almost twice as much as it affects women.
  • Since few of its typical symptoms are common with dyslexia, such as lack of organization and short-term memory, many people confuse it with dyslexia, in some cases ADHD too.
  • The manifestation of symptoms is never exactly same for any two patients. Some might have sensory related issues while others with motor-function disabilities.
  • In numerous cases, it is either misdiagnosed or under-diagnosed.
Pott’s disease:
  • In pott’s disease paralysis might result from the compression of the spine.
  • Spinal tuberculosis accounts for around 2 % of all the tuberculosis cases.
  • According to the World Health Organization (W.H.O), approximately one-third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis.
  • In the year 2016, there were approximately 10.4 million new cases of tuberculosis diagnosed worldwide.
  • The spinal cord works independently. In certain cases, the spinal cord can directly send signals to the muscles without any stimulation from the brain. This is known as the spinal reflex.
Type 1 Diabetes:
  • Type 1 diabetes constitutes only 5% of all the diabetes cases.
  • It affects Caucasians more than African-Americans. Both males and females are equally affected by type 1 diabetes.
  • Currently, around 3 million Americans are suffering from type 1 diabetes, with almost 40,000 people being diagnosed with it annually in the USA.
  • The yearly health cost posed by type 1 diabetes is as large as $14 Billion.
Encephalitis:
  • The virus responsible for encephalitis can be spread either epidemically or sporadically. Example of an epidemic of this virus can be seen in case of polio, whereas the sporadic occurrence of the virus is presented in case of mumps.
  • Diseases that may cause encephalitis include HIV, polio, rabies, measles, chicken-pox, and mumps.
  • There are different forms of this disease, based on the geographical location they are most commonly found in – St. Louis encephalitis, California encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis etc.
  • A fatal form of encephalitis is herpes simplex encephalitis, where the mortality rate is as high as 70% if left untreated.
Intestinal Adhesions:
  • Intestinal adhesions can cause life-threatening level of bowel movement obstruction.
  • They cannot be detected through medical imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans.
  • 30% - 60% of all bowel movement obstructions are caused by intestinal adhesions.
  • The severe blockage caused by adhesions may render laparoscopic methods completely
  • The chances of developing adhesions are high (50%- 55%) if the individual has undergone an abdominal surgery.
  • These are also responsible for pelvic dysfunction.
Progeria:
  • This condition is also known as Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome.
  • It is an extremely rare disease affecting only 1 out of 8 million births. Currently, there are only 80 known cases of progeria globally.
  • In one year, a progeria patient typically ages as much as a normal person does in 10 years. During a lifespan of 12-14 years, they age an equivalent of 100+ years.
  • Surprisingly, this condition doesn’t affect the individual’s intellectual or motor skills.
  • There are genetic tests available for detecting this condition.
  • The most common reason for death amongst progeria patients is a stroke, caused by hardening of arteries (arteriosclerosis).
Night Blindness:
  • This condition is also called as nyctalopia which means reduced vision at night time or low-light conditions.
  • The name “night-blindness” is misleading since it causes impaired vision and not total blindness during night-time or low-lighting.
  • This condition is most commonly found in children below the age of 3 years and pregnant women.
  • Myopia, cataract, vitamin A deficiency, and retinitis pigmentosa are the major factors responsible for night-blindness.
Color Blindness:
  • The term color-blindness is largely a misnomer. 99% of all color-blind people are not really color-blind, just color deficient.
  • It affects men more than women. Roughly, 8% of all males suffer from color-blindness, whereas it affects only 0.5% females.
  • Contrary to popular belief, canines are not color-blind.
  • Green-red color blindness is the most common form of color-blindness.
Chromium Toxicity:
  • Chromium is one of the most commonly occurring elements in the earth’s crust and seawater.
  • The pure form of chromium as a metal is harmless to human beings. Trivalent chromium is present in traces in our body. It is the hexavalent form of the metal that is truly toxic.
  • It is mainly caused owing to the hazardous working conditions in certain industrial areas.
  • Chromium is an important element in the normal working of insulin and metabolism of fats.
Heel Pain:
  • There are 52 bones in your feet, which is almost 25% of all the bones in your body.
  • On an average, a person would have walked an equivalent of 75,000 miles by the time he/she reaches the age of 50.
  • Roughly 10% of the entire global population suffers from Plantar Fasciitis, one of the most common reasons for heel pain.
  • Women are more likely to develop heel spurs owing to the kind of footwear they wear (high heels) and men are more likely to have Achilles tendonitis since they participate more in sporting activities.
  • In 90% of cases of heel pain, the painful symptoms are greatly reduced without surgical intervention. Proper rest, orthotic supports, and supplements are enough.
  • Heel-height as small as 2.5 inches can increase the pressure of the forefoot by 75%.
Myasthenia Gravis:
  • Almost 85%- 90% of the individuals with myasthenia gravis develop generalized MG (arms, legs, and torso).
  • In 10%- 15% of the patients, only ocular MG is observed (restricted to eye muscles).
  • If the disease is restricted to the eye-region only for three years, it doesn’t extend to a generalized form.
  • Around 36,000 cases have been reported for this condition in the USA.
  • Affects women more than men, especially in the ages of 20s to late 30s. Mean age of onset for women is 28 while for men it is 42.
Mononucleosis:
  • Kissing is not the only way this infection is transferred. Any activity which causes transference of saliva such as sharing toothbrush or utensils can spread this infection.
  • Just because the symptoms have vanished doesn’t mean you are not carrying the Epstein - Barr virus (EBV).
  • The symptoms may take as long as a month or even more to manifest after the exposure to the virus.
  • By the time people reach the age of 35-40 years, 95% of them must have been infected by the EBV virus (in the USA).
  • Plentiful of rest is the only treatment option for mononucleosis.
Speech disorders:
  • According to the American Speech-Language-Learning Association, approximately 7.5 million people in the U.S have speech disorders.
  • Lisping is a kind of articulation disorder. Drew Barrymore is a famous actress that speaks with a lisp.
  • Spasmodic dysphonia, a voice disorder caused by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx (voice box), can affect anyone.
  • Almost 1 in 12 (7.7 percent) U.S. children (ages 3-17) has had a disorder related to voice, speech, language etc. in the past 12 months.
  • Research suggests that the first 6 months of life are the most crucial to a child’s development of language skills.
Bladder training:
  • The capacity of a healthy bladder is to hold around 300-400 ml of urine during the day and 800 ml during the night time.
  • Emptying bladder as soon as you wake up is a healthy habit. Throughout the day, a person, on average, urinates roughly 2-3 times and once before bedtime.
  • Bladder incontinence affects 1 out of every 3 individuals above the age of 60 years.
  • More women are affected by bladder incontinence than men, 5:1 ratio.
  • Incontinence is also prevalent amongst young women (6% of all women between 15 to 44 years of age).
  • Bladder incontinence is not a disorder in itself but rather a symptom of an underlying condition.
Scurvy:
  • The disease of scurvy is not limited to human beings only. Many pets such as hamsters and guinea pigs also suffer from this disease, which is quite lethal in such animals.
  • Since vitamin C is mostly found in fresh fruits and vegetables, sailors often suffered from scurvy since they didn’t have a wide access to such foods.
  • The most recent outbreak of scurvy was observed in Afghanistan, as an after effect of the war and famine. It was also observed during the Irish Potato Famine and the American Civil War.
  • Though this disease is highly treatable, if left undiagnosed it can claim the life of the individual owing to complete suppression of immunity.
  • Currently, almost 27 million Americans have very low levels of vitamin C putting them at high risk for scurvy.
  • This disease is more common amongst lower income population since they have lesser access to healthy fresh produce.
Thrush:
  • Thrush is a fairly common fungal infection infecting around 46,000 people in the USA annually.
  • The number of reported cases has increased 3-4 times in the last few decades.
  • It is not counted as a sexually transmitted disease because it can occur in women in the absence of any sexual contact too.
  • 1 out of every 5-6 women plays host to the fungi which cause vaginal thrush.
Turner Syndrome:
  • Turner syndrome always affects females. It occurs as a result of the absence of one X chromosome.
  • This condition goes by many names – gonadal dysgenesis, monosomy X, and Bonnevie-Ulrich syndrome.
  • It affects 1 in 3000-5000 live female births. It is prevalent in 1-2% of female conceptions, almost all of which are aborted during the 1st  
  • This condition is not inherited from either parent.
  • A majority of girls suffering from this condition have the disease in mosaic form, i.e, not all cells are mutated; only some are.
 
Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  • Studies reveal that the number of patients diagnosed with this condition has doubled in the past decade.
  • 1 out of every 16 individuals has experienced NPD symptoms in the USA (6.2% of the total population).
  • Many experts believe that they are found widely in financial sectors since they can take decisions which can affect a large demography of people without thinking about the consequence.
  • It is co-morbid with depressive disorders.
  • There are two types of narcissists – Vulnerable and Grandiose.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS):
  • The life expectancy of an ALS individual is 2 to 5 years after being diagnosed.
  • Cases of ALS mostly occur sporadically through the population.
  • Military veterans are twice as likely to be diagnosed with ALS.
  • Around 15 new cases of ALS are reported every day in the USA.
  • Men are 20% more likely than women to develop this condition.
  • ALS is not contagious.
  • The intensity of muscle deterioration may fluctuate. For some weeks, the individual may not see any degeneration and then suddenly there might be an increased loss of muscle function.
  • Stephen Hawking holds the world record in surviving through ALS for more than 40 years.
Polio:
  • 5% of poliomyelitis cases can lead to irreversible paralysis in the patient, a small percentage among which die due to immobilization of respiratory tract.
  • In 1988, there were 350,000 reported cases of polio worldwide which reduced to only 37 cases in 2016.
  • Polio is an incurable disease but it can be successfully prevented by proper vaccination.
  • Almost 16 million people have been saved from the lethal grip of this disease only through widespread immunizations.
  • Polio causes inflammation of the meninges tissues, which is termed as aseptic meningitis to differentiate it from the meningitis caused by bacteria.
  • Countries like Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria are Polio endemic countries that have not yet stopped transmitting the Polio virus due to less than adequate vaccination.
Whiplash:
  • The pain from a whiplash injury usually starts 2 hours from the initial impact, though in many cases it may take days or weeks for the pain to become observable.
  • You can get a whiplash injury from certain sporting activities such as snowboarding, boxing, soccer, or gymnastics.
  • 6% of patients complain about chronic pains which are old whiplash injuries.
  • It doesn’t necessarily involve cars going at very high speeds. The threshold limit of your cervical column is 5mph. It means that even if your car gets rear-ended at a speed as low as this, you might get a whiplash injury.
  • Children suffering from whiplash injuries tend to suffer from disturbed sleep, mood swings, nightmares, poor academic performance. It often goes undiagnosed amongst kids.
Stuttering:
  • There are almost 70 million people globally who stutter; in USA alone there are 3 million stutters.
  • 1 out of every 100 children will suffer from this condition for a lifetime; most of them get rid of stuttering by the age of 7-8 years.
  • The problem of stuttering runs in families, i.e, there are specific genes responsible for this condition.
  • It is more prevalent in males than in females, the ratio is 4:1.
  • Stress is not a cause of stuttering but stressful situations can cause the individual to stammer more.
  • By the year 2040, there will be approximately 450 million people who have stuttered in their life time and 90 million active stutterers. The present count is 360 million and 72 million respectively.
  • Self-administered computer programs like the Kassel program are being used as a therapy that records variables like voice, breathing etc. and gives immediate feedback.
Sleep Paralysis:
  • Most people hallucinate or feel the presence of devilish or shadowy creatures lurking near them. They also complain of increased pressure on the chest.
  • There is no treatment or cure for sleep paralysis. Anti-depressants might work with people who frequently experience such episodes.
  • Different cultures have different interpretations of this phenomenon. Its Japanese name translates to “tied to metal”, whereas the Chinese refer to it as “ghost oppression”. Many Americans have related this phenomenon with being abducted by an alien.
Migraine:
  • Migraine is the 3rd most common illness prevalent worldwide with over a billion people affected by it.
  • It affects women more than men (18% compared to 6%). 10% children are diagnosed with migraine symptoms.
  • Almost 90% of people miss work/school because of migraine attacks. It is a severely disabling pain.
  • More than 4 million individuals experience chronic migraine issues. 85% of these are women.
  • The age group which is most prone to a migraine is 35-55 years.
  • Usually, migraine pain occurs on only one side of the side but in 1/3rd of the cases, patients experience in both the sides.
Heavy Periods:
  • The medical term for heavy periods is menorrhagia and is defined as excessive bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days.
  • On an average, a woman experiences 500 menstrual cycles, during each of which she loses 1000 eggs.
  • Even a slight abnormality between the estrogen and progesterone levels can throw the normal menstrual cycle out of whack.
  • The most problem accompanying heavy periods is anemia, which can leave the woman largely weak and fatigued.
  • Non-menstrual related conditions such as thyroid level imbalance, renal issues, kidney problems etc can also cause menorrhagia.
  • Menopause and birth-control pills are also responsible for irregularities in menstrual cycles.
Seborrhoeic Dermatitis:
  • Nutritional disorders such as anorexia, substance abuse of alcohol, and life-threatening conditions such as HIV or stroke are closely related to seborrheic dermatitis.
  • 5% of the entire population has dermatitis. It is non-contagious. Men are more affected than women.
  • The rashes usually don’t leave a mark on the infant’s scalp.
  • It is associated with ailments which compromise body’s immune system.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis occurs in areas of skin where the concentration of oil glands is large.
Agoraphobia:
  • If you have a blood relative who suffers from anxiety disorder, you are at a higher risk of developing agoraphobia.
  • Children diagnosed with “behavioral inhibition” are at high risk of becoming agoraphobics.
  • Having experienced theft, robbery, or violent physical and sexual abuse, outside one’s home may make a person agoraphobic. Most common reason is the death of a closed one.
  • Women are more likely to suffer from it, almost 2-4 times more than men.
  • The average age of onset of this disease is 15-35 years.
  • It has strong links with depression.
Arsenic Poisoning:
  • The safety standard for arsenic content in water is 3 ppb or 3 parts per billion, roughly 10mcg/L.
  • Arsenic exposure is frequently linked with self-harm (suicide) or homicide or industrial exposure.
  • A garlicky smell of breath and a fluid build-up in tissues is generally seen in individuals who have arsenic poisoning.
  • In many countries, the groundwater is contaminated with inorganic form of arsenic which is subsequently used for drinking and irrigation purposes.
  • Tobacco plants absorb more arsenic from the soil compared to other plants. Hence, tobacco users are more likely to experience arsenic toxicity.
Drug Overdose:
  • In 2013, drug overdose was responsible for 46,000 deaths in the USA alone. Around 50% of these were caused by heroin or prescription painkillers.
  • Drug overdose through prescription drugs has surpassed the number of incidents through any other kind of drug (methamphetamine, PCP, heroin combined).
  • Consumption of prescription opioids and heroin has increased massively in the past 5 years.
  • Overdose is not limited to regular users only. People who rarely try it or are trying it for the first time can also overdose.
  • Studies show that drug abuse kills more people than car accidents, gun shots, or falling.
  • Globally, around 187,000 people succumb to death due to drug overdose.
  • Other addictions have also shown strong correlation to heroin addiction. People who are addicted to opioids are 40 times more likely to be heroin addicts. For cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol, these figures are 15, 3, and 2 respectively.
  • 2011 statistics reveal that around 60 million Americans are using prescription drugs for sleeping. Also, 80% of the global painkiller consumption is done by the USA.
Keratosis Pilaris:
  • It is a fairly common skin condition affecting nearly 30%- 50% of the entire adult population.
  • It is more widespread in teenagers, with 50% - 80% of all adolescents having this condition.
  • It affects females more than males and the young population more than old.
  • In extreme cases, laser therapy may also be used to get rid of the skin bumps.
Dyspnea:
  • Most patients suffering from this condition complain of feeling “hungry for air”.
  • Dyspnea is as commonly prevalent as physical pain in case of serious ailments.
  • Dyspnea is usually not treated as a disease itself, but rather an indication of an underlying cardiac or pulmonary condition.
  • High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) can also cause dyspnea. This usually happens during 1st three days of sudden altitude change and affects about 20%-30% of all mountain climbers.
  • It is difficult to estimate the percentage of population suffering from this condition due to its widespread nature.
Lewy Body Dementia:
  • It is a fairly common neurodegenerative disease, affecting around 1.4 million individuals in the USA alone.
  • Anti-psychotic drugs may lead to NMS or neuro-malignant syndrome in LBD patients. This leads to kidney failure and death.
  • It is the second most common type of dementia.
  • 75% of all LBD patients will experience visual hallucinations at least once during the course of the disease. Hence, it is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder.
Listeria:
  • 2009 FoodNet surveillance data reports that 89.2% of Listeria patients in the USA were hospitalized, which is the highest hospitalization rate for any pathogenic bacterial infection.
  • People above the age of 50 have the highest fatality rate due to listeriosis, roughly 17.5%.
  • Depending on the risk group, rates of death from listeriosis range from 10% to 50%, with the highest rate among newborns in the first week of life.
  • The fatality rates are different for different groups of people. It ranges from 10% to 50%. Infected newborns are most susceptible to deaths in the first week.
Microcephaly:
  • Due to the bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, many children were born due to this genetic abnormality since their mothers were exposed to dangerous levels of harmful radiations.
  • In the 19th and 20th century Europe, children born with this abnormality were sold to circus and freak shows and were referred to as “pinheads”.
  • This disease is also known as “craniosynostosis”.
  • Owing to the Zika virus outbreak in Polynesia, 1% of infected pregnant women gave birth to babies with microcephaly.
Hemophilia:
  • One-third of all hemophilia cases are not caused by genetic transference of affected gene. These are mostly caused by genetic mutations.
  • According to the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH), about 1 in 10,000 people are born with this disease.
  • 1 in every 5,000 male births is affected by hemophilia. The frequency of type A is 1 in 5,000 to 10,000 whereas that of type B is 1 in 40,000.
  • Ashkenazi Jews are more likely to suffer from this disease as compared to any other ethnic group.
Achilles Tendon Injuries:
  • Three-quarters of all Achilles tendonitis injuries are caused during sporting activities, mostly the ones which require repetitive jumping and running.
  • 1 out of every 4 cases of Achilles tendonitis requires surgery. 20% of these individuals require a repeat surgery.
  • Bone growth occurs in case of Insertional Achilles tendonitis. This occurs at the point where the tendon attaches itself to the heel.
  • Exercising/ playing outdoor sports in cold climates or hilly areas also increase the likelihood of damaging the Achilles tendon.
Aphasia:
  • Aphasia usually occurs suddenly, without any specific warning signs.
  • Since there are no known cures for this condition, the communication disability may last for a very long time.
  • Stroke is the 3rd leading cause of death in developed countries such the USA and UK. Roughly, 1 out of every 3 stroke cases results in aphasia.
  • About 750,000 cases of strokes of reported in the USA every year.
Costochondritis:
  • Both costochondritis and Tietze’s syndrome have similar kinds of symptoms. Yet, the former is more commonly found in people above the age of 40 and the later, under the age of 40 years.
  • Costochondritis affects more people than Tietze’s syndrome.
  • In 90% of costochondritis cases, more than one joint is affected.
  • Of all the cases admitted in primary care, 1-2% of them are related to chest pains.
  • 10% - 30% of chest pains in kids is due to costochondritis.
Borderline Personality Disorder:
  • 6% of the total American population has been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (over 4 million people).
  • Women are 3 times as likely as men to be diagnosed with this condition.
  • Studies indicate a strong correlation between this disorder and suicidal tendency. Roughly 70% of borderline personality individuals have tried to commit suicide at least once.
  • It is one of the most commonly misdiagnosed mental disorder; around 40% of the cases are wrongly diagnosed as depression or bipolar disorder.
  • 88% of patients show complete recovery (no longer meet the diagnosis criteria) 10 years after the treatment period.
  • Stigma around the disease can deter the individual from seeking help.
Anti-Social Personality Disorder:
  • There are roughly 7.5 million reported cases of this condition in the USA. Around 3% - 30% of all psychiatric patients show symptoms of ASPD.
  • It affects males more than females.
  • The prisons in the USA are known to be a home to the most number of psychopaths in the world. Around 80% of all male prisoners exhibit symptoms of ASPD.
  • Popular studies also indicate a high prevalence of this condition in CEOs of highly ranked companies.
Brown Recluse Spider Bites:
  • Brown recluse spiders have 6 eyes (3 pairs) instead of the usual 8.
  • They are also referred to as “fiddle-back” spiders since they have a characteristic violin-shaped mark on their back.
  • They are hardly found outside the zone of central and mid-western states of the USA.
  • They never attack unless they are pressed against your skin.
Chiggers:
  • Chiggers bites are neither contagious nor they cause any health complications such as infections, even if their enzymes mix with the bloodstream.
  • Contrary to popular myth, these larvae, unlike other mites, don’t burrow into the skin.
  • The attack of a chigger is not like a bee stinging or a mosquito sucking the blood. They puncture the skin and feed on dissolved tissues.
  • Scratching a chigger off the skin by hand or shower is helpful since a scratched off chigger seldom bites.
Cerebral palsy:
  • The total lifetime medical care cost for a child with cerebral palsy exceeds $ 1 million.
  • Multiple births (twins/triplets), pre-term births, and maternal infections increase the likelihood of the baby acquiring cerebral palsy.
  • Every year, around 10,000 babies are born with this condition, with more male babies detected with this disorder.
  • Behavioural disorders, impaired cognition, vision loss, and hearing disorders are largely prevalent in children with cerebral palsy.
Amnesia:
  • People with amnesia don’t forget everything about their life history; they lose only a part of their memory.
  • In patients with dissociative amnesia, the brain knowingly blocks a particular traumatic memory (physical/sexual abuse, murder, or suicide of a closed one), as a defense mechanism.
  • Anterograde amnesia ceases the formation of long-term memory. People with this condition register new memories but cannot recall it after a certain time.
  • 16% of war veterans report having partial memory loss, mostly pertaining to combat injuries.
Colic:
  • Roughly one-fourth of all babies meet the criteria set for colic.
  • Hardened or distended abdominal region is observed in many colicky babies.
  • The excess flatulence in babies is due to increased amount of air being swallowed by them owing to persistent crying.
  • A baby with colic-like tendencies is not necessarily an unhealthy baby.
  • Half of colic cases are cured by the age of 3 months, and almost 90% of them are normalized as the baby turns 9 months old.
Gingivitis:
  • Gum diseases are more responsible for tooth loss than is tooth decay.
  • If left untreated, gingivitis can lead to a more severe form of gum decay known as periodontitis which causes heavy damage to the tissue surrounding the teeth.
  • More than half of the American population suffers from gingivitis.
  • Smoking is a major cause of gum decay. A close second is vitamin C deficiency.
Gastroenteritis:
  • Within the time period of 1999-2007, the number of deaths caused by gastroenteritis increased by 200%.
  • Viral gastroenteritis is caused by 4 types of virus namely – rotavirus, calicivirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus.
  • More than 220,000 children are hospitalized for gastroenteritis-like symptoms in the USA every year, out of which 300 die due to extreme dehydration.
  • The most contagious form of gastroenteritis is associated with a bacterial onslaught of the Clostridium difficile (C. Diff), with a high concentration in college campuses and cruise ships.
Miscarriage:
  • Roughly 10-25% of all pregnancies terminate in miscarriage.
  • Maternal age, trauma, hormonal imbalance, and exposure to toxic substances such as nicotine or alcohol are the primary reasons for miscarriage.
  • Late age pregnancies, i.e, where the age of the expecting mother is 45 years or more, the chances of miscarriage are as high as 50%.
  • If a woman has already suffered a miscarriage, the chances of another miscarriage occurring are high.
Fatty Liver Disease:
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects roughly 30-40% Americans.
  • Obesity and diabetes are closely associated with the onset of fatty liver disease. Almost half of all type 2 diabetes patients and 1/3rd of all obese individuals in the USA are diagnosed with the fatty liver disease.
  • NAFLD affects almost 20% of the general population, and mainly due to rise in obesity, has increased by 200% in the last 20 years.
  • 10-30% of NAFLD patients can observe the disease progress into cirrhosis.
Cystic Fibrosis:
  • It is diagnosed in 1 out of every 2500 Caucasian births.
  • 1 in every 25 people carries the defective gene that causes cystic fibrosis.
  • Only 45% of the population diagnosed with cystic fibrosis is over 18. Rest 55% are children.
  • Cystic fibrosis decreases life-expectancy greatly; patients can live up to the age of 35 years.
  • There is no cure for cystic fibrosis.
  • It affects the sinuses, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, stomach, gall-bladder, pancreas, and the intestines.
Psychosis:
  • 1 out of 13 will experience psychosis at some point in their lives.
  • Every year, there are around 100,000 reported cases of teenagers and young adults experiencing the first episode of psychosis.
  • It is a treatable condition if detected early.
  • The term “psychosis” was first coined in 1845 by Ernst Von Feuchtersleben to describe the state of insanity.
  • It affects both the genders equally, with substance abuse being the biggest factor.
Scabies:
  • There are mentions of this disease in ancient Greek medical texts, dating from 25 BC.
  • It is impossible to acquire this disease from your pets.
  • A female scabies mite lays around 3-4 eggs per day and a total of 30 eggs in a lifetime.
  • The scabies mite is more active during the night; hence the severity of itching during this time is more.
  • 300 million cases of scabies infection are reported every year.
  • It can be transmitted through sexual contact too.
  • There are no over-the-counter drugs approved for treating scabies.
  • It is often misdiagnosed as eczema, mosquito-bite, or tinea.
TMJ - Temporomandibular Joint Disorders:
  • TMJ dysfunction affects around 35 million Americans, which is 12% of the entire population.
  • Under this condition, one of the 12 cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve, is severely affected. These cranial nerves are responsible for 80% of all the sensory inputs to the brain.
  • In most cases, TMJ dysfunction symptoms disappear gradually, without any medical intervention.
  • Women are 2-3 times more likely than men to experience the TMJ pain.
MRSA - Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus:
  • MRSA is popularly called as a “superbug” since it has increased resistance against many antibiotics.
  • MRSA infection is often confused with a spider bite.
  • According to a 2005 report, there were almost 95,000 reported cases of MRSA infection out of which 18,650 proved to be fatal.
  • The MRSA bacteria is responsible for more fatalities than pneumococcal, HIV, meningococcal, and flu deaths together.
  • MRSA doesn’t normally occur in soil or water. They are largely found in hospitals, schools, gyms, and prisons.
  • 1 out of every 3 healthy individuals is a silent carrier of the MRSA bacteria (no symptoms of infections exhibited).
Vomiting:
  • The medical term for vomiting is emesis and it is useful for the body since it helps in expelling harmful products from the stomach.
  • CVS or cyclic vomiting syndrome is a relatively rare condition found amongst children in which the individual vomits around 8 times every 20 hours.
  • Anaesthesia and painkiller drugs such as opioids can cause frequent vomiting. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy also suffer from repeated vomiting and nausea.
  • The main odor of vomit is due to the presence of butyric acid, a compound found abundantly in parmesan cheese.
Fevers:
  • Extremely high fever or hyperthermia is a state where the body is unable to regulate the temperature rise. It could be fatal.
  • The part of the brain that controls your body temperature is the hypothalamus. One of its most important functions is to keep your body at a consistent 98.6 F.
  • If a baby, under the age of 3 months has high body temperature you should immediately go to the doctor, without resorting to self-medication.
  • Body temperatures above 108 F can cause brain damage.
Heart failure:
  • 25% of all deaths in the USA are caused by heart failure every year that is roughly 610,000 deaths.
  • The most common form of heart failure is coronary heart disease, killing more than 370,000 people every year.
  • Taking health care services, medicines, and lost productivity into account, heart failure is responsible for a net expenditure of $ 108 billion.
  • Diabetes is a major contributor to the onset of cardiac failure. So are smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure.
Hypothyroidism:
  • Women are 10 times more prone to hypothyroidism than men (in iodine-deficient zones).
  • 1 out of every 500 pregnancies is linked with this condition.
  • Thyroid malfunctioning affects more than 200 million people worldwide.
  • Hypothyroidism is 5-8 times more common than hyperthyroidism.
Eczema:
  • Eczema is a commonly occurring skin condition affecting around 30 million Americans. It is found in 20% of children and 3% of adults worldwide.
  • Children and young adults with atopic eczema have also shown similar patterns in food-allergies.
  • Atopic dermatitis is the most common form of eczema prevalent in over 20 million people in the USA alone.
  • If both the parents have eczema, the chances of the off-spring developing this condition are as high as 80%.
Jaundice:
  • Excess build-up of bilirubin, when left untreated can cause brain damage. This condition, known as kernicterus could lead to cerebral palsy and hearing impairment in babies.
  • Premature babies, dark-skinned babies, and babies with Asian/Mediterranean descent have a higher risk of acquiring this illness.
  • Jaundice is widely prevalent in new-born babies. 60% full term and 80% pre-term babies fall a victim to this condition.
  • Bilirubin is a part of hemoglobin. It is produced primarily in the bone marrow.
Sciatica:
  • Sciatica shouldn’t be misunderstood as a diagnosis. It is actually a symptom of underlying spinal disk degeneration issue, most commonly pinching the sciatic nerve.
  • Muscular strains, pregnancy, and fractures can also cause the inflammation of the sciatic nerve.
  • It affects 2.2% of the general population with men being more affected by this condition than women.
  • In 90% of the individuals experiencing a sciatic pain, the pain subsides within 6 weeks of physiotherapy and medications.
Alopecia:
  • It is most commonly in children between the ages of 5 and 12. It affects both the genders equally. Around 50% of women suffer from this condition, in varying degrees. In men, the percentage increases with age (40% at the age of 35 years and 65% by the age of 60 years).
  • A fungal infection, Tinea captis is hugely responsible for hair loss in toddlers and school-going children.
  • Exposure to chemicals and burns can also lead to localized hair loss.
  • Crash diets, excessive consumption of Vitamin A, and certain surgeries can also lead to alopecia.
  • It usually affects 1% of the entire population. 20% of all the alopecia cases have genetic origins.
Knee Pain:
  • Amongst the 27 million people affected by osteoarthritis, a majority experience intense knee pains.
  • Roughly 130,000 knee replacement surgeries are performed every year in the USA. Individuals undergoing this surgery tend to show healthy knee movements for at least 20 years.
  • Knee pain caused by post-traumatic arthritis can render swollen and immovable knees. Such a pain is described by patients as being “locking” in nature.
  • Knee replacement surgeries have increased by 120% in the past decade.
Swine flu:
  • The swine flu epidemic in 2009-2010 claimed lives of more than 12,000 Americans, with almost 90% fatalities amongst the population lesser than 65 years of age.
  • It roughly takes 2 weeks for the body to build