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Anal Fistula

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Anal Fistula: Anal fistulas are not the same for everyone. The can differ depending upon the severity of the fistula Sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, HIV, or AIDS can also cause anal fistulas. These diseases attack the immune system
Anal Fissure: Fissures and hemorrhoids are not the same. Although the cause for both fissures and hemorrhoids can be a hard stool, the latter is due to the swelling of blood vessels outside or inside the anus. Both men and women can get anal fissures at any age. Nearly 1 out of 10 people suffer from anal fissures at some time in their life. Thus, anal fissures are relatively common.
Medication-Overuse Headache:  
  • It is a chronic daily headache and a secondary disorder which is caused by the overuse of acute medications.
  • The headache prone people have more chances of suffering from MOH(Medication Overuse Headache).
     
  • Using more than two or three analgesics per week can cause a chronic daily headache.
  • The people with primary headache disorders like migraine, cluster or tension-type headache are more prone to MOH(Medication Overuse Headache) when they are introduced to non-specific medications.
   
Caffeine-related headaches :
  • Caffeine gets absorbed into the blood and the tissues in the body after 45 minutes of the intake but it persists in the body for a very long time.
  • There are several foods and beverages which consists of caffeine besides coffee.
  • Caffeine resembles the molecular structure of the chemical called adenosine.
Sinus Headaches:
  • There are 4 types of sinusitis namely- Acute Sinusitis , Subacute Sinusitis , Chronic Sinusitis ,Recurrent Sinusitis 
  • Acupressure is one of the best ways of remedying or treating the Sinusitis problem.
  • The American Sinus Institute suggests using the essential oils for relieving the sinus pressure.
  • People with allergies to specific allergens and people suffering from asthma are more susceptible to Sinus Headaches.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):
  • Roughly 3.5% of the American population has been diagnosed with PTSD which is close to 5.2 million Americans
  • Women are twice as much likely to be a victim of PTSD owing to the serious issue of violence against women.
  • 1 out of every 11 individuals will be diagnosed with PTSD in his/her lifetime.
Night Terrors:
  • Night terrors occur in 1%-6% of children and is seen equally in boys and girls.
  • Night terrors usually end at the onset of adolescence
  • Most cases of night terrors have genetic origins. These tend to run in families.
  • These occur only in the N-REM stage of sleep whereas nightmares occur during REM stage (the stage where we get dreams).  
  • They usually last between 1-10 minutes of duration. 
Tourette's Syndrome:
  • Tourette’s syndrome is reported in almost 1% of all school-age children and teenagers.
  • Tourette’s syndrome  is named after Gilles de la Tourette, a French neurophysician who first published a paper on this disease.
  • In the USA, 1 out of every 160 children have been diagnosed with this condition.
  • This condition is 3 to 4 times more common in boys than in girls.
  • It has been observed that Tourette’s syndrome is comorbid with ADHD and OCD. 
  • In the past, Tourette’s syndrome was treated as a largely bizzare condition and similar to coprolalia (where one utters obscene or derogatory words). 
Varicocele:
  • Varicocele has a prevalence rate of 15% among the general population.
  • Boys in the age group of 15 to 17 years have the highest prevalence.
  • Studies indicate that around 35% of men facing fertility problems are generally affected by varicocele.
  • Did you know that 72% of men affected with varicose veins also suffer from varicocele?
Pain disorder:
  • The overall prevalence of chronic pain in the United States is around 35%.
  • Women are more affected by chronic pain as compared to men.
  • According to a survey by the Institute of Medicine, around 1.16 billion people suffer from chronic pain in the United States.
  • More than 60% of people affected by chronic pain are unable to work due to disability.
Tension headaches:
  • Tension headaches affect more than 1.8 billion people worldwide.
  • Tension headaches are more common in woman than men.
  • Prevalence of tension headache is approximately 40%.
  • Around 14 billion dollars are spent worldwide to treat headaches.
Exertional headache:
  • The prevalence of exertional headache in general population is around 10%.
  • Exertional headaches affect both men and women equally.
  • Majority of patients suffering from exertional headache also suffer from migraine headache.
Manic depression:
  • Bipolar depressive episodes tend to look a lot like classic depression.
  • The length of mood episodes can vary from person to person.
  • It can take a while to receive a proper diagnosis of bipolar disorder, which is often misdiagnosed as depression.
  • Treatment almost always involves medication, but effective drugs and dosages vary widely by individual.
Sensory diabetic neuropathy:
  • Diabetic neuropathy affects more than 130 million people worldwide.
  • According to an estimate, around 25% of diabetic patients get affected by neuropathy.
  • Hyperglycemia is the main risk factor for diabetic neuropathy.
Lymphadenopathy:
  • Lymph nodes are found individually or in groups.
  • Some Lymph nodes are as small as the head of a pin, while are as large as an olive.
  • Groups of lymph nodes can be felt in the neck, groin, and underarms.
  • Lymph nodes generally are not tender or painful.
Rubella:
  • Rubella may lead to testicular swelling in adult men
  • There are approximately 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome every year
  • The Americas were declared Rubella-free by the WHO in 2015
  • Rubella comes from a Latin word that means “little red”
  • Rubella is known as the German measles due to it being first classified as a separate disease by German physicians in 1814.
  • It is known as the three-day measles due to the symptoms generally going away after three days
  • Rubella was first described in 1740
Syncope:
  • People of any age can faint, but syncope in older adults is usually an indication of a serious underlying cause.
  • According to stats, 1 in 3 people experience syncope
  • Fainting was called swooning in England during the Victorian era
  • Well-to-do women in England often had something called a “fainting room” in the Victorian era
Dry cough:
  • Cough accounts for a maximum number of emergency room visits in the United States.
  • Cough that persists for more than four weeks is considered a chronic cough.
  • Prevalence of acute cough ranges between 9 to 64% whereas chronic cough is greater than 10%.
  • Around 360 million dollars are spent every year for over the counter cough medications in the United States.
Dyshidrotic eczema:
  • The word eczema originated from the Greek word “ekzema” meaning eruption.
  • About 1 in 2000 people are affected by dyshidrotic eczema.
  • About 15 to 30% of children are affected by this condition.
  • According to an estimate, more than 15 million Americans are affected by atopic dermatitis.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC):
  • DIC accounts for 1% of hospital admissions each year.
  • Bacterial sepsis accounts for 83% of DIC cases, which is followed by trauma and cancer.
  • It should be noted that DIC can also occur as a complication from surgery.
Yellow poop:
  • According to a survey, it has been estimated that around 1% of the total population experience yellow stools due to various reasons.
  • Celiac disease which can cause yellow poop affects 1 in every 1750 adults in the United States.
  • Irritable bowel disease affects more women than men and is also a factor that can cause yellow poop.
  • It has been estimated that Giardiasis affects 3 to 7% of the population in the United States with yellow diarrhea as the primary symptom.
Fanconi anemia:
  • Men with Fanconi anemia have decreased fertility.
  • Fanconi's anemia is often mistaken with Fanconi's syndrome; a condition that affects the person's kidneys.
  • Ashkenazi Jews and Afrikaners are much more likely than others to carry the recessive gene that causes FA
  • Fanconi anemia is usually diagnosed between the ages of 2 and 15.
Bloom Syndrome:
  • Most people with Bloom syndrome are likely to develop cancer over their lifetimes. They have 150-300 times the risk of developing cancerous growths as do people without this disorder.
  • David Bloom, a New York City dermatologist, first discovered this disorder in 1954
  • Men with BS have an average height of 148.5 cm and weight around 41.3 kg. Women, meanwhile, have an average height of 141 cm and weigh around 36.6 kg.
  • Infants and children who have BS have significant feeding problems, with them not having an interest in eating.
Plague:
  • The plague killed an estimated 100 million people (about one-quarter of the population) during the Middle Ages.
  • In 2003, more than 2,100 human plague cases and 180 deaths were recorded
  • There are fears that plague bacteria possibly could be used as a bioweapon by terrorists.
  • The last plague epidemic in the urban US was in Los Angeles in 1924/1925
Cloudy Urine:
  • A study conducted in the year 2015 showed that intake of cranberry juice capsules which is equivalent to 240-ml of cranberry juice cut the risk of UTI by half. It also showed that there were fewer attacks of UTIs in a year.
  • A 2007 study showed that the use of Vitamin C in pregnant women proved to be very effective in preventing UTI.
  • A study that examined patients with long-term use of catheters found they were more prone to developing UTI as their urine output levels are low.
  • The increased fluid intake had led to a significant decrease in UTI among a group of 28 self-monitored women who managed their hydration levels satisfactorily.
Pneumothorax:
  • Men are more likely to get a pneumothorax
  • While smoking is directly related to the risk of pneumothorax, family history also contributes to the incidences of a lung collapse
  • Catamenial pneumothorax is very rare and often misdiagnosed
  • Tall and thin people are at high risk of this condition
Yellow Jacket Sting:
  • Yellow jackets normally do not go very far (usually a mile) from their nest to look for food.
  • Male drones do not sting. Only the female yellow jackets attack.
  • 95% of stings are usually from a yellow jacket or a bee.
  • Children are usually the victim of yellow jacket stings as they tend to play outside.
  • Some insects mimic yellow jacks in order to scare their predators.
  • Some huge nests are known to house 100,000 yellow jackets.
  • There is a city in the United States called Yellow Jacket.
  • Drones are produced out of non-fertilized eggs
  • The yellow jacket is the mascot of the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Itchy Scalp:
  • The prevalence of scalp pruritus has been reported specifically with great rarity. Therefore, it is difficult to understand its epidemiology. It has only been reported based on other medical conditions.
  • The prevalence of itchy scalp across a wide range of medical conditions varies from as little as 13% to as high as 45%.
  • In a specific study of the itchy scalp in a French population, the prevalence was about 21.5%.
  • Studies show that itchy scalp or scalp pruritus has a detrimental effect on the quality of life.
Prediabetes:
  • Around 84 million Americans have prediabetes. 90% of them are not aware they have it.
  • In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with prediabetes has tripled as people have become more overweight and less active.
  • Indians and Alaska Natives are twice as likely to develop prediabetes compared to Caucasians.
  • More than 50% of Hispanic men and women are at the risk of developing prediabetes.
Hypocalcemia:
  • The incidence of ionized hypocalcemia is difficult to quantify.
  • In a study conducted in 2011-2014, the incidence of transient hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy (thyroid removal) was 27% and that of permanent hypocalcemia was 1%.
  • Hypocalcemia can be caused by a lack of vitamin D.
  • Most cases of hypocalcemia have no symptoms.
Dark Urine:
  • Urine helps remove creatinine, which could otherwise be toxic for the body.
  • Every day, for every 1 to 2 quarts of urine produced, the kidneys must work on approximately 120 to 150 quarts of blood.
  • A kidney works 24 hours a day.
  • A normal bladder holds up to 2 cups of urine.
Stuffy Nose:
  • Both the nose and the mouth can serve as entry points for air entering the lungs.
  • The cilia in the nose trap all the bad stuff that you breathe including pollutants, allergens, smoke, and even some bacteria and viruses.
  • Your nose protects you with its sense of smell, a fundamental sense that is vital to all life.
Smegma:
  • Though smegma is a substance of great chemical complexity, its exact composition is not known.
  • The only components scientists know it contains are neutral fats, sterols, fatty acids, and cell debris.
  • Smegma quickly changes its chemical composition upon atmospheric exposure.
Inverted nipples:
  • During the 19th century, a woman’s health was diagnosed by examining her nipples.
  • Some women have 2 nipples in one breast
  • Nipple pain is common in women
  • Nipples change in size especially during pregnancy
  • Discharge from the nipple may be a sign of health problems
  • There is a rare condition that causes a person to be born without nipples
Pharyngitis :
  • It has been estimated that pharyngitis accounts for 12 million emergency room visit every year in the United States.
  • Around 50% of pharyngitis cases are in the age group below 18 years.
  • Around 80% of sore throat cases are caused by viruses.
  • It has also been found that pharyngitis cases are higher in countries where there is a higher dependence on antibiotics.
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder:
  • OCPD has a prevalence of 2.1-7.9% in the general population.
  • It has a prevalence of 7.9% in the United States and considered the most common personality disorder.
  • Men are affected twice as often as women with OCPD.
  • It has been estimated that around 9% of psychiatric patients can be affected by OCPD.
Temporal Arteritis:
  • Temporal arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) seen in adults and generally affects the elderly. Its incidence rate is 15–35 out of every 100,000 people older than 50 years in studies conducted in Scandinavia, Minnesota (USA), and the UK.
  • The incidence is highest in Scandinavian countries that share a Viking ancestry. It is also similarly high in populations elsewhere descended from Scandinavians.
  • East Anglia in UK, which also showed a high incidence of temporal arteritis, is composed of people with a Viking ancestry.
  • The incidence is relatively low in Southern European countries because they have a different genetic background.
Thyroid Storm:
  • In the United States, the true frequency of thyroid storm and thyrotoxicosis is not known. However. The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in children is Graves Disease.
  • About 1-2% of all babies conceived by mothers with Graves Disease can develop thyrotoxicosis.
 
  • Based on the results of a four-year survey between 2004 and 2008, the incidence in Japan was as low as 0.2 for every 100,000 people.
  • The rate of thyroid storm overall in the thyrotoxic patients in the study was 0.2% and in hospitalized thyrotoxic patients, it was 5.4%., its incidence increases with age.
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage:
  • The annual incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the US is 6–16 cases per 100,000 persons, with approximately 30,000 episodes occurring annually.
  • The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, unlike other kinds of stroke, has not reduced with time.
Swollen Lymph Nodes:
  • Each of them being the size of a pea, there are hundreds of lymph nodes spread throughout the body.
  • You are the pump for your lymphatic system. Unlike the circulatory system, which relies on the heart to do the pumping of blood, the lymphatic system moves its fluid using gravity and pressure.
Pyelonephritis:
  • According to a study, incidence rates of acute pyelonephritis were higher in the female population than in the male population for nearly all age groups.
  • The difference in rates between the sexes, however, appeared to diminish at older ages.
Cholesteatoma:
  • Intracranial extensions may lead to meningitis and lateral sinus thrombosis
  • Occurs more in men and older children, among adults it usually appears between 30 to 40 years of ages
  • Chances of cholesteatoma recurrence are high if excision is incomplete.
Hookworms:
  • Despite it being an easily treatable condition, an estimated 576-740 million people in the world are infected with hookworm
  • Hookworm infections were widespread in the Southeastern United States. However, the disease declined after proper sanitation was introduced in the early 20th century.
  • A female hookworm lays approximately 5,000 and 10,000 eggs a day for up to ten years.
  • The average life span of hookworms are four to six years
Inguinal Hernia:
  • 25% of males develop an inguinal hernia in their lifetimes. Meanwhile, the chance of developing an inguinal hernia in females is only 2%.
  • People who have an inguinal hernia on one side will have the risk of developing the hernia on the other side.
  • Studies have shown that smokers are at an increased risk of developing of inguinal hernias.
 
  • It has also been found that diet and nutrition play a role in causing inguinal hernias. You are less likely to develop hernias if your diet is rich in fiber.
  • Hernias in the inguinal region are more common due to the groin having a natural anatomical weakness as a result of inadequate muscle coverage.
Chondromalacia:
  • Statistics show that knee pain is a common condition in the present days with more than 100 million Americans suffering from it.
  • Treatment aims at the alignment of the kneecap as well as the strengthening of the knee.
  • Osteoarthritis of patellofemoral joint increases the risk of arthritis in older people.
  • Statistics from The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, show that 90 percent of patients report relief from pain after knee replacement. They are able to continue with their daily activities and some even report being able to get back to fitness and exercise.
Baby Acne:
  • Acne is very common and nearly 20 % of babies experience it after birth.
  • Baby acne requires no treatment in most cases as it resolves on its own.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis:
  • According to WHO, one-third of the world population is infected by TB bacteria.
  • Approximately 10 million cases were reported in 2017.
  • Asia and Africa accounted for 58% and 27% of TB cases respectively.
  • TB is one of the top 10 causes of mortality worldwide.
Epididymitis:
  • Majority of epididymitis cases occur between the age group of 20 to 39.
  • Around 50% of epididymitis cases are due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea.
  • More than 600,000 cases of epididymitis are reported in the United States every year.
  • It has been estimated that epididymitis accounts to 0.69% of outpatient emergency room visits.
Mosquito Bites :
  • The mosquito-borne disease accounts for millions of deaths every year.
  • According to WHO, dengue incidence has increased by 30%.
  • It has been estimated that malaria causes around 400,000 deaths every year.
  • The mosquito-borne disease accounts for 17% of all infectious diseases.
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis:
  • The first recorded HPV skin infection dates back to the 1920s.
  • According to a report in 2017, only 500 cases of EV were reported worldwide.
  • It has been estimated that around 30-70% of EV patients may develop squamous cell carcinoma later in their life.
  • It has been found that exposure to ultraviolet rays can exacerbate this condition.
Lower Abdominal Pain :
  • Around 3% of adults in the United States of America visit the emergency room with a complaint of lower abdominal pain.
  • Emergency room visits in the United States of America related to abdominal pain have increased by 18%.
  • Around 15-30% of people in the United States of America experience bloating.
  • Over 90% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome also experience bloating.
Capgras Syndrome:
  • Capgras Syndrome is one among the strangest mental disorders that need extensive research to know the exact reasons for its occurrence
  • Excessive anxiety and panic exacerbate other symptoms of Capgras Syndrome
  • Capgras Syndrome can be described as a wide gap between what the eye sees and the brain perceives and the emotional response to the situation
  • No complete cure is yet available for Capgras Syndrome
  • Capgras Syndrome is aided  with new medical technologies that are proving quite useful in making a diagnosis
  • If the exact location of brain lesions causing this condition can be positioned, then treatment will become a lot easier.
Chest Pain:
  • Chest pain is the No. 1 reason for most people to go to the emergency room.
  • Cardiovascular disease is the top cause of death around the world. Of the 17.9 million deaths around the world in 2016 alone, 85% died from strokes and heart attacks.
  • Most of these cardiac-related deaths occur in poor and developing countries.
  • Most chest pain and related conditions can be prevented with lifestyle modifications.
Cherry Angioma:
  • Cherry Angioma is rare among children.
  • Angioma can occur in about 5% of adolescents.
  • Adults over 30 years of age develop cherry angioma and this will only increase with age.
  • A cherry angioma, once it appears, will not go away on its own.
Charley Horse:
  • Almost everyone experiences a charley horse. Although Doctors explain possible causes, the exact reason remains unclear
  • Pregnant women and the elderly are more prone to charley horse
  • No foolproof cure for charley horse exists despite all the study that has gone into finding a cure
  • Quinine was earlier used to treat cramps until one day FDA warned against the dangerous cardiac side effects
  • Most patients learn to cope with Charley horse. The study on this condition continues but for now Charley horse remains a physiological mystery
Cardiac Tamponade:
  • Cardiac Tamponade is a rare condition but can affect anyone, at any time.
  • Statistics of 2018 show that five cases per 10,000 hospital admissions in the US were related to Cardiac Tamponade.
Fifth disease :
  • It mainly affects children in the age group of 5 to 15 years.
  • About half the population become immune to the virus by the time they reach adulthood.

  • Outbreaks generally occur in preschools and elementary schools.
Lupus Rash:
  • Around five million people are affected by lupus worldwide.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus accounts for 70% of lupus cases.
  • Around 20% of patients acquire it from their ancestors.
  • Lupus affects women 6 to 10 times more than men.
Tongue cancer :
  • Tongue cancer accounts for 29% of cases of oral cancer.
  • 17,060 cases of tongue cancer were reported in the U.S in a single year.
  • Tongue cancer has caused 3020 deaths in the U.S.
Osteopenia:
  • The current prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis is around 55% among people aged 50 and older.
  • A study done in 2010 among seven developed countries accounted for 117.9 million cases of osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Poison sumac :
  • This plant generally grows in southern and northeastern parts of the United States and is considered to be one of the most toxic plants found in the United States.
  • Poison sumac generally grows along water flowing areas such as rivers and lakes and is hardly found in deserts or areas above 5000 feet.
  • Due to high levels of urushiol present in them, around 85% of the general population is allergic to this plant.
High platelet count:
  • The incidence of essential thrombocythemia is around 0.6 to 2.5 per 100,000 among the general population per year.
  • Thrombocythemia in more prevalent in females than males.
  • The median age at onset of thrombocythemia is around 65 to 70 years.
Heel spurs:
  • The plantar fascia ligament absorbs an astounding amount of force
  • In individuals less than 50 years of age, spur formation is more common in women than in men.
  • Spurs are most common in those who are 20-29 years of age, and mostly in women.
  • The presence of spurs peaks in women by the age of 70, whereas it continues to increase in men.
Pinworms:
  • The first evidence of pinworm infection or Enterobiasis goes back to Roman-occupied Egypt (30 BC-AD 395). The oldest pinworm eggs have been discovered in coprolites (or fossilized dung) as old as 7000 BC in Danger Cave, Utah.

 

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  • Pinworms have also been described in the writings of Hippocrates, dating back to 430 BC.
  • It is hypothesized that these parasites did not originate in the Americas and that they migrated through the Beringia, an ancient landmass that existed between Siberia and Alaska. 
Panic Attack:
  • 3 Million Americans will suffer from Panic Disorder at some point in their lives.
  • The Panic Disorder prevalence was highest among adults aged 30-44 in 2001-2003.
Erythema Multiforme:
  • The annual incidence of erythema multiforme is less than 1%.
  • It mainly affects adults between the age group of 20 and 40.
  • Drug-induced erythema multiforme accounts for only 10% of overall cases.
H. pylori Infections:
  • H. pylori or Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium found in the stomach that gets its name from its spiral shape. They are responsible for stomach infections, leading to ulcers of the stomach and duodenum and sometimes to cancer as well.
  • Infections caused by H. pylori are one of the most widespread in the world with nearly two-thirds being infected by it and is very common in the United States
  • It causes more than 80% of stomach ulcers and up to 90% of duodenal ulcers.
Blood blister:
  • Friction blisters contain clear fluids whereas blood blisters contain blood.
  • A blister can heal within 3 to 7 days without any treatment.
  • Larger blisters that are bigger than 1.27 cm are called bullae.
  • A blister can be dressed loosely to fasten the healing process.
Bacterial Pneumonia:
  • Bacterial pneumonia may be caused by the germs that already live in your body.
  • Children and old people are at higher risk of acquiring bacterial pneumonia.
  • Getting a flu shot may help prevent pneumonia.
  • Bacteria causing pneumonia are getting more resistant to antibiotics. 
Atelectasis:
  • It is derived from the Greek word Ateles and ekstasis.
  • Atelectasis is caused when the alveoli in the lungs are not able to expand completely.
  • Bronchial blockage, as well as a mucus plug, can cause atelectasis.
  • It may be caused after undergoing surgery.
Pernicious anemia:
  • More females than males are affected by Pernicious anemia.
  • Without treatment, some of the triggering factors can become permanent.
  • The term “pernicious” means “deadly.” It was termed in this manner because earlier, the treatment for vitamin B12 was not available.
  • It is often hereditary.
Sebaceous Cyst:
  • Sebaceous cysts generally occur during the 30s and 40s.
  • They are predominant in males; the male versus females ratio is  2:1.
  • They occur rarely before puberty.
  • Around 1% of sebaceous cysts are noted to be malignant.
Pellagra:
  • Gaspar Casal in the year 1735 described pellagra for its dermatologic effect.
  • Pellagra was first known as Asturian leprosy in Italy.
  • It was first reported in the United States in the year 1902.
  • It has caused more deaths than any other nutrition-related disease in United States.
Ménière's Disease:
  • This disease usually impacts only one ear.
  • About 95% of the cases of Meniere’s disease can be managed with good medical treatment.
  • It affects both men and women equally.
 
  • The data published by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders accentuates on the fact that approximately 615,000 people in the United States have Ménière's.
Molluscum contagiosum:
  • Infection usually subsides in a few months with no treatment.
  • It is usually harmless and takes up to 18 months to clear completely.
  • As the infection subsides, the lesions do not leave a scar behind.
  • The prevalence of this disease is similar in men and women.
  • Once you have had the infection, you will not become immune from getting infected again.
Typhus:
  • Albert Schweitzer used garlic to treat typhus on soldiers during the world war I.
  • The bacteria can be inactivated with moist heat at 121°C for 15 minutes or dry heat at 170°C for 30 minutes.
  • You can prepare a mixture of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% peracetic acid, 3- 6% hydrogen peroxide, iodine, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde to kill Rickettsia prowazekii.
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the death rates from typhus fevers occur in 1 out of 50,00,000 individuals every year.
  • Typhus fever occurs in colder (i.e. mountainous) regions of central and eastern Africa, central and South America, and Asia.
  • Major outbreaks have been reported from Burundi, Ethiopia etc.
Ketoacidosis:
  • The prevalence of ketoacidosis in hyperglycemia or diabetes is more in diabetes type 1 (little or no insulin) than in type 2 diabetes (a condition of insulin resistance).
  • Ketoacidosis can become fatal if you ignore it.
  • Administration of too much insulin too soon is also fatal to the patient.
  • If it causes a change in the rhythm of the heart, it can cause a cardiac arrest too!
Crohn's Disease:
  • Crohn’s disease affects people of all ages and gender.
  • Diet does not cause Crohn’s disease.
  • This disease affects your gastrointestinal tract as well as other areas of your body.
  • People with Crohn’s disease eventually have surgery.
Blue Balls:
  • Medically called as epididymal hypertension
  • May cause bluish discoloration to the testes.
  • This condition is generally painful.
  • It usually affects men between the age of 15 and 30.
Autonomic Dysreflexia:
  • The occurrence of stroke increases by 300 – 400%.
  • Initial incidence of AD begins with a severe headache and the occurrence of AD can be up to 40 times in a day in susceptible patients.
  • AD can also coexist with other triggers hypertension but is more common in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI).
Maladaptive Daydreaming:
  • Certain studies show that compulsive maladaptive daydreamers could spend as much as 60% of their waking time in daydreaming.
  • This condition was first formally studied by Eli Somer of the University of Haifa in 2002 where he found 6 survivors of child abuse showing the high tendency of imagination and daydreaming.
  • Though a history of abuse is seen in many people with MD, it is also experienced by people who have had a normal childhood.
  • Try to analyze and understand what negative repressed emotion is at the core of your MD tendency – guilt, embarrassment, shame, fear etc.
  •  Refer to a specialist in this field and discuss your issues and symptoms openly.
High Blood Pressure:
  • 1 out of every 3 grown Americans has high blood pressure, which is approximately 75 million people.
  • Only half of these individuals have the blood pressure levels under control. Similarly, 33% of the population is in the pre-hypertension zone.
  • This health costs associated with this disease is $ 46 billion per year in the USA alone.
  • Above 45 years of age, it is more prevalent in men than women. Above 65, women are more commonly affected.
Food Poisoning:
  • Foodborne diseases are very common ailment affecting millions, 48 million to be precise, every year.
  • It kills 5,000 Americans every year and almost 300,000 cases are hospitalized annually.
  • Green leafy vegetables, eggs, oysters, cheeses, and tomatoes – these are the edible items that get contaminated first with food-poisoning microbes.
  • A considerable amount of food-poisoning occurrence can be controlled if people cleaned their hands more often.
Hyperlipidemia:
  • Almost 29% of the entire American population has high cholesterol. That is roughly 73.5 million people.
  • Less than 30% of these individuals have their LDL cholesterol in control.
  • Roughly 42.2% of the entire American population has a moderate risk of developing high cholesterol.
  • Almost 50% of the diagnosed cases of hyperlipidemia are caused by genetic factors.
Breast Cancer:
  • It is the most common form of cancer in women with more than 1 million new cases reported each year.
  • Breast cancer is the 5th leading cause of all cancer-related deaths in women globally; in developed countries, it is the 2nd leading cause.
  • Late natural menopause (post 55 years) and early menarche (before the age of 12 years) could disturb the estrogen-progesterone balance that might lead to breast cancer.
  • According to NIC (National Institute of Cancer), 1 out of every 8 women is likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer (USA).
Malaria:
  • Malaria is a largely widespread disease with almost 212 million malaria cases reported in 2015 alone. Out of these 429,000 cases were fatal in nature.
  • More than 70% of all the fatalities associated with this disease occur in children under 5 years of age.
  • Due to extensive application of malaria prevention and control measures, the mortality rate of this disease has fallen by 29% globally.
  • Africa remains as the worst-affected continent. Worldwide, over 3.2 billion people are at a risk of acquiring this disease.
Typhoid:
  • More than 21 million cases of typhoid are reported every year globally out of which 222,000 results in death.
  • 75% of all cases of typhoid in the USA are related to international traveling.
  • Typhoid is more common in those countries where lack of sanitation and contamination of drinking water with sewage.
  • The main reason for death from typhoid happens due to peritonitis, a severe inflammation of the inner abdominal lining.
Cold and Flu:
  • The common cold can be caused by 100 different types of virus, amongst which the rhinovirus is responsible for almost 50% of all incidences.
  • Studies reveal that in the USA alone there are almost 1 billion cases of colds every year.
  • Within a time interval of 24 hours, a single common cold virus can spawn a whopping 16 million offspring.
  • Almost 100,000 germs are released in the surrounding air with just one sneeze.
Cancer:
  • According to a 2015 report, 8.8 million deaths worldwide were cancer-related. That’s roughly 1 out of every 6 deaths.
  • Although cancer affects people across the globe, 70% of all cancer-related deaths occur in middle or low-income countries.
  • 30%-50% of all cancer deaths are preventable. 22% of cancer-fatalities can be prevented by one simple step – eliminating the consumption of tobacco.
  • There are more than 100 different body parts that can be affected by cancer, thus giving rise to more than 100 different variants of this disease.
Kidney Stones:
  • Calcium stones and oxalate stones are the two most common types of kidney stones.
  • The biggest contributor to kidney stones is insufficient fluids in the body. Dark yellow-colored urine is an indicator of inadequate water content.
  • The medical term for kidney stones is renal calculus. It is also called as nephroliths.
  • High acidic content in food can also cause kidney stones.
Emphysema:
  • Emphysema killed more than 3 million people globally in the year 2012 (7% of total deaths).
  • 3 in every 100,000 deaths are caused by emphysema.
  • It is the third leading cause of death in the USA. 90% of these deaths occur in low or mid-income conditions.
  • In females, smoking increases the chances of death through emphysema by 13%. In males, it is 12%.
  • The net cost of all COPD diseases (including emphysema and chronic bronchitis) was almost $50 millions in 2010.
  • It affects Caucasians more than any other ethnicity.
Diabetes:
  • As per the American Diabetes Association, in general, the A1C levels below 7% are optimum in most of the cases of diabetes.
  • Insulin is not administered orally as its effect is hampered by the stomach enzymes.
  • You can delay the occurrence of type 2 diabetes by a moderate physical activity of least 150 minutes in a week and by losing 7 percent of your body weight.
  • The prevalence of diabetes in the year 2013 was found to be in around 382 million individuals.
Cardiac Arrest:
  • Every year, roughly 382,000 people experience sudden cardiac arrest out which 92% succumb to the attack.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the biggest killers. Globally, one person dies due to a sudden cardiac arrest every 90 seconds.
  • Less than 50% of individuals who suffer a cardiac arrest outside a hospital receive timely medical assistance.
  • The number of times you should push on the chest during a CPR is roughly 100-120 times per minute. This is the same as the beats of the popular song “Stayin’ Alive”, a trick taught by paramedic experts.
Stroke:
  • During one brain stroke, 32,000 brain cells die every second which is equal to 1.9 million brain cells dying per minute.
  • Stroke is not limited to only the elderly. About 1 out of every 3 stroke patients belongs to the age group of 20-64.
  • The most devastating kind of stroke is the basilar artery stroke since it causes full-body paralysis which is termed as the “locked-in” syndrome.
  • 60% of stroke-related fatalities occur in women. It kills more females than breast cancer and more men than prostate cancer.
Arthritis:
  • There is not just one single type of arthritis; there are more than 100 different types of arthritis that can affect human body such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis etc.
  • A diet high in Omega 6 fatty acids will eventually lead to arthritis flare-ups. Omega 3 fatty acids control bodily inflammations.
  • Arthritis is more common among females than in males.
  • It is second to only cardiac issues as the leading cause of work disability. More than 50% of arthritis patients are under the age of 65.
Asthma:
  • With more than 235 million people suffering from it worldwide, asthma is one of the leading non-communicable diseases in the world.
  • 80% of asthma-related deaths occur in middle and low-income countries. Children are most affected by this condition.
  • Asthma cannot be cured. It can be only treated and managed.
  • Avoiding asthma triggers can help decrease the severity of the attacks.
Dengue Fever:
  • 50% of the entire global population is at the risk of acquiring this disease, with tropical and sub-tropical countries being more prone to it.
  • It is one of the leading causes of death amongst children in many developing countries.
  • In the last 5 decades, the number of dengue cases has increased 30 times, and is gradually spreading from urban to rural areas.
  • The number of dengue cases reported annually throughout the world is 390 million.
Substance Abuse:
  • Heroin, extracted from raw opium, is also known as dimorphine. Opiate painkillers or opiods are also extracted from opium or the poppy plant.
  • In the USA, the problem of drug addiction and abuse costs around $ 484 billion per year.
  • 66% of all the drug addicts admitted into different addiction recovery centres in the USA have a history of physical and/or sexual abuse during their childhood or teenage years.
  • The most addictive forms of drugs are not alcohol or nicotine but pharmaceutical drugs which are prescribed as pain-killers and anti-depressants.
Chicken Pox:
  • It is rare to get chickenpox the second time; after the first time the virus (varicella zoster virus) becomes inactive in your body. But it still can cause another disease called “shingles”.
  • Before the introduction of the chicken pox vaccine, more than 4 million children were contracting this disease every year. Vaccination has brought down this number by 80-90%.
  • Chicken pox in adults presents more serious complications.
  • There are 90% chances of someone at home acquiring this infection if any one family member is suffering from it. It is a highly contagious disease.
Ear Infections:
  • Ear infections generally occur along throat infections, cold or allergies thereby accumulating fluids in the middle ear.
  • Ear infections are most common among children.  5 out of 6 children, by the age of 3, will have an ear infection.
  • A bacterium known as Streptococcus pneumonia most commonly causes ear infections.
  • Inserting sharp objects into the ear such as pens, pencils or keys tends to cause minor tears bruises in the ear canal.
Hepatitis:
  • Hepatitis A doesn't cause any chronic liver conditions, unlike hepatitis B & C.
  • Hepatitis is more common in low-income countries with limited sanitation.
  • Globally there are more than 1.4 million cases of hepatitis A reported annually.
  • Hepatitis was one of the most infectious conditions prevalent in the 90s.
COPD-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease:
  • Though smoking is the leading cause of COPD, 15%- 20% of COPD patients are lifelong non-smokers.
  • It is the third leading cause of death in the USA.
  • There were more than 10 million reported cases of chronic bronchitis in the USA alone with almost 70% of those above the age of 45.
  • Emphysema was detected in 4.7 million cases, with 90% of the population above the age of 45.
  • Women are more susceptible to COPD than men (almost two times as much in case chronic bronchitis).
  • In 2016, COPD affected was prevalent among 251 million people worldwide.
  • Industrial pollution is the cause of around 19% of all COPD cases.
Hypertension:
  • Recent studies have revealed that having chronic hypertension in your midlife (45-65 years) increases your risk for developing dementia.
  • 25% of men and 20% of women within the age group of 35-44 years are hypertensive.
  • More than 9.4 million fatalities across the globe can be attributed to hypertension.
  • There are more than 1.5 billion individuals worldwide who fall under the hypertensive category.
Depression:
  • The estimated expenditure on mental illness in the United States was approximately $300 billion in the year 2002.
  • It is estimated that nearly 25% of the adult individuals in the United States have a mental illness. In most of the cases, it is associated with chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 50% of the adult individuals in the United States will develop no less than 1 mental illness during their lifetime.
  • According to CDC, it is observed that the rate of injuries (both intentional and unintentional) is approximately 2 to 6 times higher in the individuals with some form mental illness as compared to the overall
Colorectal Cancer:
  • Colorectal cancer is one of the most widespread cancers in the USA, with as many as 135,430 cases diagnosed in the year 2017 alone.
  • One out of every 22 men will be detected with colorectal cancer. In women, this ratio is 1 in 24.
  • Regular screening can help in preventing 33% of deaths due to colorectal cancer in the USA. Experts believe that the 5 year survival rate can be made 90% with early detection.
  • Obesity increases the likelihood of developing colorectal cancer by 30%. It also diminishes the chances of a swift and healthy recovery.
Tuberculosis:
  • 1 out of every 3 individuals across the globe is a host to the tuberculosis bacteria yet only a small proportion develops the infection.
  • In 2016, almost 10 million new cases of TB were reported with only 7 countries comprising 64% of all reported cases.
Pneumonia:
  • More than 120 million cases of pneumonia are diagnosed in children under the age of 5 years. It is the leading cause of deaths in this demography.
  • 50% of all cases of sepsis and septic shock can be attributed to pneumonia.
  • Viral cases of pneumonia shouldn’t be treated with antibiotics. There are very few treatment methods for such type of pneumonia.
  • Every 20 seconds, pneumonia claims the life of one child under the age of 5. That amounts to 4300 young fatalities per day.
Heart Diseases:
  • 1 in every 4 adults succumbs to heart diseases every year in the United States.
  • Any individual with a parent or sibling (first-degree relative) or an uncle or grandparent (second-degree relative) who has been diagnosed with a heart disease before the age of 60 years, has a 10% chance of developing a heart disease early in his/her life.
  • Heart diseases are also known as cardiovascular diseases (CD) or coronary heart diseases (CHD).
  • Heart diseases are the leading cause of death among women, in the United States.
Obesity:
  • The global obesity rates have tripled in the past 4 decades. 1 out of every 3 Americans falls under the obese category.
  • Studies suggest that 70% of body weight variations have a genetic link.
  • Globally, more than 10% of the population can be categorized as obese.
  • CDC or Centre for Disease Control defines obesity as the state where an individual has BMI greater than equal to 30.
Prostate Cancer:
  • 1 in 8 men will get prostate cancer, once in their lifetime, in the UK.
  • Black men above the age of 50 are at a higher risk of getting prostate cancer.
  • This is the most common cancer in men in the UK.
  • Every 45 minutes a man dies of prostate cancer; that is more than 11,000 men each year in the UK alone.
Atherosclerosis:
  • The plaque that gets accumulated in the arteries is made up of cholesterol, fats, calcium, and other similar substances present in the blood.
  • Diseases that are a direct result of atherosclerosis are coronary heart disease, carotid artery disease, and peripheral artery disease.
  • There can be a build-up of plaque within the renal (kidney) arteries as well that can lead to chronic kidney disease.
  • Not all cholesterol is bad for you. Only the LDL cholesterol leads to cardiovascular and other related conditions. HDL cholesterol is good for the body.
Pancreatic Cancer:
  • Pancreatic cancer is known as a silent disease. As the signs and symptoms of the cancer are generally not noticed until cancer has reached its advanced stage.
  • In the past 40 years, the survival rates for all types of cancers have increased except for pancreatic cancer and renal cancer.
  • More than 37,000 deaths by pancreatic cancer were reported in the USA in 2012.
  • The lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer in men is 1 in 63 and in women it is 1 in 65.
Brain Diseases:
  • In the USA, 5.5 million people over the age of 65 and 200,000 below 65 are currently living with Alzheimer’s.
  • In the early 19th century it was believed that seizures were contagious. Due to this, epilepsy patients were kept away from the psychiatric ward.
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus is endemic to Asia; countries include Japan, India, and Pakistan.
  • The encephalitis virus was first isolated in 1935 in Japan.
Gum Disease:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), periodontal conditions are found to be the most common reason behind tooth loss in adults.
  • It is estimated that the prevalence of periodontal disease is 8.52% in the adults of ages 20 to 64 years.
Lung Cancer:
  • Lung cancer is the deadliest of all cancers, claiming 154,050 American lives in 2016 alone.
  • Detecting lung cancer early can help in treating the disease.
  • Second-hand smoking (passive smoking) and using e-cigarettes can have the same effect on your lungs as first-hand smoking.
  • 25% of all cancer-related deaths are due to lung cancer.
Liver Failure:
  • 3.5-4.6 million Americans have been affected by the hepatitis C virus.
  • Liver diseases are the 5th most common cause of death in the UK after heart, cancer, stroke and respiratory diseases.
  • Hepatitis B and C are the most common infectious liver diseases.
Liver Cancer:
  • Liver cancer is estimated to kill more than 30,000 Americans each year.
  • Liver cancer is 2 times more common in men than in women.
  • Liver cancer is known as a silent disease, as there are almost no symptoms in the initial stages.
  • Liver cancer accounts for 5.7% of all cancers occurring globally.
  • In 2010, liver cancer was the 3rd most common cause of death after lung cancer and stomach cancer.
Alzheimer’s:
  • Alzheimer’s was first noticed in 1906 by a German doctor named Alois Alzheimer. He noticed this condition in a patient named Auguste D.
  • This condition is the most common form of dementia.
  • Alzheimer’s is most common in Western European countries. However, its prevalence is gradually increasing in sub-Saharan African regions too.
  • It is the 6th leading cause of death in the United States.
Whooping Cough:
  • According to the data furnished by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were approximately 175,000 cases of pertussis (or whooping cough) each year before the introduction of the pertussis vaccine.
  • Ginger, honey, oregano, almonds, and lemon are believed to be the natural remedies for a whooping cough.
  • Pertussis infections in adults account for around 25% of cases.
  • The age group most prone to pertussis is infants below 3 months of age. The second most prone age group is 7 years to 10 years.
Conjunctivitis:
  • Conjunctivitis is also known as ‘pink eye’ and ‘madras eye.’
  • There are 4 main types of conjunctivitis and all are contagious.
  • Though conjunctivitis is common among children, it can happen to anyone.
  • Conjunctivitis tends to go away on its own within 2 weeks.
Bronchitis:
  • In the year 2011, more than 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis out of which 70% were over the age of 45 years.
  • The symptoms of bronchitis last for over 2 weeks and the cough alone can persist for over 8 weeks.
  • Chronic lower respiratory diseases (which include bronchitis and asthma) are ranked as the 3rd most common cause of deaths (USA).
  • Women are more vulnerable to chronic bronchitis than men. In fact, the prevalence ratio is almost 2:1.
Anxiety and Panic:
  • Anxiety and its related disorders are one of the most common illnesses diagnosed in the USA. Every year, there are more than 40 million cases of anxiety detected in the adult population.
  • Studies suggest that women are 2 times more likely to be diagnosed with Panic disorder since they are more exposed to trauma and abuse.
  • You needn’t necessarily have to be awake to experience a panic episode. Nocturnal panic attack also exist which have symptoms similar to a usual panic attack.
  • Specific phobias, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) , PTSD ( Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) – all of these can cause anxiety and panic attacks.
Thyroid Disorders:
  • 27 million people have some form of thyroid disease, in the United States, while 13 million cases remain undiagnosed.
  • The thyroid gland regulates the metabolism of almost all the cells in the body. It helps to produce protein and increasing the availability of oxygen in the body.
  • Thyroid disorders disturb your hormonal disorders, making it difficult for women to conceive.
  • Imbalance in the thyroid hormone causes menstrual problems such as missed, heavy, frequent, irregular periods.
Blood Disorders:
  • Red blood cells (RBCs) are also called erythrocytes; they carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues throughout the body. RBCs amount to 44% of the blood in the body. Their lifespan is 120 days.
  • White blood cells (WBCs) they are also called leukocytes; these cells help in maintaining the immunity in the body. Their lifespan can range anywhere from 13 to 20 days.
  • Platelets are also called thrombocytes; they make up 1% of the blood in the body. Their lifespan is 9-12 days.
  • The normal amount of hemoglobin the body for men is 13.8-17.2 grams per deciliter and for women, it's 12.1-15.1 grams per deciliter.
Bipolar disorder:
  • Chances of bipolar disorder is higher among female adolescents (3.3%) than males (2.6%).
  • Average onset age for bipolar disorder is about 25 years.
  • About 2.6% of the U.S. population suffers from bipolar disorder.
  • In the U.S., around 83% of cases of bipolar disorder are classified as severe.
AIDS:
  • Till date HIV/AIDS has claimed lives of more than 35 million individuals making it one of the leading causes of death by an infectious disease.
  • There were more than 1.8 million new cases of HIV/AIDS reported in the year 2016. As per WHO statistics, only 70% of HIV patients are aware of the condition. The rest 30% of the population hasn’t been screened for the disease.
  • Roughly 25 million people suffering from HIV/ AIDS, which is 70% of all the HIV/AIDS patients, belong to the sub-Sahara African region.
  • Homosexual and bisexual men are most likely to be diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. As per a survey done in 2007, 74% of all HIV patients were male.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were originally known as venereal diseases (VDs), the name being derived from Venus, the Roman goddess of love.
  • 20 million cases of STDs are reported each year in the United States.
  • Women have a higher chance of developing STDs due to their anatomy as compared to men.
  • Colored and Caucasian women have a higher risk of developing STDs than other ethnicities.
  • There are more than 25 known STDs.
Liver Cirrhosis:
  • Liver cirrhosis claims lives of more than 30,000 Americans every year. It is the 7th leading cause of deaths in the USA.
  • Substance abuse of alcohol is the biggest factor responsible for liver cirrhosis.
  • The number of fatalities in men due to liver cirrhosis is almost twice of that in women.
  • 10% of liver cirrhosis patients don’t show any noticeable symptoms; this is called as compensated cirrhosis.
Diarrhea:
  • Those who have diarrhoea can lose up to 20 litres of fluid every day.
  • Diarrhoea that lasts longer than 1-2 days is due to underlying health problems.
  • Stress and nervousness can cause diarrhea. This is because stress hormones tend to speed up bowel movement process.
  • There are 1.7-5 billion cases of diarrhea reported every year. Out of which 7% die due to diarrhoeal diseases.
Measles:
  • In case of exposure, 90% of the population which is not immune to measles will contract the infection.
  • Pregnant females infected with measles have an increased risk for complications such as early labor, miscarriage, and low birth weight infants.
  • Measles can cause severe diarrhea, middle-ear infection, life-threatening pneumonia and brain inflammation, and in some cases, it leads to death.
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 89,780 individuals died from measles in the year 2016 – most of them were children under the age of 5 years.
Neonatal Jaundice:
  • Studies suggest that roughly 60% of all babies suffer from neonatal jaundice.
  • The risk factors associated with this condition are being preterm, belonging to Asian or Mediterranean descent, and having a darker skin tone.
  • Neonatal jaundice affected babies should be breastfed at least 8-12 times a day for the initial days. This will help get rid of bilirubin fast.
  • For a 2 day old infant, a bilirubin level of 12mg/dL can be quite dangerous, but the same level for a 3 day old baby is considered relatively safer.
Trypophobia:
  • Commonplace harmless objects such as strawberries and lotus seed pods can trigger trypophobia in many.
  • This is not a medically recognized phobia; however, this condition has been widely studied and discussed since 2009.
  • Trypophobia, or in any other phobia in general is more prevalent among women than among men.
  • Trypophobia is believed to be co-existent with social anxiety disorder. Nearly 17% of people experiencing social anxiety disorder tend to develop depressive tendencies.
Sleep Disorders:
  • Surprisingly enough, high altitude(> 13200 feet) can also cause sleep disturbance. This is due to declining oxygen levels and changes in respiratory patterns.
  • 60% of physicians believe that insomnia is one of the most under-discussed issues that could potentially lead to bodily conditions.
  • Our circadian rhythm is designed in such a way that we are naturally predisposed to feel tired twice during the day – 2 am and 2 pm.
  • Shift workers (who are chronically deprived of 8 hours of night time sleep) have increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, gastric issues, and even cancer.
Lung Diseases:
  • Pneumonia can have more than 30 different causes.
  • In adults, women have a higher chance of developing asthma than men. In children, boys have a higher chance of developing asthma than girls.
  • African-Americans have a 2-3 times higher chance of developing asthma than any other racial group.
  • 60-85% of cases of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) remain undiagnosed in the United States.
Oral Leukoplakia:
  • Oral leukoplakia is the medical term for “white patches” formed in the oral cavity. In fact, it is the most commonly prevalent potentially malignant lesion of the oral region.
  • Oral cavity is not the only region where leukoplakia can develop. It can also occur in the gastrointestinal tract, the genitals, and the urinary tract.
  • Every year there are more than 300,000 cases of oral cavity cancers reported worldwide. In many of these, oral leukoplakia is one of the primary symptoms.
  • Though it can occur at any age, it is most commonly observed in people under the age of 40.
Athlete’s Foot:
  • Jock itch and athlete’s foot are both caused by the same fungus, tinea cruris. It must also be noted that these are not limited just to “jocks” and “athletes”.
  • Men get this fungal infection more than women do.
  • One of the most common reasons for the spreading of this infection is sharing towels, showers, or gym lockers with an infected individual.
  • At any given time, this infection might be prevalent among 15-25% of the general population.
Tongue Diseases:
  • The average size of the human tongue is 3.3 inches or 8.5 cm for men and 3.1 inches or 7.9 cm for women.
  • Dorsum, or the topmost layer of the tongue, is covered with tiny nodes called papillae. These contain taste buds and serous glands.
  • Each taste bud contains around 50-150 different receptors cells that enable taste detection.
  • The fact that different areas of the tongue taste different things is a myth.
Vitamins - Deficiency & Excess:
  • Altogether 40 vitamins and minerals are required by the human body to sustain a healthy living. These need to come from the diet as the body cannot synthesize these as required by the body.
  • In case you consume excess of water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B & C), they will be excreted through your urine.
  • Vitamins and minerals are not the only nutrients required by the body. Amino acids and essential fatty acids are also counted as nutrients.
  • The term “vitamins” has been derived from the words “vital” (because of their importance) and “amines” (since they were previously thought to be amines).
Excretory System Diseases:
  • The excretory system is not limited to the anus, rectum, kidneys, bladder etc. In fact, skin, lungs, and liver are also counted as a part of the excretory system.
  • An average person urinates about 3000 times in a year.
  • The human intestine is about 8.5 m long, roughly 27 feet.
  • A healthy urinary bladder can hold 24 ounces of liquid. That is equivalent to 2 soda cans.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can occur in any of the wrists, either the dominant or non-dominant.
  • CTS is most common among those who put repetitive strain on their wrists.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome can be treated without surgical methods as well.
  • Those who have been diagnosed with CTS feel numbness in their affected wrist. This numbness is caused due to the compression of the median nerve that is present in the wrist.
  • If CTS is left untreated it can lead to permanent nerve damage.
Blue Waffle Disease:
  • There is no scientific evidence that proves the existence of this disease. Hence, it is nothing more than an internet hoax.
  • The only medically-backed reason for the bluish coloration of the vagina and vulva is sexual assault (which is not the same as an STD).
  • Female patients of lichen simplex also show some level of dark-bluish coloration in the vulva region. But is not a bright blue color, as promoted by blue waffle believers.
  • The term "waffle" is a slang term for vagina.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia:
  • A person of any age can be diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • In people under the age of 20, ALL is the most common type of leukemia, accounting for 74% of all leukemia diagnosed in this age group.
  • Children younger than the age of 5 have the highest risk of developing ALL.
  • The average persons’ risk of developing this cancer is 1 in 1000. This risk is slightly higher in men compared to women, and higher is Caucasians than in African Americans.
Dizziness:
  • Older people with neurological disorders and/or chronic illnesses are more prone to dizziness.
  • Dizziness and related conditions are prevalent in 5-10% of the population, but this figure is as high as 40% in individuals over the age of 40.
  • An estimated 1.1% of the entire adult population of the USA show symptoms of chronic dizziness.
  • Dizziness is more often linked with inner-ear problems rather than disorders of the CNS (central nervous system).
Vaccines:
  • A British scientist, Edward Jenner, developed the first smallpox vaccination in 1796.
  • 2-3 million deaths are prevented each year due to vaccines.
  • Vaccines are not always administered in the form of shots; they can be given orally as well.
  • In the late 18th century, King Charles IV of Spain wanted to spread the smallpox vaccination. He used 22 orphan boys who were vaccinated and their blood was used to make the vaccination
Juvenile Diabetes:
  • Juvenile diabetes or Type-1 diabetes constitutes only 5% of all diabetes cases. Rest 95% are Type -2 diabetes.
  • This is more prevalent in Caucasian kids than among kids of any other ethnicity.
  • Every year, more than 40,000 new cases of juvenile diabetes are diagnosed in the USA alone.
  • It is expected that by the year 2050, 5 million Americans will be suffering from juvenile diabetes. This would include 600,000 youth.
Burkitt Lymphoma:
  • Burkitt lymphoma is a very rare disease in Western countries. But common in Central Africa.
  • It is names after the British surgeon Denis Burkitt who identified this disease in 1956 among children in Africa.
  • In Australia, the predicted cases of Burkitt lymphoma are 12 per year.
  • This condition is relatively common in children compared to adults. It makes up of 30% of all childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while making up 1% of adult lymphoma
Morning Sickness:
  • Contrary to the idea enforced by the name of the condition, morning sickness is not limited only to the morning hours. Neither is it restricted only to the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Those pregnant women who carry twins and/or have other placental complications have more severe bouts of morning sickness.
  • 15% of pregnant women don’t experience morning sickness throughout their course of pregnancy.
  • Around 0.3 to 2% of pregnancies are affected by hyperemesis gravidarum. It is a severe form of morning sickness that causes intense dehydration and weight loss.
Female Pattern Baldness:
  • Under normal condition, human beings shed 100-150 hair strands every day.
  • Sudden shedding of hair is more common in women than in men. This is usually caused by hormonal changes related to stress, childbirth, or menopause.
  • A significant chunk of female population suffering from hair loss and balding is due to DHT (dihydrotestosterone) sensitivity.
  • In case the hair is falling out in patches creating bald patches, it is due to an autoimmune disorder called Alopecia Areata.
Meningitis:
  • Bacterial meningitis, the most prevalent form of the disease, claims 170,000 deaths every year globally.
  • 10-20% of patients diagnosed with meningitis will die within 24-48 hours of detection, in spite of being provided with prompt medical attention.
  • Though anybody can acquire this deadly infection, children below the age of 5 years and adolescents within15-19 years form the most vulnerable demography.
  • The most disabling consequences of meningitis include permanent brain damage, seizures, deafness, and loss of limb due to septicemia.
Dental Care:
  • The most significant factor in the onset of dental issues is ignoring the early signs.
  • 25% of adults don’t brush their teeth twice a day.
  • Almost 50% of the global population consider only a toothbrush and toothpaste enough for oral care.
  • Less than 35% of people use mouthwash regularly.
Insect Bites:
  • Some of the most rampant and life-threatening diseases spread through insect bites are encephalitis, yellow fever, Zika virus infection, malaria, and dengue fever.
  • 75% of the entire known animal kingdom is comprised of arthropods. These are insects that live on land and have 6 legs.
  • When an insect stings you, the itching, pain, and reddish-coloration of your skin is nothing but an allergic reaction to the venom injected by the insect.
  • The main toxic component of a bee’s venom is melittin. This is chemically a peptide that contains roughly 50% of dry venom and leads to the destruction of human cells.
Memory Loss:
  • The most common cause of memory loss is aging. Other causes include dementia, Alzheimer’s, depression, and substance abuse.
  • The hippocampus (a horse-shoe shaped part of the brain) is responsible for emotions and long-term memory formation.
  • By the time human beings reach their 80s, they lose up to 20% of the nerve connections associated with the hippocampus which leads to memory loss.
  • According to studies, the human brain can store information about 7 different things for approximately 20-30 seconds in the short term memory.
Growing Pains:
  • As opposed to what the name suggests, the pains are not caused because of growing but along with growing.
  • Since there are no known causes for this condition; it is simply named as growing pains.
  • It is most commonly observed in children between the age groups of 3-5 years and 8-12 years.
  • No physical abnormality is associated with this condition.
Hematuria:
  • There are certain situations when blood in urine (hematuria) shouldn’t be treated as a major health concern – taking aspirin or consuming beets and rhubarb.
  • Usually blood in urine occurs as a result of UTIs (urinary tract infections) or bladder stones.
  • Smokers are 4-5 times more likely to develop bladder cancer and 2 times more to develop kidney cancer when compared to non-smokers.
  • Hematuria can occur in two forms – Gross (blood in urine is visible) and Microscopic (blood is visible only under microscope.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:
  • In the past 8 years, the number of ADHD cases diagnosed in the USA has increased by 42%.
  • Overall 6.1% of American kids are being medically treated with ADHD.
  • Men are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than women. According to the latest studies, 13% of males will be diagnosed with ADHD while this figure is 4.2% among women.
  • ADHD is not restricted to children only. In the USA, roughly 4% of the adult population experiences the symptoms of ADHD.
Heat Rash:
  • The medical term for tiny reddish bumps on the skin due to sweat accumulation is miliaria rubra.
  • The trapping of sweat within the pores of the skin causes irritation because human sweat is rich in salt.
  • If the sweat gets contaminated with pyogenic bacteria, it becomes miliaria pustulosis which leads to formation of pus.
  • Even in indoor working environment such as in case of power-plants, welding shops, steam tunnels etc can lead to formation of heat rashes.
Cold Sores:
  • Females (1 out of 4) are slightly more susceptible to cold sores than males (1 out of 5).
  • Oral herpes affects more than 70% of the entire American population.
  • Genital herpes and oral herpes (cold sores) are not caused by the same virus.
  • Even if the herpes virus is present in the body of an individual, it is not necessary that it will cause the onset of the infection. Many a times, the infection is curbed by body’s natural immunity.
  • Cold sores tend to manifest in the same location in case of recurrent cases.
Muscle pain:
  • Human body contains more than 600 muscles. Out of these, 200 are involved in walking.
  • These account for 35% - 40% of your body weight.
  • Muscle pain mainly occurs as a result of an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles which is natural to muscle metabolism.
  • Muscles create about 85% of total body heat.
Menopause:
  • Women hit menopause when they have had no menstrual cycles for a continuous period of 1 year.
  • Hormonal fluctuations in women start during their 30s or 40s. The phase of irregular periods (too heavy or too little) or absence of periods that gradually lead to menopause is called as perimenopause.
  • Menopausal women may experience a bone-density loss as high as 20%. This is a significant factor leading to osteoporosis.
  • If a woman has high cholesterol levels and/or high blood pressure, she becomes more vulnerable to heart diseases during and after menopause.
Mumps:
  • The pathogen responsible for mumps is RNA virus belonging to the genus Rubulavirus
  • The acute and tender swelling of the parotid gland in mumps occurs 16-18 days after the exposure to the virus in the majority of cases.
  • In very rare cases, 0.02-0.3% cases to be precise, patients develop encephalitis as a consequence of the mumps infection. This causes the maximum number of mumps-related fatalities.
  • Pregnant women who contract this infection during the first trimester are associated with a high risk of fetal death.
Angina:
  • 10 million people live with angina in the United States.
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) causes angina.
  • Different patients experience different types of symptoms of angina.
  • Race-wise and gender-wide prevalence( above the age of 20) of this condition in the USA (% of general population)
  • Caucasian: Men - 1%  Women- 1%
  • African American: Men - 4.4% Women 6.7%
  • Hispanics: Men - 3.5% Women 4.5%
Age-Related Macular Degeneration:
  • Those who are above the age of 75 years have a 30% higher chance of being diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • Women tend to develop AMD at an earlier age than men.
  • 11 million Americans have some form of AMD.
  • Caucasians are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with AMD than any other ethnicities.
  • AMD is an inherited disease in many cases.
  • The risk of developing AMD increases with age. It increases by 2% per year, every year for those between the ages of 50-59 years.
Urinary Tract Infections:
  • 1 in 5 women will have a urinary tract infection at least once in her life. 80% of them will have recurrent UTIs.
  • Women tend to have a higher chance of getting UTIs than men. Since their urethra is shorter it is easier for the bacteria to enter the bladder.
  • Pregnant women who have UTI have a higher chance of giving birth to premature babies or babies that are underweight at birth.
  • Wearing pantyhose or tight trousers tend to increase the chances of developing UTI. This is because they may irritate skin, trap heat, and may contribute to bacterial growth.
Dehydration:
  • 75% of the United States population is chronically dehydrated.
  • Dehydration causes fatigue.
  • Being hydrated can boost metabolism levels in the body.
  • Dehydration is one of the main causes for kidney stones.
  • It takes 45 minutes for the body to get hydrated.
  • A person can survive without water for 3 weeks.
Dry skin:
  • Having a hot shower can dry out the skin and hair, thereby causing dry skin.
  • Certain people are allergic to some soaps and detergents; these can irritate the skin and cause dry skin.
  • Skin tends to become dry due to prolonged hours of sun exposure.
  • Using a moisturizer or lotion right after a hot shower does not stop the skin from becoming dry.
  • Dry skin can be an indication of certain skin diseases.
Acute Renal Failure:
  • Diabetic nephropathy occurs in 15-40% of those who have been diagnosed with type-1 diabetes. This is one of the leading causes of kidney failure.
  • Diabetic nephropathy is commonly diagnosed among smokers and those who have high cholesterol levels.
  • Alcohol is a major cause of liver diseases which usually develop into kidney conditions.
  • If kidney stones are smaller than 4 mm in diameter they can be passed out through urine.
Ankle Osteoarthritis:
  • 15% of the world’s populations are affected by joint pains due to osteoarthritis.
  • Out of these, 1% are affected with ankle osteoarthritis.
  • Traumatic injuries such as fractures and severe sprains in the ankle tend to cause osteoarthritis in the ankle.
  • Those who have been diagnosed with arthritis due to hereditary factors tend to have ankle osteoarthritis.
  • Clubfoot tends to affect 1 in every 500-1,000 children.
Binge Eating Disorder:
  • Binge eating disorder (BED) was first recognized as a formal medical disorder in the 1990s.
  • 1-2 million Americans suffer from the BED.
  • Adolescents and young adults tend to suffer from binge eating disorder more.
  • 20% of those who have been diagnosed with BED are overweight.
  • BED is related to depression and anxiety.
Avian Flu:
  • Avian flu is commonly known as bird flu. The full name of the virus is Asian Avian Influenza A.
  • There are 16 types of avian flu.
  • Draughts are the main causes for the avian flu to spread. This is because all the birds tend to flock around one water body, thereby spreading the flu faster.
  • This flu can pass on from birds to human beings and is highly contagious.
  • This flu is caused due to the H5N1 virus. This virus was first isolated in 1996, in Southern China and Hong Kong.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children:
  • Activity deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and activity deficit disorder (ADD) are the same thing.
  • 4% of American adults above the age of 18 have been diagnosed with ADHD; it is not limited to children only.
  • Men have  4 times higher chances of being diagnosed with ADHD than women.
  • ADHD is most commonly diagnosed by the age of 7 years.
Ovarian Cancer:
  • More than 14o,000 American women die due to ovarian cancer every year.
  • It is one of the deadliest gynecological diseases.
  • There are more than 30 types of ovarian cancers.
  • If ovarian cancer is detected in its early stages (stage 1 and 2) there are 70-75% chances of treating the condition.
  • Ovarian cancer is the 5th deadliest cancer among women.
Heat Exhaustion:
  • Heat exhaustion tends to happen when the body loses water and salts, this happens through sweating.
  • Heat stroke and heat exhaustion are not the same thing. Heat stroke occurs when an individual has a fever along with unconsciousness due to prolonged heat exposure. Whereas, heat exhaustion is the condition that occurs just before the body is going to get a heat stroke.
  • Heat exhaustion kills 175 Americans every year.
  • Women have more sweat glands but those of men are more active. This makes them sweat more and get dehydrated at a faster rate.
Constipation:
  • 4 million people in the United States have constipation. Out of which 15-20% of them have chronic constipation.
  • Constipation can occur before or during women’s menstrual cycle.
  • Having a good amount of water can help in reducing the chances of constipation.
  • Consuming probiotics can help in reducing the chances of constipation as they help in regulating bowel movement.
Blood Clots:
  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 12-14% of the population of the world.
  • PAD is 6 times more common than HIV.
  • Polycythemia vera is a blood disease that is most common among those who are above the ages of 60 years. PV cases are rarely found in children and young adults. It is most common among men than women.
  • 300,000 people die due to obesity in the United States. It is the 2nd  leading factor behind premature death after smoking in the United States.
Bloating:
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common type of gastrointestinal disorder.
  • 10-15% of the world’s population is diagnosed with IBS. Bloating is one of the major symptoms of this condition.
  • Food such as beans, lentils, wheat, onion and garlic tend to cause bloating.
  • Stress can aggravate bloating.
Varicose Veins:
  • Varicose veins and spider veins are not the same, even though they have the same causes.
  • 25% of women and 15% men have varicose veins, in the United States.
  • Restless legs syndrome tends to overlap with varicose veins.
  • Varicose insufficiency is caused when the blood does not go up to the heart from the veins that are present in the legs. Instead, the blood flows back down the veins.
  • Varicose veins do not occur only in your legs, they can occur in any part of the body.
Arrhythmia:
  • 2 million Americans are living with a form arrhythmia called atrial fibrillation.
  • 1 in 4 adults who are above the age of 40 years develop an irregular heartbeat in the United States.
  • The heart beats 70 times per minute and 100,000 times per day.
  • Blood pressure and blood sugar tend to vary if a person suffers from irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • Arrhythmia is most commonly felt when a person goes to sleep.
Rheumatoid Arthritis:
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be diagnosed in people of any age. It is not a disease that is found only among the elderly.
  • Though osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis both affect the joints and cause pain, they are not the same. That is because they have different causes.
  • 3 million people in the USA have been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis.
Bruises:
  • Bruises color due to the accumulation of blood under the affected area.
  • Some people tend to bruise more than other.
  • As people age, their blood vessels become weaker, thereby becoming more susceptible to bruising
  • Due to the additional weight on the lower half of the body, obese or overweight people tend to bruise more on their legs.
Metabolic Disorders:
  • Diabetes (type 2) remains undiagnosed in as many as 1/3rd of the all the patients.
  • Type 2 diabetes has no symptoms at first.
  • Gaucher’s disease is an inherited disease. This disease is caused due to the lack of enzyme glucocerebrosidase in the body.
  • Gaucher’s disease was first described in 1882 by a French doctor named Phillip Gaucher.
Joint Damage:
  • In the USA, 10% of men and 13% of women will develop osteoarthritis by the age of 60.
  • Not every joint pain can be categorized as arthritis.
  • 2 million people have gout in the United States.
  • Osteoarthritis is also known as degenerative arthritis or ‘wear and tear’ arthritis. It is the most common type of arthritis.
Head Lice:
  • Head lice have been around since pre-historic times. There is evidence that shows mummies had head lice too.
  • An adult head louse is the size of the sesame seed.
  • Female head lice (louse) can lay up to 10 eggs per day.
  • Lice can hold their breath for up to 2 hours.
Skin Problems:
  • People of all ages and skin tones are prone to pigmentation. Though it is most commonly seen in those who have a darker skin tone.
  • 40-50 million people have acne in the United States.
  • Excessive stress can cause wrinkles.
  • Young adults between the age group of 15-25 years are affected by acne.
Pelvic Pain:
  • Mittelschmerz is derived from a German word meaning ‘middle pain.’ Mittelschmerz usually occurs 14 days prior to the next menstrual cycle.
  • Mittelschmerz is most common among women who are between the age group of 15-29 years. This condition is prevalent among colored and Hispanic women.
  • Adenomyosis is not the same as endometriosis. Adenomyosis is when endometrial cells exist and grow into the wall of the uterus. Endometriosis is when cells tend to plant in the regions outside the uterus.
LDL Cholesterol:
  • LDL cholesterol is short for Low-Density-Lipoproteins. It is the bad or harmful cholesterol.
  • Babies have 25-40 gm/dL of LDL levels while adults have 130-160 gm/dL of LDL.
  • 71 million Americans have high levels of LDL.
  • Men need to strictly monitor their cholesterol by the time they reach 45 years; for women, the age limit is 55 years. However, every adult should regularly monitor their cholesterol levels.
Laryngitis:
  • Women are more commonly affected by laryngitis than men.
  • Laryngitis is most common among children, as they tend to strain their vocal cords frequently.
  • Medical conditions such as bronchitis and vocal cord polyps (cysts) can lead to laryngitis.
  • A rare viral infection of diphtheria is one of the causes of laryngitis.
  • Overusing the vocal cords can increase the chances of developing laryngitis.
Kidney Failure:
  • 500 million people worldwide have some form of kidney damage.
  • Over 2 million people worldwide receive treatment for CKD (chronic kidney disease) by dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Those between the ages of 65-74 years worldwide have some form of CKD.
  • 13% of the US population has CKD.
Internal Bleeding:
  • 3 million people in the United States have some form of back or leg injury, one of the leading causes of internal bleeding along the limbs.
  • 60% injuries in a sports team tend to occur during the practice sessions and not during the actual game.
  • Physical child abuse can lead to a subdural hematoma.
  • A subdural hematoma is also known as subdural hemorrhage.
Tennis Elbow:
  • Tennis elbow is also known as lateral epicondilitis.
  • This condition can commonly be found among those who are between the ages of 35-60 years.
  • This injury is not necessarily caused due to the sport that it is named after; it can be caused due to repetitive and strenuous usage of the dominant arm.
Hives:
  • Hives are a known reaction to allergies.
  • 25% of cases of chronic hives are caused due to autoimmune reactions.
  • The symptoms of hives go away on their own. But in cases of chronic hives, the symptoms tend to last for at least 6 months.
  • Doctors suggest that those people stay away from highly allergic foods or items to prevent hives.
Parkinson’s Disease:
  • Parkinson’s disease has been known since the ancient times, it is called as ‘Kampavata’ in Ayurveda. ‘Kampa’ is the Sanskrit word for ‘tremor.’
  • Parkinson’s disease is named after a London doctor, James Parkinson, who wrote a long and detailed essay on this disease in 1817. The essay was titled “An Essay on the Shaking Palsy.”
  • In the 1940s and 1950s, surgeons started performing surgeries on the basal ganglia ( present in the brain). This showed an improvement in the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Osteoporosis:
  • Osteoporosis is derived from the Greek words ‘osteo’ meaning bone and ‘porosis’ meaning pore or passage.
  • Within 5-7 years of menopause women can lose up to 20% of their bone mass.
  • Those who suffer from an eating disorder such as anorexia, tend to have a higher chance of developing osteoporosis.
  • Caucasians and Asian women are at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.
Osteoarthritis:
  • Osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of arthritis affecting more than 30 million Americans.
  • OA is a leading cause of disability among people who are above the age of 60 years.
  • Osteoarthritis is said to affect 13.9% adults above the age of 25 years and 33.6% adults above the age of 65 years.
  • According to the WHO, 130 million people will be affected by OA by 2050, 40 million of whom will be severely disabled.
Melanoma:
  • Melanoma is only 1% of the total number of skin cancers that people are diagnosed with in the USA but the leading cause of skin cancer deaths.
  • Melanoma is commonly diagnosed in patients who are 63 years and above. However, it is the most common form of cancer in young adults, especially in young women.
  • Melanoma is known as a silent disease. This is because its appearance is similar to that of a mole.
  • It is important to diagnose melanoma at an early stage. Only then does it remain largely treatable.
Skin Tags:
  • Skin tags are non-cancerous overlaps of outer skin and inner skin.
  • Skin tags do not shrink on their own and need to be removed surgically.
  • Skin tags are common in those who are in their 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy, obese individuals, type 2 diabetics, and individuals above the age of 50.
  • Skin tags do not need to be removed unless they cause irritation.
Spinal Fracture:
  • The most common part of the vertebrae to get fractured is the mid and lower back.
  • 5-10% of spinal fractures are in the neck (cervical spine).
  • Roughly, 45% of all spinal injuries can be attributed to car accidents.
  • Every year 20% cases of spinal fracture are due to serious falls.
  • High impact sports cause 15% of spinal fractures each year.
  • Osteoporosis (condition of weakening bones) causes 700,000 spinal fractures each year.
Schizophrenia:
  • The word Schizophrenia literally means “split mind.” The term “Schizophrenia” was coined in 1908.
  • It is not a split personality or multiple personality disorder. It is a mental illness that is characterized by delusions and hallucinations.
  • Substance abuse makes the symptoms of schizophrenia worse.
  • It is said that if you smoke marijuana before the age of 15, there are 4 time the chances of you developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia.
Skin Problems in Children:
  • Approximately 31 million children and adults have been diagnosed with eczema in the USA.
  • 15-20% of infants have dry skin right from the birth.
  • Babies may develop diaper rashes in case there is a change in their diet or their mothers.
  • Acne starts at the age of 11 for girls and 13 for boys.
Infections:
  • The term “virus” is derived from the Latin word “poison.”
  • Bacteria are believed to have evolved 3 and a half million years ago.
  • Bacteria are used to make many of the food substances that we consume such as chocolates, coffee, vinegar etc.
  • Most adults will have fungal infections such as athlete’s foot at least once in their lifetime.
Yellow Fever:
  • The last major epidemic of yellow fever, in the USA,  was in 1905 in New Orleans.
  • The symptoms are visible 3-5 days post the mosquito bite. The symptoms are flu-like.
  • It is prevalent in the western, central and eastern regions of Africa, rural Africa, and South America.
Wisdom Teeth:
  • Wisdom teeth got their name because they grow between the ages of 17-25 years. They are also called third molars.
  • 85% of wisdom teeth will need to be extracted as they are difficult to clean, making them prone to infections and bacterial growth.
  • According to a Japanese study conducted in 2008, wisdom teeth can produce stem cells.
  • 35% of the world’s population don't develop wisdom teeth.
Weight Loss:
  • A 19th-century American food enthusiast Horace Fletcher came up with a diet called “Fletcherism”, where he argued that chewing food 32 times or till it reaches its liquid state could help avoid diseases and encourage weight loss.
  • Elvis Presley was a great fan of the “sleeping beauty diet.” Here, a person was sedated for a few days to make sure that they do not eat, thus resulting in weight loss.
  • In the 20th-century cigarette makers regularly marketed their brands by saying that cigarette smoking was a weight loss aid.
  • “Byron Diet” is named after a Victorian poet Lord Byron, who would eat potatoes dipped in vinegar to make him look thin and pale.
Testicular Cancer:
  • The average age to be diagnosed with testicular cancer is 33.
  • 6% of cases of testicular cancers are diagnosed in children and teens.
  • 8% of cases of testicular cancers are diagnosed in men over the age of 55.
  • In 2015, approximately 257,823 men were living with testicular cancer in the United States.
Summer Skin Hazards:
  • Sunburns tend to occur 3-5 hours post the sun exposure.
  • Caucasians with light hair color have a higher chance of getting a sunburn.
  • Heat stroke occurs when the body temperature rises to 106 degrees. This is a highly fatal condition.
  • Poison ivy allergies, bug-bites, and tick-bites are more commonly observed during the summers.
Bad Breath:
  • 2,000 years ago Hippocrates had created a mouth rinse made of herbs and wine to help rid bad breath.
  • Bad breath is also known as halitosis, which is derived from a Latin word ‘halitus’ meaning exhalation and a Greek word ‘osis’ meaning a condition.
  • 60% women and 50% men use mouth rinse in the United States.
  • 25% of the world’s population has chronic bad breath which is caused due to oral bacteria.
  • Morning breath (which is also considered as bad breath) is inevitable.
Fibroids:
  • 70-80% of all women may develop fibroids by the time they reach 50.
  • 12-25% have problems related to their fibroids such as heavy bleeding and pain.
  • 1 in 1,000 has cancerous fibroids called leiomyosarcoma.
  • Coloured women are 2-3 times more likely to have fibroids than Caucasian and Hispanic women.
  • Uterine fibroids can happen at all ages, but are common among women who are between the age group of 40-50 years.
Mad Cow Disease:
  • This disease was first noticed in England in 1970 where it was believed to be another disease known as scrapie.
  • This disease is very rare in the United States and Canada.
  • Mad cow disease was first isolated and studied in Britain in 1986.
  • It takes at least 5 years for the symptoms to appear completely.
Paragonimiasis:
  • There are more than 30 species of trematodes (flukes) of the paragonimus genus.
  • Out of these, 10 can cause infections in the human body.
  • The P.westermani species causes lung flu.
  • 20 million people are estimated to have been affected by this flu worldwide.
  • This flu was first noticed in Taiwan in 1879.
  • In Japan, this condition was caused due to the consumption of raw pork.
Cervical Dysplasia:
  • Cervical cancer has a high prevalence in Sub-saharan African countries, especially South Africa with 7,735 new cases being diagnosed every year here.
  • It's the most commonly occurring cancer among females (15-44 years) in South Africa.
  • In the United States, an estimate of 13,000 women had been diagnosed with cervical cancer in 2016 and more than 4,000 women succumbed to the disease.
  • Smoking, long-term use of oral contraception, and being overweight increases the chances of being diagnosed with cervical cancer.
Foot Problems:
  • There are 26 bones in each foot, with 33 joints, 19 muscles, 10 tendons and 107 ligaments.
  • Your feet contain 250,000 sweat glands.
  • Though varicose veins are commonly found in the lower part of your body, they can also appear in other parts of the body.
  • 25% of women and 15% of men with venous diseases been diagnosed with varicose veins in the United States.
  • 60-70% of those diagnosed with diabetes will have a moderate to a severe nerve problem.
Poison Ivy:
  • This plant can be found in North America, Japan, Taiwan, Japan, and Russia.
  • It cannot survive in altitude higher than 4900 ft. It can survive extreme climatic conditions.
  • 85% of the people who come in contact with this plant tend to develop an allergic reaction.
  • The plant should never be burnt as the fumes can a severe allergic reaction in the lungs.
  • This plant can grow in the form of bushes or vines. Bushes are 3 ft and 11 inc. tall, while the vines are 3.9-9.8 inc. in height.
  • Poison ivy can survive up to 2 years.
Sepsis (Blood Poisoning):
  • 20-30 million cases of sepsis are reported each year worldwide.
  • Sepsis is one of the leading cause of death in the case of hospitalized patients in the USA.
  • Every day, 38 patients are amputated worldwide owing to sepsis.
  • Septic shock is said to have the highest mortality rate among non-coronary ICU patients
Childhood Leukemia:
  • Children with certain genetic disorders such as Down syndrome have a higher risk of developing leukemia.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most common among children between the age group of 3-5 years.
  • Leukemia is the most common cancer in children and teens accounting for 1 out of every 3 cancers in this age group.
  • Studies reveal that every day 43 children are diagnosed with cancer globally.
Lactose Intolerance:
  • 75% of the world’s population will lose their ability to break down lactose at some point in their lives.
  • 30 million Americans below the age of 20 have been diagnosed with the inability to break down lactose.
  • Lactose intolerance is not an allergy; it is a digestive issue.
  • Once, babies stop breastfeeding the lactose breaking enzymes in their body tend to decrease.
Thrombocytopenia:
  • Thrombocytopenia can occur due to the use of certain drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, penicillin etc.
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenia is now known as immune thrombocytopenia.
  • ITP can be caused by rubella or German measles.
• This condition may develop after any kind of viral infection. • One drop of blood contains 1,500,000-4,000,000 platelets.
Connective Tissue Diseases:
  • Among all connective tissue disorders, Sjorgen's syndrome has the highest prevalence, with it being diagnosed in about 0.2-2% of the general population.
  • SLE or Systemic  Lupus Erythematosus is much more common among women ( in the childbearing phase) as compared to men. The prevalence is 6-10 times more in women than in men.
Sleep Apnea:
  • The word ‘sleep apnea’ is named after Greek words meaning “want of breath.”
  • This condition most commonly affects those who are between the ages of 55-60 years.
  • 22 million people in the United States have this condition.
  • 80% of moderate to severe sleep apnea cases still remain undiagnosed.
Gas:
  • Some of the enzymes that are found in your stomach such as proteases, amylases, and lipases are the same chemicals used by laundry detergent companies.
  • Your stomach does not do the entire digestion process. The digestion process is mainly taken care of by the small intestine that breaks down the food and passes the nutrients into the bloodstream.
  • Frequent burping happens if a person is swallowing an excessive quantity of air and it is not entering their stomach.
  • The enzymes present in the gut help regulate our stress hormone.
Subdural Hematoma:
  • Subdural hematoma in young adults and children may be caused due acute or severe head injuries.
  • Chronic subdural hematoma is seen among those who are above the age of 60 years.
  • More than 2.8 million cases of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) are reported every year in the USA.
  • Children who have a blood clotting disorder are at a higher risk of developing a subdural hematoma.
Pterygium (Surfer's Eye):
  • Pterygium is also known as surfer’s eye and farmer’s eye; this is because this condition is caused due to spending prolonged hours under the sun.
  • There is a 30-40% chance for the pterygium to grow back post surgery.
  • It is most commonly seen in people under the age of 40 years.
Vaginal Discharge:
  • Vaginal discharge is a normal bodily function. Vaginal discharge keeps the vagina clean and healthy by removing any bacteria that may be present in the body.
  • Vaginal discharge keeps the vagina slightly wet; if it is dry it is susceptible to infections.
  • If women tend to have high levels of stress, their vaginal discharge may increase.
  • Excessive amounts of vaginal discharge may be an indication of an STI.
  • Generally, women produce a teaspoon of vaginal discharge per day. But if they are stressed, sick or on their menstrual cycle, the amount of vaginal discharge may vary.
Overactive Bladder:
  • Men tend to experience overactive bladder more than women, especially above the age of 60 years.
  • 33 million Americans suffer from an overactive bladder.
  • The bladder can hold 400-500 ml of urine.
  • Humans tend to urinate 3,000 times per year.
Jock Itch:
  • Jock itch is a common term used to describe any rash that can be found in the male groin region.
  • Though it is most commonly seen in men, women get these rashes as well.
  • Jock itch is 3 times more common in men than in women.
  • This infection is common in a moist and wet environment.
  • Ringworm on the scalp is not necessarily the signature rings. It can be scaly and flaky just like dandruff.
Sensory Processing Disorder:
  • 1 in 20 children and adults worldwide may have sensory processing disorder (SPD)
  • It is a neurological disorder.
  • SPD can be mistaken for ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), but most of those who have SPD tend to have ADHD as well.
  • Heredity is said to be one of the causes of SPD thought the actual cause is still unknown.
  • Though sensory processing disorder is not autism, many of those who have been diagnosed with autism have sensory processing issues.
Cholera:
  • It can take almost 5 days for the symptoms of cholera to develop.
  • The first epidemic of cholera occurred in the 19th century in West Bengal, India. The disease spread to Southeast Asia, the Middle East, several European countries, and Eastern African nations via trade routes.
  • 3-5 million cholera cases are reported each year, with 100,000- 120,000 deaths due to this infection.
  • 80% of cases of cholera can be treated promptly by administering oral rehydration solutions.
Colon Polyps:
  • 10% of all polyps fall into the category of adenoma; a benign tumor occurring in the epithelial tissues.
  • Some colon polyps are benign while some can be precancerous or malignant.
  • Colorectal cancer is the 3rd most common cause of cancer worldwide in both the genders and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries.
  • The 5-year survival rate for those with stage I colon cancer is 92% while for those with stage IIA colon cancer’s 5-year survival rate is 87%.
Missed Period:
  • Stress is one of the main causes for a missed period. Emotional stress and anxiety can cause irregular periods.
  • Health problems such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome), thyroid disease, uncontrolled diabetes and uterine fibroids are other causes for a missed period.
  • Human, humpback whales, and elephants are the only animals that go through menopause.
  • In the middle ages, it was believed that red-heads were conceived during a period.
  • “Tampon” is French for “plug”
Shingles (Herpes Zoster):
  • In the USA, nearly 1 in 3 people will develop shingles at least once in their lifetime.
  • Anyone who has had chickenpox is susceptible to shingles.
  • The risk of acquiring shingles increases with age with half of the cases occurring in the 60-plus age group.
  • According to the CDC, there are 1 million cases of shingles in the US each year.
  • After you get chicken pox, the virus does not leave your body, it resides in your nerve tissue in a dormant state.
  • Shingle is a rash; it scabs over after 3-5 days.
  • Just over 10% of people with shingles develop complications in addition to blisters and infections.
Hot Flashes:
  • Hot flashes are common in women undergoing menopause. Affecting as many as 75% women.
  • Hot flashes are not uncommon in men. There is a less than 2% drop in the testosterone for men every 30 years. This is said to cause hot flashes.
  • Women can have hot flashes 10-20 years before and after menopause.
  • There are many causes and triggers of hot flashes in women. This does not occur only due to hormonal imbalance but also due to external conditions like excessive amounts of alcohol intake.
  • In Victorian time, hot flashes were called “hot blooms.”
Enlarged Prostate:
  • It is a common misconception that enlarged prostate is prostate cancer. Whereas prostate cancer and an enlarged prostate are two different things.
  • Enlarged prostate can be treated with medicines.
  • When men reach the ages between 55-60, their prostate gland which is 18 gms starts to enlarge. The measure of the enlarged prostate can vary from person to person.
  • Enlarge prostate can lead to many complications. Like – residual urine can in the bladder can become infected and or lead to the formation of bladder stones.
Mitral Valve Prolapse:
  • Most deaths due to mitral valve prolapse occur among the elderly. The mortality rate of MVP increases considerably after the age of 85.
  • Women generally have a higher mortality rate due to MVP.
  • Over 40% of patients with mitral valve prolapse also have an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system known as dysautonomia.
  • The human heart roughly weighs around 10-12 ounces (280-340 grams) in men and 8-10 ounces (230-280 grams) in women.
  • An adult heart beats 60-80 times per minute.
  • The heart beats 100,000 times per day (about 3 billion beats in a lifetime).
Neuropathy:
  • Approximately 50% of those with diabetes will be diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy.
  • Neuropathy is treatable in most cases.
  • Metformin (one of the most commonly prescribed drug for diabetes) increases the chances of developing neuropathy.
  • More than 100 types of peripheral neuropathies have been diagnosed with their own set of characteristics and symptoms.
  • Estimates of 20 million people in the United States have some type of peripheral neuropathic pain.
Pre-cancerous Skin Lesions:
  • More people are diagnosed with skin cancer each year in the US than all cancers combines.
  • 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer by the age of 70.
  • The average cost of treating skin cancer each year in the US is estimated at 1.8 million dollars.
  • More than 90% of skin cancers are caused due to sun exposure.
  • More than 1 million cases of skin cancer will be reported this year.
  • Men are two times more likely to develop skin cancer than women.
Swollen Feet:
  • Swollen feet are also known as edema.
  • Swollen feet can be a result of several chronic disorders such as Diabetes, nutritional deficiencies, and alcohol toxicity.
  • One of the leading causes of swollen feet, high blood pressure, is known as a silent killer since it manifests no evident symptoms in the initial stages.
  • There are 16 million people who have high blood pressure in the UK.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should not be taken without a prescription, as they have severe side effects. They can have severe side effects.
Foot Drop:
  • Foot drop affects both men and women. However, it is more common in men. The male to female ratio is approximately 2.8:1.
  • Both the feet are equally prone to developing this condition.
  • 3-13% of those who undergo surgery of the tibia ( the shin bone) subsequently experience foot drop.
  • Your feet contain 26 bones, 33 joints, more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments, and 250,000 sweat glands.
  • Toes can sometimes surgically replace thumbs.
Facial Hair:
  • About 5% of the women in the US experience hirsutism.
  • At times, unwanted facial hair runs in the family.
  • It is most common in people from the Middle East, South Asia, and the Mediterranean regions.
  • It is linked to high levels of the male hormone (androgens) present in the body.
  • Facial hair is present in up to 5-10% of women.
  • It can be caused by high levels of hormonal imbalance and medications.
Staph Infection:
  • Staphylococcus was first identified in 1880 in Scotland, by surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint.
  • The name of the bacterium is derived from the Greek-Latin words “staphyl” meaning “a bunch of grapes” and “coccos” meaning “berry.”
  • Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics including – penicillin, methicillin, amoxicillin and oxacillin.
  • Men above the age of 50 are at a higher risk of having this type of bacteria.
Porphyria:
  • Porphyria cutanea tarda occurs in the Caucasian population in the ratio of 1:25,000.
  • The exact prevalence is unknown but it likely ranges from 1 in 500 to 1 in 50,000 in the general population.
  • Fewer than 300 cases have been reported in the medical literature of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.
  • The famous artist – Vincent Van Gogh and his brother Theo might have suffered from porphyria.
  • King George III was also diagnosed with porphyria and so was his great-great-great grandson.
  • It is believed that this disease originated from the inter-family marriages among the European nobility.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS):
  • Even though it has been known for quite some time, only in the 1980’s did researchers start looking into PMS more seriously.
  • PDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) is an extreme form of PMS. The symptoms of PDD are the same as OMS, but more severe.
  • PMS also heightens the senses of some women.
  • The symptoms of PMS can start up to 10 days before women get their period.
  • PMS is common in women over the age of 30.
  • 1 in 3 women have PMS.
Urethritis:
  • Women in their reproductive age and young men between the age group of 20-35 years old are most commonly diagnosed urethritis.
  • Those with a history of STDs (sexually transmitted disease) are at a higher risk of developing urethritis.
  • This condition occurs in 4 million Americans every year.
  • Gonococcal urethritis amounts for approximately 20% of all urethritis cases worldwide.
Perimenopause:
  • The risk of osteoporosis increases as women enter the pre-menopausal phase, thus the daily calcium intake should be maintained at 1,200 mg.
  • The average age at which a woman attains menopause is 51; the menstrual cycles can end anytime between 45-55 years.
  • Stress, spicy foods, and caffeine can trigger episodes of hot flashes in perimenopausal women.
  • Since the menstrual cycles don’t stop completely during perimenopause, women can still get pregnant during this phase.
Quadriplegia:
  • Men suffer more spinal cord injuries than women.
  • In the United States, 82% men between the ages of 16-30 suffer from spinal cord injuries.
  • Before 1940, the life expectancy for those diagnosed with spinal cord injuries was 2 years, due to lack of proper treatment and antibiotics.
Erectile Dysfunction:
  • Studies show that 90% of those who suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) never go for treatment.
  • ED can occur in men of any age. Although it is common among men over the age of 75.
  • Regular sex (at least once per week) can help prevent ED.
  • ED is linked to dental health.
  • Japan has the highest self-reported incidents of erectile dysfunction. China is second and USA is third.
Nursemaid's Elbow:
  • The medical term for nursemaid’s elbow is “Pulled Elbow” or “Radial Head Subluxation”.
  • It is mostly seen in children below the age of 5-6 years. The prevalence is slightly higher among girls than boys.
  • Swinging a toddler by pulling their arms or wrists is the most common reason for the occurrence of this condition.
  • During the early childhood years, the ligaments that hold the bone of elbows in place are not developed fully and thus can be damaged easily.
Celiac Disease:
  • Nearly 3 million Americans suffer from celiac disease.
  • Those who have been diagnosed with celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten.
  • A person with celiac disease has to wait 6-11 years to be diagnosed with this disease as symptoms are not very evident.
  • There are more than 300 symptoms of celiac disease. Some people do not have any symptoms.
  • It is an autoimmune disease. Therefore, you cannot “grow out” of it.
Psoriasis:
  • In 1872, a dermatologist Heinrich Koebner made a major discovery about psoriasis when he noticed that skin that had been recently damaged by animal bites, tattoos or other trauma; were more likely to develop psoriasis lesions.
  • In 5th century BC it was noticed that Hippocrates (the founder or modern day medicine) used pine tar (obtained from pine trees) to treat psoriasis.
  • Researchers believe that 10% of the US population has the gene to potentially develop this disease. However, only 2-3% may actually get the symptoms.
  • Psoriasis can strike at any age. Although it is said that it is common among youth between the ages of 15-30 years. It is also known to affect seniors between the ages of 60-75 years.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia:
  • A person of any age can be diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • In people under the age of 20, ALL is the most common type of leukemia, accounting for 74% of all leukemia diagnosed in this age group.
  • Children younger than the age of 5 have the highest risk of developing ALL.
  • The average persons’ risk of developing this cancer is 1 in 1000. This risk is slightly higher in men compared to women, and higher is Caucasians than in African Americans.
  • In the United States, it has been estimated that 5,960 people of all ages will be diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia will be reported this year.
Endocrine System Disorders:
  • The human endocrine system consists of 8 glands that regulate metabolism, growth, sleep, and reproduction. These 8 glands are pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, pancreas, adrenal, testes (male)/ or ovaries (female).
  • The study of endocrinology can be dated back to ancient China (2000 B.C.). Chinese healers could extract sex hormones from human urine use it for healing purposes.
  • Two endocrine system conditions, namely hyperthyroidism, and menopause can cause osteoporosis. Thus, this bone disorder is often studied under endocrinology too
Dwarfism:
  • Dwarfism occurs in all races and ethnicity.
  • 80% dwarfs have parents of normal height.
  • Most types of dwarfism have some co-occurring of medical complications.
  • Dwarfism affects an estimate of 30,000 people in the US and 650,000 people worldwide.
  • Some famous celebrities who are dwarfs – Peter Dinklage, Meredith Eaton, Michael J Anderson, Jason Acuna and Kenny Baker.
ACL Injury:
  • 50% of those with an ACL injury will develop osteoarthritis in the coming years.
  • Female athletes have a higher risk of developing this injury compared to men, due to increases pelvic angles putting more strain on their knees.
  • Football, soccer, and basketball show a higher risk of ACL injuries. Though other athletes and non-athletes can also experience this injury.
  • 70% of ACL injuries are sustained due to non-contact sports while 30% are due to contact sports.
Fibromyalgia:
  • About 5 million people in the US who are 18 years or older have fibromyalgia.
  • Between 75-90% of people who are diagnosed with fibromyalgia are women. Men get diagnosed with this disease as well, but their symptoms are different altogether.
  • Many people with fibromyalgia have memory and concentration loss. This is called “brain fog” or “fibro fog.”
  • There is nothing that can be done to treat fibromyalgia.
Acid Reflux & G.E.R.D.:
  • This is a very commonly occurring condition with almost 60 million diagnosed cases in the USA alone.
  • There are two types of acid refluxes namely – heartburn reflux (causing burning sensation in chest) and throatburn reflux (burning sensation in throat and coughing).
  • The fastest growing cancer in the western countries, esophageal cancer, is closely associated with acid reflux.
  • During the 7 year period from 1998 to 2005, the number of hospitalizations due to GERD in the USA increased by a record 216%.
Grave's Disease:
  • The prevalence of Grave’s Disease in the USA is around 1 out of every 200 people that roughly translates to 10 million Americans.
  • Women are 7 to 8 times more likely to develop this condition.
  • The condition has been named after an Irish physician, Robert Graves, who first described and studied the symptoms of this type of hypothyroidism.
  • People who have been diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder are more likely to be diagnosed with Grave’s Disease.
Hemorrhoids:
  • Hemorrhoids occur commonly among all individuals. In fact, according to latest studies, 3 out of every 4 adults will experience hemorrhoids at least once in their life.
  • Aging weakens the connective tissues between the rectum and the anus making hemorrhoids more common among the aged population.
  • Contrary to popular belief, hemorrhoids are not caused by eating spicy foods. The biggest reason is constipation.
Rosacea:
  • Rosacea commonly affects middle-aged white-skinned women.
  • It affects more than 16 million Americans.
  • The cause is still unknown and there is no cure.
  • Bill Clinton, Diana, Princess of Wales and W.C Fields (actor during the 1920s and 30s) are some famous people who have been diagnosed with rosacea.
  • Over 3 million Canadians are diagnosed with rosacea.
Gestational Diabetes:
  • When a baby is born from a mother who has had gestational diabetes, they tend to be larger (macrosomia). Due to which the mother will have to go through a C-section. This is more common with babies over 400 grams.
  • These babies are more likely to need formulas as they are unable to maintain a stable blood sugar level.
  • Mothers with gestational diabetes are at a 50% chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 10 years of delivering their baby.
  • If the diabetes is poorly controlled, the baby has a 10% chance of being born with defects.
  • If the mother has gestational diabetes the father of the baby has a 33% chance of developing gestational diabetes as well.
Brain Cancer:
  • There are almost 700,000 people in the United Sates who have been diagnosed with brain cancer. Almost, 69,000 will be diagnosed this year.
  • In the United States, more than 28,000 children (0-19 years-old) are estimated to be living with brain cancer.
  • The most common type of brain cancer is secondary cancer – cancer from another part of the body has entered the brain.
  • The average survival rate for brain cancer – glioblastoma – is 10-12 months.
Mono In Teens:
  • Anyone can get mono, regardless of age. However, many older people have developed their immunity towards mono, while young people have not.
  • Mono can be diagnosed by the monospot blood test and the Epstein-Barr virus antibody test. Both these tests detect the presence of mono in the body.
  •  Most people have been exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mono. Even if you have never been sick, you could still be actively carrying the virus.
  • Since mono is a virus, it does not respond to antibiotics. The best way to treat mono is through bed rest and a high fluid intake.
Lupus:
  • Lupus means ‘wolf’ in Latin. The term was adopted because, when the disease was first discovered, the doctors thought that the rash on the face looked like a wolf.
  • This disease is popularly known as “the great imitator”. As the symptoms tend to appear like those of other diseases.
  • Since the exact cause of lupus is unknown, there is no known cure either.
  • Famous people with lupus – Seal, Paula Abdul, Selena Gomez, and Nick Cannon. Michael Jackson was said to have lupus before his death.
  • Lupus symptoms are not the same for everyone.
  • 90% of those who develop lupus are women. Men are affected by lupus as well and their diseases can affect some organs severely
West Nile Disease:
  • While the West Nile Disease manifests as a fatal neurological condition among humans, as high as 80% of infected people don’t show any symptoms.
  • This disease was first isolated in 1937, in the West Nile District of Uganda. In 1953, birds were identified as the carriers of the virus.
  • The most severe outbreaks of this disease have occurred in Greece, Russia, USA, Romania, and Israel.
  • In left undiagnosed, West Nile Disease can turn fatally invasive causing diseases such as meningitis, poliomyelitis, and encephalitis.
Pseudocyst:
  • About 10% of pseudocysts become infected.
  • 65% of pseudocysts cases get resolved.
  • Pancreatic pseudocysts account for approximately 75% of all pancreatic mass.
  • In 1991, D’Egidio and Schein described a classification of pancreatic pseudocyst based on the underlining etiology of pancreatitis.
Gaucher Disease:
  • Gaucher’s Disease is more prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews than among any other ethnicity. Among Ashkenazi Jews, the incidence is 1 out of 855 while in general population it’s 1 out of 40,000.
  • This disease is a genetic disorder which is inherited in the autosomal recessive pattern.
  • The disease has been named after Philippe Gaucher who identified this disease in 1882.
Hyperkalemia:
  • About 1-10% of all hospitalized patients in the emergency department (ED) are diagnosed with hyperkalemia.
  • An estimate of 3.7 million US citizens had hyperkalemia in 2014.
  • Hyperkalemia is prevalent in roughly 2-3% of the general population.
  • Those who suffer from chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus are 2-3 times more likely to get hyperkalemia.
Neutropenia:
  • The normal count of neutrophils in the human body ranges from 1.5 million to 8 million neutrophils per milliliter of blood.
  • Neutrophils protect your body from bacterial infections. So, a lower neutrophil count indicates a higher susceptibility to bacterial attacks.
  • Depending on the cause of neutropenia the patient may take a few months to years to get better. In many cases, this can remain incurable.
  • Low levels of neutrophil indicate the presence of other disorders such as anemia, dietary deficiency, Addison’s disease, and severe bacterial infections.
Endometriosis:
  • In the UK, 1 in every 10 women of reproductive age are diagnosed with endometriosis.
  • 10% of the women worldwide have endometriosis – that accounts for 176 million women worldwide.
  • The prevalence of this condition in women along with infertility is as high as 30-50%.
  • In the UK, this condition is the 2nd most common gynaecological condition.
Diverticulitis:
  • The complications associated with diverticulitis are abscess-formation, fistula, perforation in the colon, peritonitis, and severe intestinal obstruction.
  • 35% of Americans, between the age of 18-50 are diagnosed with diverticulosis while more than half of the population above the age of 60 has diverticulitis.
  • Every year, almost 200,000 people are hospitalized for diverticulitis in the USA alone.
  • According to studies, by the time they reach the age of 90, almost everyone will have developed some degree of diverticulitis.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea:
  • People with obstructive sleep apnea repeatedly stop breathing while they are asleep.
  • Untreated obstructive sleep apnea can lead to severe health complications like – heart diseases, stroke, high blood pressure and depression.
  • More than 22 million Americans are dealing with sleep apnea.
  • 80% of the moderate to severe sleep apnea patients are still undiagnosed.
  • Snoring does not always mean that the person has sleep apnea. And sleep apnea is not always equal to snoring. Many people diagnosed with sleep apnea do not snore at all.
Morgellons:
  • The existence of Morgellons disease is largely debated since there are no definitive studies to prove its occurrence or to diagnose it.
  • According to some studies, this condition is associated with Lyme disease, a disease caused by the bite of ticks.
  • Scientists have discovered that the skin lesions caused by Morgellons are composed of keratin and collagen tissues, instead of worms or parasites.
  • During the 4 year period when CDC was investigating this disease, only 41 patients were found all over with the Morgellons disease. The incidence rate was as low as 3.65 cases per 100,000.
Adenoiditis:
  • The adenoid glands are located behind the nose and the roof of the mouth, and just like tonsils, these help in warding off infections.
  • Adenoids start growing when a child is 3-5 years old and disappear by the time an individual hits the teenage years.
  • If a child suffers from more than 3 adenoid infections in a year, he/she becomes eligible for adenoidectomy or removal of adenoid glands.
  • In most cases, both the adenoid gland and the tonsils are removed if removal of even one of these is required.
Avascular Necrosis:
  • The other names by which avascular necrosis is known are aseptic necrosis and osteonecrosis.
  • Traumatic injury to the bone such as a fracture or excess steroid medication can cause avascular necrosis.
  • Several diseases of the blood such as sickle cell disease, Gaucher’s disease, and even thalassemia can lead to this condition.
  • More often than not, if there is a non-traumatic cause of the necrosis, multiple joints are affected by the condition.
Myositis:
  • The word myositis originated from two Greek words – ‘myos’ meaning ‘muscles’ and ‘itis’ meaning ‘disease’.
  • Myositis is said to affect those under the age of 20, with the peak onset between the ages of 30-60 years.
  • In the United State, it is said to affect 50,000-75,000 people every year.
  • It affects children among the age group of 2-5 years.
Moon Facies ( Cushing Syndrome):
  • This condition is also called as hypercortisolism and mostly affects people within the age group of 20-50 years.
  • If you are diabetic and/or have a high blood pressure, you have an increased chance of developing this condition.
  • Cortisol is produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The pituitary gland is responsible for its secretion.
  • The hormone cortisol protects the body from the effects of stress and also impacts protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
Atrial Fibrillation:
  • According to the CDC, 2.7 to 6.1 million Americans suffer from atrial fibrillation. The prevalence is higher among aged population.
  • Patients of atrial fibrillation have 4-5 times higher risk of experiencing a stroke as compared to those who are not diagnosed with this condition.
  • This condition is responsible for almost 750,000 hospitalizations and 130,000 fatalities every year.
  • It is estimated that by the year 2050, more than 15 million people will be affected by this condition in the USA alone
Chlamydia:
  • Chlamydia can cause serious and permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive health and fertility and may lead to ectopic pregnancies too.
  • Ejaculation by the infected male partner is not necessary for chlamydia to spread to others.
  • According to CDC, 1.4 million cases of chlamydia were reported in the year 2014 in the USA alone, but this number is far less than the actual figure since chlamydia remains largely unreported.
  • The pathogen responsible for chlamydia, ‘chlamydia trachomatis’, can also potentially infect the throat and the rectum.
Apert Syndrome:
  • Apert syndrome is also called acrocephalosyndactylia.
  • It was first described by Wheaton in 1894 and further investigated by Eugene Apert.
  • The term ‘acrocephalosyndactylia’ is derived from the Greek words, ‘acro’ meaning ‘peak’, peaked head syndrome, ‘cephalo’ also meaning peaked head and ‘syndactyly’ meaning webbing of fingers and toes.
  • Apert syndrome is known to affect 1 in 165,000-200,000 new born.
Brucellosis:
  • Although cases of brucellosis have been diagnosed worldwide, most cases are reported in the Mediterranean region thus it’s also called as Mediterranean fever ( also known as Malta fever)
  • The incubation period for the responsible for the infection, the Brucella bacteria, ranges from 5-60 days.
  • The number of cases of brucellosis reported yearly across the world is roughly 500,000. It is relatively rare in the USA, with not more than 100-200 cases/ year.
  • The earliest mention of brucellosis dates back to ancient times (more than 2000 years ago), by the Romans and Hippocrates.
Anorexia Nervosa:
  • There is a huge social stigma attached to Anorexia being considered as an actual disorder and hence only 1 out of 10 anorexic patients seek treatment for it.
  • Contrary to popular myth, men can suffer from anorexia too. 10% of all anorexia patients are males (a large percentage of men remain under or undiagnosed).
  • Anorexia is the leading cause of death among females in the age group 15-26. It is 12 times more fatal than any other cause of death such as accidents or chronic illnesses.
  • Anorexia records the highest number of deaths when compared to any other psychiatric disorder.
Brain-Eating Amoeba (Naegleriasis):
  • In the United States, between 2006-2015 the single-celled organism has affected 37 people.
  • The brain-eating amoeba is called naegleria fowlri.
  • According to CDC, this amoeba lives in living in warm water. Like – lakes, rivers, and hot springs.
  • It can survive in temperatures as high as 115 fahrenheit (46 degree celsius)
  • It does not live in the sea.
  • It enters the body through the nose and not by swallowing water.
Bladder Cancer:
  • Smoking increases your risk of developing cancer in the bladder by at least 2-4 times. Tobacco consumption is seen in 50% of all male and 33% of all female patients diagnosed with bladder cancer.
  • Men are more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer than women (ratio is 4:1) and it is most commonly prevalent among the Caucasians.
  • Recurrent bladder infections and/or kidney infections also increase one’s risk factor for bladder cancer.
  • There are almost 85,000 cases of bladder cancer cases reported in the USA along, out of which 65,000 are in males and 20,000 are in females.
Lyme Disease:
  • 1 out of every 4 patients with Lyme disease in the USA is a child. Except for Antarctica, incidents of Lyme disease have been reported in every continent.
  • This infection is called the “great imitator” as the symptoms closely resemble other illnesses such as Lupus, Bell’s Palsy, Fibromyalgia, Arthritis, and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
  • It cannot be transferred from an infected person to a healthy individual. Also, not all ticks will give you Lyme disease.
  • The characteristic symptom of Lyme disease is a skin rash that looks like a bull’s eye though not every infected individual will show such a symptom.
Bone Spurs:
  • Bone spurs, also known as osteophytes, are usually caused by degenerative arthritis and may or may not produce any noticeable symptoms.
  • Heel spurs, bone spurs present in the underside of the heel bone, are most painful when one takes the first step after getting up in the morning.
  • Bone spurs are also caused due to Forrestier’s disease or DISH – Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis.
  • Herbal remedies such as turmeric can be used to treat bone spurs. This is because turmeric has natural anti-inflammatory properties.
Anal Abscess:
  • In the United States, the estimate incidence rate is between 68,000-96,000 cases per year.
  • Perianal suppuration affects 1-2:10,000 per year and represents about 5% of all proctology consultations.
  • Men are affected more compared to women with a 2:1 ratio.
  • Frequently, this is a benign condition in infants.
Multiple Sclerosis:
  • Multiple Sclerosis or MS is prevalent in almost 2 million people across the globe, with almost 350,000 cases diagnosed in the USA alone.
  • The most common MS triggers identified by doctors are vitamin D deficiency, certain viral infections, and decreased exposure to natural sunlight.
  • The most debilitating symptom of MS is severe fatigue, which is observed in 75% to 90% of all cases.
  • Depression, anxiety, mood swings, and stress are commonly observed in patients diagnosed with MS. Stress is both a trigger and side-effect of MS.
Amyloidosis:
  • Amyloidosis is a relatively rare disease diagnosed in 200,000 Americans in total. It occurs in roughly 8 out of every 1 million people.
  • There are at least 15 different types of amyloidosis identified, each pertaining to one specific type of protein.
  • Primary amyloidosis, which is the most common form of amyloidosis, may occur in association with myeloma or bone marrow cancer.
  • Amyloid deposits that occur in the lungs, nasal sinus and windpipe can severely restrict air pathways causing trouble in breathing.
Avoidant Personality Disorder:
  • The diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is difficult to make for those who are younger than 18-years-old.
  • Most of the symptoms decrease in severity around the age of 40-50 years.
  • The cause of APD is unknown.
  • APD is prevalent in 1% of both male and female population.
Pleurisy:
  • Pleurisy is caused by the inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest cavity.
  • It can be caused by infections such as tuberculosis, immune disorders such as systematic lupus erythematosus ( SLE), rheumatoid arthritis etc.
  • Symptoms include – chest pain, aggravated breathing, shortness in breathing, local tenderness etc.
  • A large amount of fluid build-up in the lungs lining is known as pleural effusion.
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis:
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was first described by Bright in 1831 as a complication of the epidural and subdural infection.
  • This condition is very rare and life-threatening as a vein that is present at the hollow space beneath the brain and under the eye sockets gets blocked due to a blood clot.
  • This vein carries blood from the heart to the brain and vice-versa.
  • The main cause of CST is an infection, but other factors play a major as well.
Canker Sores (Apthous Stomatitis):
  • Canker sores are also called aphthous ulcers or stomatitis.
  • In North America, 20-50% of the population has this condition.
  • They occur due to certain food intolerance, stress or trauma.
  • They appear on the cheeks, gums, lips, tongue, top or floor of the mouth.
  • The sores develop within 24-48 hours. They take up to 7-14 days to heal without scarring.
Bursitis:
  • Bursitis is commonly caused by repetitive movement and hence has many names depending on the area affected by certain occupations – weaver’s bottom, clergyman’s knee, housemaid’s knee, and miner’s elbow.
  • The human body contains more than 150 bursae (padded sack-like structures found in the joint areas where friction is more).
  • A newborn baby has fewer bursae as compared to a 7 year old child. Bursae develop in the body as a result of increased physical movements and activities.
  • Some common forms of tendinitis (tenderness just outside a joint) are mostly diagnosed in sportsmen and athletes and are named accordingly – tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, swimmer’s shoulder, and jumper’s knee.
Non-Allergic Rhinitis:
  • It is a medical term that is used to describe a set of symptoms that resemble nasal allergy and hayfever but the actual cause is unknown.
  • Symptoms include – postnasal drips, runny nose, sneezing, and stiff nose.
  • In America, 58 million people have allergic rhinitis while 19 million have non-allergic rhinitis (NAR)
  • Allergic rhinitis is related to the immune system while non-allergic rhinitis is not.
Hodgkin's Disease:
  • In the United States, there are about 8,500 cases every year with 3,660 females and 4,840 in males.
  • There are about 1,050 deaths per year of which 430 are females and 620 are males.
  • It can be found in both adults and children, but it is commonly found in young adults in their early 20’s.
  • The risk of Hodgkin's disease arises again in late adulthood around the age of 55.
  • Hodgkin’s disease is also called Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a rare condition for children under the age of 5 to develop, but common for teenagers among the age group of 15-19.
Eye Twitching:
  • Eye twitching is scientifically called an eye spasm and blepharospasm.
  • We blink 15-20 times per minutes, 1,200 times per hour which adds up to 28,000 times per day.
  • Those who have eye twitching tend to blink up to 27 times per minute.
  • This condition is most common in middle-aged or elderly women.
  • The longest eyelash growth ever recorded is as long as 2.75 inches.
  • The eyelid is the thinnest layer of skin on the human body.
Bowel Incontinence:
  • In Australia, bowel incontinence effects up to 20% men and 12.9% women.
  • Around 77% of the elderly in Australia living in aged care facilities have this condition.
  • Bowel incontinence is one of the 3 major reasons for the admittance of aged care facilities.
  • It is the inability to control bowel movement, especially seen in elderly people.
Viral Gastroenteritis:
  • In Australia, viral gastroenteritis causes almost 50% of paediatric admissions. It is also a significant cause of death among young children.
  • Viral gastroenteritis causes 111 million episodes each year and about 25 million clinical visits. With 2 million hospital visits and 352,000-592,000 deaths every year.
  • According to the CDC, the noroviruse changes its game every 2-3 years by developing a new strain if virus.
  • Viral gastroenteritis is also called stomach flu and rotavirus gastroenteritis infection.
Vaginitis:
  • The most common conditions responsible for the inflammation of the vagina are bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and yeast infection.
  • Vaginal douching and frequently changing sexual partners increases the risk of vaginal inflammation.
  • Bacterial vaginosis can have serious consequences such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and even miscarriages.
Multiple Myeloma:
  • Multiple myeloma can occur in those regions where the bone marrow is active. In adults, these regions include the skull, spine, pelvis, ribs, and the shoulders.
  • The exact cause for multiple myeloma still eludes the medical community. The associated risk factors include genetic abnormalities and environmental toxin exposure.
  • The median survival associated with multiple myeloma is about 3 years, though there are patients who have lived for almost 10 years.
  • 96% of the diagnosed cases of myeloma are done in patients above 45 years and older. Only 1% of cases are detected people less than 32 years of age.
Rhabdomyolysis:
  • The first known case of rhabdomyolysis was in 1908 in Sicily.
  • 24% of cocaine users are reported to have rhabdomyolysis.
  • The muscle damage that occurs in rhabdomyolysis can be caused due to – crush injury, strenuous activity, electric shocks, heat strokes, infections, snakebites etc.
  • In the United States, rhabdomyolysis occurs in about 26,000 people every year.
Restless Leg Syndrome:
  • Restless Leg Syndrome or RLS is prevalent in almost 7% of the entire population and is more commonly found among pregnant women.
  • Iron, folate, and magnesium supplements can normalize dopamine levels and thus help in reducing RLS symptoms.
  • The chronic sleep interruption caused by RLS can trigger other conditions such as erectile dysfunction or even high blood pressure.
  • RLS has a strong genetic component associated with it and is most commonly diagnosed in people with Western European descent.
Plantar Warts:
  • Plantar warts, also known as foot warts, are caused by an infection spread by the HPV (human papilloma virus), the same virus that causes cervical cancer, genital warts, and some cases of lung cancer.
  • A subtype of plantar warts, known as “kissing warts”, occurs where two parts of the foot touch each other.
  • Since the incubation period of the HPV can be as high as 20 months, it becomes difficult to identify the exact time the virus was contracted.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes:
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is uncommon before the age of 50. It is most commonly diagnosed in people in their 70’s.
  • Approximately 10,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with MDS each year.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome is also called bone marrow failure disorder.
  • The overall incidence of MDS is higher in males compared to females (1.5 to 2.1)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome:
  • PCOS is a fairly common condition diagnosed in almost 5-10% of women of childbearing age in the USA. That translates to roughly 5 million women.
  • Studies suggest that only 50% of PCOS cases are diagnosed across the world. This means there are millions of women living with undiagnosed PCOS.
  • More than half of PCOS-diagnosed women are in diabetic or pre-diabetic stage.
  • The risk of heart attack in PCOS patients is 4-7 times more as compared to non-PCOS demography.
Genital Warts (HPV):
  • Studies indicate that 3 out of every 4 adult, in the reproductive age, have been affected with at least one sexually transmitted infection such as the genital warts.
  • The HPV or the Human Papilloma Virus infects more than 6 million Americans every year, half of which lie in the age group of 15-25 years.
  • Cervical cancer, which kills almost 500,000 women every year across the globe, is also caused by the HPV.
  • In most cases, (roughly 90%), the HPV disappears spontaneously within 2 years after the genital wart infection.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia:
  • Almost 95% of all cases of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ( CLL) begin in the B- cells or B- lymphocytes. These develop in the stem cells in the bone marrow.
  • Stem cells are the cells in the human body which have the capacity of turning into any type of cell such as skin, blood, liver, or even brain cells.
  • In the USA, every year 20,000 cases of CLL are reported. This is the most common form of leukemia in adults.
  • CLL is more common in males as compared to females. It is usually diagnosed among people in their middle age or older.
Urinary Incontinence In Women:
  • Bladder incontinence is a fairly common condition with more than 25 million Americans diagnosed with it.
  • Studies indicate that this condition is not only limited to the senior population, 25% of all women above the age of 18 have involuntary urine leakage.
  • Globally, 200 million people are reported to have shown symptoms of urinary incontinence.
  • 33% of men and women, within the age group of 30-70 years believe that urinary incontinence is a normal part of aging.
Genital Herpes:
  • Oral herpes ( caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1) can spread from the oral cavity to the genitals through oral sex. 50% of all genital herpes are caused by oral herpes.
  • Genital herpes is quite common in the USA with almost 776,000 cases of herpes infections reported every year.
  • Genital herpes caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 2 is more common among women than among men because the virus is more easily transferred from men to women during sexual intercourse.
  • Almost 80% of people with genital herpes are unaware of their condition since the symptoms are mostly mild to negligible.
Viral Meningitis:
  • According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the number of people hospitalized for vital meningitis ranges from 25,000-50,000 per year.
  • Currently, 85% of viral meningitis cases are caused by nonpolio enteroviruses.
  • More than 60% of viral meningitis cases are of children under the age of 3 months.
  • In North America, males between the age group of 16-21 are at higher risk of developing this infection. Men being 3 times more susceptible than women.
Painful Urination:
  • Since women have a shorter urethra than men, they are more likely to acquire urinary tract infections. This is because bacteria can enter the body through a shorter urethra more easily.
  • One of the biggest causes of UTI, E. Coli bacteria, is normally found in the intestines and the rectum. Owing to sexual acts, it can get transferred to your urethra.
  • Body-changes during pregnancy can also initiate UTI and other infections but during pregnancy the symptoms are less obviously felt by the infected individual.
  • Globally, 200 million women are affected every year with the schistosomiasis (a flat worm), which is drug-resistant bacteria causing UTIs.
Night Eating Syndrome:
  • Studies suggest that NES is prevalent among 1.5% of the general population; this figure goes as high as 25% among certain samples of obese population.
  • Persistent insomnia for more than 4-5 nights per week and feeling more depressed during the evening hours are the prime risk-factors.
  • Consumption of weird and toxic items may also associated be with this disorder such as raw bacon, cigarette butts, and even cleaning liquids.
  • It may be genetic in nature in many cases.
Pain Management:
  • Back pain is the most common pain condition. 27% of Americans state that back pains are the most common pain conditions followed by migraines which come up to 15%.
  • In the 19th century, physician-scientists discovered that opiates such as morphine could relieve pain.
  • Chemist Felix Hoffman developed aspirin from a substance in willow bark. Aspirin remain the commonly used pain reliever.
  • According to the National Center of Health Statistics (2006), approximately 76.2 million, one in every four Americans, have suffered from that lasts longer than 24 hours.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:
  • 10-15% experience Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) at least once in their life. Around the age of 20-24.
  • About 1 million American women in the unprivileged urban areas have this problem.
  • 33-50% of all cases of (PID) are caused due to chlamydia and gonorrhea.
Congenital Glaucoma:
  • While most cases of primary congenital glaucoma are sporadic, there might be occurrences of this condition being passed on from one or both parents to the offspring.
  • There is no cure for glaucoma. The vision loss caused by this condition cannot be reversed.
  • Early diagnosis of congenital glaucoma can help control the symptoms effectively in 80-90% of the cases.
Rotator Cuff Disorders:
  • As per the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, approximately 2 million individuals seek treatment for rotator cuff injuries every year in the United States.
  • The rotator cuff injuries can have a genetic component making it common in certain families.
  • Individuals above the age of 40 years are at a greater risk of the rotator cuff injuries.
Seasonal Affective Disorder:
  • The prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD is always concurrent with major depressive conditions.
  • Violent tendencies and insomnia are common during summers while over-sleeping and eating are found more during cold days.
  • Women are 4 times as much likely as men to be diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder. The most common age group is 18-55 years.
  • Contrary to popular myth, Seasonal Affective Disorder is more influenced by light (presence or absence of it) than compared to seasons. Melatonin secretion is at the crux of depression and also SAD.
Scalp Psoriasis:
  • As per the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2014), approximately 6.7 million adult individuals in the United States have psoriasis.
  • Males and females are at equal risk of getting psoriasis.
  • Psoriasis is not contagious. It cannot spread by touching the skin patches.
Shin Splints:
  • The medical terminology for shin splints is medial tibial stress syndrome.
  • Wearing ill-fitting shoes and walking/ running on uneven surfaces can trigger this kind of pain.
  • Regular runners should buy new footwear for every 400 miles they run on one pair of shoes.
  • Both, flat-footedness and having too high arches on feet can cause shin splints.
Snapping Hip Syndrome:
  • Also known as coxa saltans, iliopsoas tendinitis or dancers hip.
  • It can be audible with a snapping, popping noise which causes pain or discomfort.
  • This snapping in most cases is due to the movement of a muscle or tendon over a bony structure in the hip.
Strep Throat:
  • Even after starting an antibiotic regimen, for the 1st 24 hours the bacteria can spread from the infected person to others.
  • There are 3 groups of streptococcus bacteria – Group A is found on the skin and inside the throat, Group B tends to live in the intestinal tract, and Group C is found mostly in animals.
  • Strep throat bacteria can lead to potentially fatal infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis.
  • 10% of all cases of influenza reported worldwide are also accompanied by strep throat.
Stye:
  • A stye affects only one eye, but there can be more than one at a given time.
  • It is a red, painful lump that is present at the edge of the eye. It looks like a boil or a pimple.
  • A stye is of two types – hordeolum – is the blockage of one of the sweat glands found in the skin or at the base of one of the eye lids. Chalazion – blockage of an oil gland which is unique to the eyelids.
Syphilis:
  • There are many stories related to the spread of this disease. Many believe that it was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus in 1493. It is one of the oldest recorded STIs.
  • The other names for syphilis include – “Cupid’s Disease”, “syph”, “The Pox”, “French Disease”, and even “Italian Disease”.
  • The name of the disease has been derived from the name of a mythical shepherd in a famous Italian poem, Syphilus.
  • Contrary to popular myth, you CANNOT get syphilis by using an infected toilet seat. This is because the microbe cannot survive for long outside the human body.
Tendinitis:
  • A condition in which the tissue (tendon) connecting the bones becomes inflamed.
  • This condition is most often caused due to the repetitive and minor impact on the affected area or due to a sudden injury.
  • Though this condition can occur in any tendon in the body, it is most commonly found in – shoulders, elbow, wrist, knee, and heel.
  • According to the U.S. bureau of labour statistics, tendinitis is the reason more than 70,000 people miss work each year.
Temper Tantrum:
  • Temper tantrums are most commonly found among kids within the age group of 2-4 years.
  • These are considered as a normal part of growing up. These are caused by need for independence coupled with cognitive immaturity, both of which are normal for kids this age.
  • The prevalence of temper tantrums varies from 23% to 85% among toddlers.
  • At this age, the receptive language is more than a 1000 words but the expressive language is hardly 150-200 words.
Blindness:
  • According to the WHO, there are almost 285 million people across the globe that have visual impairments and out of these 39 million are blind (2010 report).
  • 90% of the individuals affected by visual impairment belong to low and middle income countries.
  • Roughly 8 out of every 10 blind people are above the age of 50 years.
  • Studies indicate that 80% of all visual impairments and cases of blindness are either preventable or treatable.
Thyroid Nodules:
  • In the United States, the nodular disorder of the thyroid gland is relatively prevalent among adults, with an overall prevalence of 4-7% in the general population.
  • These are 3 times more common in women than in men. About 30% of 30-year-old women have a thyroid nodule. This ratio is 1:40 among men.
  • This refers to an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that form a lump within the thyroid gland.
  • The great majority of thyroid nodules are not serious and do not cause any symptoms. Thyroid cancer accounts for only a small fraction of thyroid nodules.
Transient Ischemic Attack:
  • The symptoms and triggers for a TIA are exactly the same as that of a stroke. The only difference is that this ends before brain damage occurs.
  • It takes less than 60 minutes for the TIA to onset and subside.
  • Nearly 40% of all individuals who have had a TIA will experience a stroke as well. 50% of these strokes will occur within few days of the TIA.
  • Every year almost 50,000 Americans suffer from TIA and it is commonly diagnosed in people above the age of 60 years.
Tick Bites:
  • Ticks are scientifically classified as Arachnids ( the spider family) and fossils indicate that they have been in existence since almost 90 million years.
  • There are more than 800 different families of ticks found across the globe yet only 2 among these cause diseases and infections.
  • Ticks can cause extremely fatal diseases among animals such as the Texas Fever ( bovine babesiosis) which kill 90% of calves .
Ulcerative Colitis:
  • Getting an adequate amount of sleep post-treatment is very important in order to prevent future flare-ups of the pain.
  • Around 10-25% of patients with ulcerative colitis have a family history of the condition.
  • Ashkenazi Jews are highly susceptible to Ulcerative Colitis, which is also known as Crohn’s Disease.
  • The adverse effects of ulcerative colitis are not just limited to the intestines only. It can affect joints, skin, eyes, and even the kidneys.
Anencephaly:
  • 3 out of every 10,000 live pregnancies (USA) will show symptoms of anencephaly. There are almost 1200 cases of anencephaly reported in the USA every year.
  • The most effective way to prevent the onset of anencephaly in the fetus, the expecting mother should consume at least 400mcg of folic acid/day.
  • Studies have shown that with the advent of folic acid-fortified cereals in the American market, the prevalence of NTDs (neural tube defects such as anencephaly) has decreased by 28%.
  • Anencephaly-affected infants have a very limited lifespan. Most of these end up as stillbirths or die within a few hours of birth.
Nail Fungus: • Nail fungus or Onychomycosis cases comprise of 30% of all skin infections. These are prevalent among almost 5% of the global population. • Toenail infections are mostly caused by dermatophyte fungi whereas Candida is responsible for fingernail infections.
  • 33% of all diabetic patients suffer from nail fungus. Similarly, psoriasis patients have a 56% higher risk of acquiring nail fungus infections.
  • Heavy perspiration, especially in the foot, makes one more vulnerable to nail fungus infection.
Headache:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the estimated prevalence of headache disorders is approximately 50% globally (with symptoms occurring at least once a year).
  • Females are more likely to get a severe headache or a migraine as compared to males. According to the World Health Organization (W.H.O.), the ratio of females and males affected by a migraine is 2:1.
  • The most common type of a headache is a tension headache. It often occurs in females above the age of 20 years.
  • According to W.H.O., in the current scenario, only 40% of the total population having migraine has been diagnosed with it.
Aging:
  • It is estimated that the maximum human lifespan is approximately 121 years.
  • It is estimated that by the year 2030, nearly 71.5 million individuals in the United States will be 65 years old and above; nearly 10 million will cross the age of 85 years.
  • The lifespan of a red blood cell is around 120 days.
  • The lifespan of tortoises is estimated to be in excess of 150 years.
Infertility:
  • Infertility affects males and females equally.
  • Approximately 10% of cases of infertility result from unknown factors.
  • Approximately 10% of females between the age group of 15 to 44 years are diagnosed with difficulties in conceiving or staying pregnant.
  • It is estimated that 8 to 12% couples experience fertility issues across the globe.
Ingrown Hair:
  • While ingrown hair can be found anywhere on the body where hair grows, these are most commonly found in areas such as the armpits, legs, and the face (where the hair is coarse).
  • Certain studies indicate that these are more common among people with a darker skin tone and those who have naturally curly hair.
  • If ingrown hair is picked with a sharp object, it can become infected.
Kidney Cysts:
  • As per the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, simple kidney cysts are observed in nearly 25% of individuals of the age around 40 years and 50% of individuals of the age around 50 years.
  • The body can function with only 1 kidney.
  • The kidney receives around 20% of the blood pumped by the heart.
Juvenile Macular Degeneration:
  • Juvenile macular degeneration (JMD) has several variants such as Stargardt disease, Stargardt macular dystrophy, or fundus flavimaculatus, Best disease etc.
  • Stargardt disease is the most common form of JMD while the Best disease is the second most common form of JMD.
  • Nearly 95% of cases of juvenile macular degeneration are caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in the ABCA4 gene; approximately 5% of the cases result from other rarer mutations in different genes.
Acne:
  • As per the Academy of Dermatology (AAD), acne is the most common skin condition in the United States affecting approximately 40 to 50 million individuals.
  • Over-exfoliating and over cleansing can aggravate the condition instead of clearing up the blemishes.
Burns:
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), fires cause the death of approximately 180,000 individual in a year across the globe.
  • As per the 2015 Global Health Estimates, nearly 95% of fatal fire-related burns take place in low- and middle-income countries.
  • As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 300 children between the age group 0 to 19 years are treated in emergency rooms every day for burn-related injuries. Out of this number, approximately 2 children fail to survive.
Alcohol abuse:
  • The human brain physically adapts to alcohol consumption. It treats alcohol as a new environment and changes brain connections to perform effectively in the presence of alcohol. But the brain cannot un-adapt from this which results in addiction.
  • Women absorb alcohol more and their bodies process it slower as compared to men. Thus there is a greater risk of bodily damage in women.
  • In the USA, almost 17 million adults have an alcohol abuse disorder. This is roughly 7% of the entire population.
Anemia:
  • Iron is not the only essential nutrient whose deficiency can cause anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency or folate deficiency can also result in anemia.
  • Due to a lack of EPO of erythropoietin, people on dialysis often tend to become anemic. EPO is produced by healthy kidneys.
  • Young women are at the highest risk of getting anemia. This is majorly because of monthly menstrual cycles. People who are frequent blood donors are also at risk.
  • In a healthy human body, RBCs live for up to 120 days after which they are systematically replaced by bone marrow, spleen, and the liver.
Hypothermia:
  • Hypothermia can do a lot more than just causing your body to shiver. It can impair motor function and even affect your ability to speak.
  • The normal human body temperature is 98.6 F. In many people, hypothermia can set in as soon as the body temperature drops by even a degree.
  • As soon as the outside temperature falls below 50F, the conditions become conducive to hypothermia.
  • Drinking adequate amount of water can help in preventing hypothermia as water is effectively capable of storing enough heat.
Congestive Heart Failure:
  • The term “congestive” refers to the fact that there is fluid accumulation in different parts of body due to improper circulation of blood within the body.
  • Congestive heart failure doesn’t necessarily mean that your heart has stopped beating. It means that the heart is unable to adequately pump blood.
  • Currently almost 5 million Americans are affected by heart failure and this figure is expected to double in the next 5 years.
  • 1 out of every 100 individuals above the age of 65 years is affected by heart failure.
Epilepsy:
  • Epilepsy is not a rare condition. In fact, the number of individuals with epilepsy in the USA is twice the number of people with other major disorders ( cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy) all combined.
  • 1 out of every 1000 patients with epilepsy succumbs to death because of it. Prolonged seizures can also be fatal.
  • Every year 22,000 to 40,000 epilepsy patients die due to prolonged seizure attacks.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome:
  • Certain environmental factors such as exposure to stress and childhood abuse can add to the risk of irritable bowel syndrome.
  • It affects around 25-45 million Americans, where 2 out of every 3 patients are female.
  • Globally it affects 10-15% of the entire population, with most patients being under the age of 50.
  • IBS is different from IBD (irritable bowel disorder). The latter occurs in case of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Allergies:
  • Asthma and allergic rhinitis affects more than 24 million Americans including 6 million children. Allergies are the 6th leading cause of chronic illnesses in the USA and they cost around $ 18 billion annually.
  • Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal condition and can be triggered by certain drugs, medicines, and even insect bites.
  • The most common food allergens are peanuts, milk, and shellfish.
Enlarged Liver:
  • Fatty liver occurs when the fat content of the liver increases beyond 5% of the liver’s weight.
  • Milk thistle or holy thistle has been used for more than two millennia to treat liver and gallbladder conditions. It is one of the most researched herbs in the world for treating liver conditions.
  • Common infections such as mononucleosis and malaria can lead to swelling up of the liver of left untreated.
  • Obesity is the leading cause of enlarged liver and other liver disorders in the USA. There are more than 30 million Americans diagnosed with some form of liver condition.
Cataracts:
  • 1 out of every 6 Americans above the age of 40 is diagnosed with cataract. The prevalence of cataracts in USA is as high as 50% among the people above the age of 70.
  • Smoking, steroid medications, and even obesity can lead to cataracts.
  • No medication or eye drops will cure this condition. Surgery is the only treatment option. And it is a permanent cure for cataract.
  • Almost half of all the cases of blindness are due to cataract. That translates to roughly 50 million cases of cataract-induced blindness worldwide.
Immune System Disorders:
  • The first line of defense in our immunity system is the WBCs or the white blood cells. Lymphocyte, a type of WBC, “remembers” microbe invasions that help the body to fight the infection faster in the future.
  • Cortisol, a steroid hormone produced when your body is under stress, inhibits the working of the immune system.
  • There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune diseases such as Lupus, Crohn’s Disease, Celiac Disease, and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Skin Rashes:
  • The most common forms of skin rashes are eczema, hives, athlete’s foot, and poison ivy. These could be due to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections.
  • Studies suggest that high sugar consumption is linked to the formation of skin rashes. Sugar is an inflammatory and acidic substance that causes bodily inflammation.
  • Many autoimmune disorders such as Lupus give rise to characteristic butterfly rash formation on the skin.
Autism:
  • According to the CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, nearly 1 in 59 children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
  • Boys are more susceptible to ASD as compared to girls. As compared to girls, these disorders are 4 times more common among boys.
  • The estimated prevalence of ASD in Asia, Europe, and North America is found to be around 1 to 2%.
  • The chances of a second child being affected by ASD are around 2 to 18% for parents who already have a child affected by ASD.
Smallpox:
  • The smallpox vaccine cannot render protection after the development of the smallpox rash.
  • As per the World Health Organization, even one confirmed case of smallpox can be considered an international health emergency.
  • Smallpox is considered to be one of the world's most devastating diseases known to the human race.
  • The last known case of smallpox was reported in Somalia in the year 1977.
  • Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Assembly on the 8th of May 1980, after a global campaign of surveillance and vaccination.
Coughs:
  • Washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds is advised in order to prevent getting infected by the flu virus.
  • The flu virus can infect a healthy individual if he/she comes within a distance of 6 feet from the infected person.
  • As per the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), more than 50 million American individuals have seasonal allergies.
  • Allergies are found to be the 6th most common cause of chronic illness in the United States.
Sore Throat:
  • In roughly 1/3rd of cases of sore throat among children, the cause of the infection is bacteria – mostly streptococcus. The rest cases of sore throat are viral.
  • Mononucleosis or the kissing disease is also a widespread reason for sore throat. It is caused by the Epstein Barr virus and is very common among the young American demography.
  • Though such cases are rare but certain STDs such as gonorrhea or chlamydia can cause a sore throat.
  • Excessive talking or yelling can also cause a sore throat.
Snoring:
  • As per the British Snoring & Sleep Apnoea Association, in the year 2009, there were nearly 15 million snorers in the United Kingdom that comprised of 10.5 million males and 4.5 million females.
  • The snoring sounds range from 50dB to 100dB – this is comparable to the sound made by a pneumatic drill.
Neck Pain:
  • Neck pain can also be a symptom of a heart attack (generally accompanied by other symptoms).
  • ‘Text neck’ or ‘tech neck’ are the conditions in which inappropriate use of technology/gadgets leads to neck pain.
Stomach Flu:
  • There are more than 20 million cases of stomach flu reported every year in the USA alone.
  • The name stomach flu is misleading. The actual name for the condition is viral gastroenteritis and has got nothing to do with the virus that causes “flu” or influenza.
  • There are more than 20 million cases of stomach flu reported every year in the USA alone.
  • The name stomach flu is misleading. The actual name for the condition is viral gastroenteritis and has got nothing to do with the virus that causes “flu” or influenza.
Stress:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly one-fourth to one-third of workers in the United States report high levels of stress at work.
  • Stress is not bad in all situations. It proves to be lifesaving in certain situations.
  • Stress is caused due to a hormonal response that initiates in the brain.
  • Females are more prone to stress as compared to males.
Sunburn:
  • You can get sunburnt even if you stay protected by UV blocking windows in cars and buildings. This is because this kind of glass can only filter out UVA rays but not UVB.
  • The SPF number is not an exact measurement of the protective power of the sunblock. SPF 30 or SPF 40 doesn’t mean it is twice as effective as SPF 15.
  • The probability of an individual getting skin cancer doubles if he/she has had more than 4-5 episodes of sunburn.
  • People living closer to the equator and along higher altitudes are more prone to getting sunburn
Teething:
  • Numbing gels and medications with benzocaine can sometimes prove lethal if used for babies less than 2 years of age. They might lead to a fatal condition known as methemoglobinemia.
  • Homeopathic teething products have not been approved by the US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) for safety or effectiveness.
  • First teeth of the baby to erupt are the lower central incisors. These erupt around 6 months of age.
  • Babies have a total of 20 teeth which shed before the eruption of their permanent counterpart.
Benign Tumours:
  • Environmental toxins such as tobacco and hazardous radiations, genetics, and stress – all of these are linked to the formation of benign tumors.
  • These are very commonly prevalent. In fact, many studies reveal that as high as 9 out of 10 women have benign breast tissue changes.
  • Different types of benign tumors include lipomas, adenomas, myomas, and fibroids.
  • Even though a benign brain tumor is doesn’t cause cancer but it can still cause headaches, eye sight issues, and poor memory.
Vertigo:
  • According to the Vestibular Disorders Association (VEDA), nearly 1 out of 1000 individuals is affected by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
  • Bouts of vertigo may result due to an inner ear infection as ears help to maintain balance owing to the fluid present in them.
Eating Disorders:
  • Eating disorders are classified as mental conditions since they arise as a result of trauma, anxiety, depression, negative body image, and low-self esteem.
  • Of the approximately 24 million Americans diagnosed with eating disorders, almost half of them meet the criteria for depression.
  • Only 1 out of 10 individuals affected with eating disorders seek treatment. Only 35% of those consult a center/ body that specializes in eating disorders.
  • Anorexia nervosa is the leading cause of death among women within the range of 15-24 years.
Insulin Resistance:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), every 1 in 10 individuals in the United States has diabetes which comes to more than 30 million Americans.
  • Out of all the cases of diabetes in the United States, 90 to 95% have type 2 diabetes.
  • It is estimated that in around 75% of cases of type 2 diabetes in children, a close relative also has the same disorder.
  • Fat distribution matters when it comes to insulin resistance. Abdominal fat deposition is riskier as compared to the fat deposited in hips and thighs.
Spider Bites:
  • The majority of the spiders found in the USA are non-poisonous but bites from both poisonous and non-poisonous spiders causes skin rashes and irritation.
  • The most commonly found poisonous spiders are Brown Recluse and Black Widow spider.
  • Only the female spider of the black widow species is poisonous.
  • Antarctica is the only continent where spiders aren’t found. Spiders consume more insects than all the birds and bats collectively eat.
Ringworm:
  • Contrary to popular belief ringworm is not caused by worms, it is caused by a fungus called dermatophytes.
  • Children under the age of 15 are highly susceptible to get ringworm.
  • Ringworm eats away at keratin, which can be found in the skin, hair, and nails.
  • The symptoms of ringworm appear after a few days of being exposed to the fungus.
  • The animal carriers of the fungus rarely show any symptoms of the infection.
Menstruation:
  • During the course of a lifetime, a woman will spend 3,500 days menstruating.
  • Elephants, humpback whales, and human beings are the only 3 mammals to undergo menopause.
  • A female child is born with 2 million egg cells. By the time she reaches puberty, 40,000 are left, out of which fewer than 500 eggs are released.
Hernia:
  • Men are more prone to hernias than women. This is because the inguinal canal that forms during gestation might not close completely in male babies, leading to vulnerability to hernia.
  • If left untreated, intestinal hernias can get affected by gangrene which is highly fatal.
  • There are no medicines that can treat hernia. Surgery is the only option to correct it.
Bone tumor:
  • Not every bone tumor will progress to bone cancer. The most common symptom is a gradual build-up of pain.
  • Benign( non-cancerous) bone tumors are more common than malignant ( cancerous) bone tumors.
  • The human bone is strong enough to support 12,000 pounds of pressure per square inch.
  • Advanced stage of breast, lung, or prostate cancer can spread to the bone and cause bone cancer.
Anthrax:
  • Inhaling anthrax spores is the only method of getting the inhalation anthrax infection. It is the most dangerous form of the disease.
  • The most recent outbreak of anthrax was in Siberia, Russia, in the year 2016. The infection took a toll on the lives of 2,000 reindeer and made at least 13 Siberian individuals ill.
  • The anthrax spores can survive in the soil for a duration of around 48 years.
Bed Wetting In Children:
  • Sleep apnea, chronic constipation, sexual abuse etc. can cause bed-wetting in children.
  • Children urinate more frequently as compared to adults. Children usually urinate around 10 to 12 times in a day.
Insomnia:
  • Jetlags, shift-works, and following poor sleep hygiene can cause acute insomnia lasting from 1 day to few weeks.
  • Chronic insomnia is more common than previously thought. It is prevalent among 10% of the entire global population.
  • 40 million Americans suffer from insomnia every year. It more common among women and elderly crowd.
  • Opposed to popular myth, alcohol suppresses body’s natural sleep cycle and disrupts REM state of sleep.
  • People engaged in long-term shift work have unnatural sleep cycles that leads to overall health deterioration.
Kidney Infections:
  • Most cases of kidney infections result from poorly treated urinary tract infection.
  • In more than 80% of the kidney infections, E.coli is involved.
  • The human kidneys collectively filter 150 quarts of blood each day and form 1-2 quarts of urine.
  • A UTI can cause chills and fever which cause it to be mistaken with the flu.
Coronary Artery Disease:
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes the death of more than 370,000 persons making it the reason behind the highest number of deaths of males and females in the United States.
  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease.
  • On an average, 71 million American adults (33.5%)have high levels of the bad cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
Lice Infection:
  • The scientific name for the head lice is Pediculus Humanus Capitis, and is different from the lice that attack the body and the pubic hair region.
  • It is very common among school going children and there are roughly 6 – 12 million cases of lice infestations reported every year.
  • Contrary to popular belief, head lice infestation doesn’t mean that the affected person is unhygienic. Anybody can get lice infection.
  • The life cycle of a louse includes the nits or the eggs, the nymphs which are not completely adults, and the adult lice.
Spine Curvature Disorders:
  • Usain Bolt - the Olympic gold medallist, has scoliosis.
  • Smoking is considered to be the leading preventable cause of neck and spine disorders.
  • Females are much likely to experience the progression of scoliosis as compared to males.
  • S-shaped curves are more likely to worsen as compared to C-shaped curves in patients with scoliosis.
Cavities:
  • It is estimated that plaque build-up on teeth initiates within 20 minutes after eating.
  • In the United States, dental caries (cavities) is considered to be the most common dental disease.
  • Your oral health is a gateway to your overall health. Several oral diseases can lead to severe medical conditions. For instance, gum problems can lead to uncontrolled diabetes and cardiac issues.
Fatigue:
  • Approximately 20% of the individuals in the United States consider fatigue as interference in their normal lives.
  • Nearly 40 to 80% of cases of fatigue are due to mental or emotional causes. However, physical causes contribute to around 20 to 60% of the cases.
  • Fatigue can occur even without the presence of any underlying health condition.
  • The only muscle that never gets fatigued is the heart. The average human heart beats 60 to 100 times in a minute pumping around 2500 gallons of blood in a day.
Appendicitis:
  • It is one of the most commonly prevalent causes of abdominal pain. Globally, 5-7% of the entire population will experience appendicitis.
  • 80% of all cases of appendicitis can be treated with the help of antibiotics.
  • Recent studies suggest that the appendix might not be a completely vestigial organ. It might be a place for healthy gut bacteria to grow and multiply.
  • When the inflamed appendix ruptures, the pain goes away. This makes the individual vulnerable to peritonitis, a life-threatening infection.
Hair Loss:
  • Hair analysis can be done in order to test for illegal drug use or to conduct criminal investigations.
  • It is estimated that we lose nearly 50 to 100 hairs normally every day.
  • Heat deteriorates the protein structure of the hair; exposing it to heat treatment (such as curlers, straighteners etc.) or chemical treatment can make it fragile and prone to breakage.
  • Traction alopecia (loss of hair due to tight pulling) is a condition resulting from a very tight hairstyle (such as a tight ponytail).
  • It is usually believed that the genes responsible for hair fall are inherited from the mother which is a myth. Genetic hair loss can be inherited from either side of the family.
Birth Asphyxia:
  • There are almost 900,000 infant deaths every year around the globe due to birth asphyxia.
  • Premature babies and babies whose mothers were affected by conditions such as gestational diabetes or preeclampsia are at more risk of birth asphyxia.
  • The mortality rate of birth asphyxia is as high as 50%. 80% of the surviving infants will develop severe neurological conditions such as cerebral palsy.
  • In newborn babies, the brain accounts for 10% of the total body weight.
Frostbite:
  • Once the temperature falls below 20 degrees Fahrenheit and the wind speed is roughly 20 mph or more, it will take only a few minutes for frostbite to occur.
  • Individuals who suffer from diabetes, have had a recent injury/surgery, or indulge in alcohol consumption are more susceptible to frostbite.
  • A milder version of frostbite is called as a frostnip.
  • Tissue damage due to frostbite is most severe when the skin is exposed to dangerously low temperatures and freezing occurs over an extended period of time.
Bradycardia:
  • It refers to a state where the heartbeat slows down to less than 60 beats per minute causing sudden drop in blood pressure and oxygen.
  • Abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland, such as hypothyroidism can also slow down your heart beat.
  • The value 60 beats per minute shouldn’t be taken as the strict limit for assessing the onset of bradycardia. It is common for physically active adults to have a resting heart beat lesser than 60 beats per minute.
  • The human heart has a naturally in-built pacemaker which is the sinoartrial node. It sends electrical signals which complete the process of circulation; the systole and diastole.
Botulism:
  • The pathogen responsible for causing botulism, Botulinum Clostridium, has been used by many terrorist organizations as a bio-weapon but no attempts have been successful till date.
  • This pathogen originates from the soil and thrives in low-oxygen conditions.
  • It is fairly rare condition with an average of 110 cases reported per year in the USA. Out of these, 1/4th are food-borne , 70% are cases of infantile botulism, and the rest are caused by open wounds.
Deviated Septum:
  • Famous personalities who had a deviated nasal septum are Jennifer Aniston, Cameron Diaz, Josh Hutcherson, Ashlee Simpson and many more.
  • It is estimated that around 80% of the population has a deviated nasal septum to some extent.
Down syndrome:
  • In the United States, Down syndrome is the most commonly diagnosed condition that is caused by a chromosomal abnormality.
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in the United States, Down syndrome affects around 1 in every 700 newborn babies which comes to around 6,000 babies in a year.
  • Babies born to females conceiving after 35 years of age are more likely to be affected by Down syndrome.
Asbestosis:
  • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 125 million individuals experience workplace exposure to asbestos.
  • Exposure to asbestosis is considered to be as one of the 5 most common risks arising from construction work.
  • Asbestosis is a rare and chronic condition. A chronic exposure to a substantial amount of asbestos over a duration of 20-30 years can cause asbestosis.
Anaphylaxis:
  • Anaphylaxis is considered to be the most severe form of allergic reaction as it might involve several systems of the body.
  • It is estimated that around 600,000 individuals in Canada are at risk of getting anaphylaxis owing to allergies to certain foodstuffs and insect stings.
  • There are no contraindications for using the epinephrine auto-injector in case of an emergency. Thus, in doubtful cases, one should not hesitate in using it.
Anhidrosis:
  • Hypohidrosis is another related condition where an individual sweats less than normal. Both anhidrosis and hypohidrosis can be fatal in nature.
  • Chronic conditions which can cause anhidrosis include Sjogren's syndrome, Amyloidosis, diabetic neuropathy, and alcoholic neuropathy.
  • On an average, a human body contains around 2.6 million eccrine sweat glands.
Aspergilloma:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects around 1 to 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis.
  • It is estimated that out of the total adult asthma patients worldwide, approximately 2.5% have ABPA which comes to around 4.8 million individuals.
  • Around 400,000 individuals also suffer from chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) out of the 4.8 million individuals having ABPA.
Cardiac Tamponade:
  • It is estimated that around 2 individuals in every 10,000 individuals in the United States suffer from cardiac tamponade due to a disease.
  • Heart disease is the foremost cause of death for both males and females. Heart diseases account for more than half of the deaths in the year 2009 in the United States.
Hiccups:
  • ‘Singultus’ is the medical terminology for hiccups. The term originates from the Latin for the act of catching one’s breath while crying.
  • It is observed that the fetus in the womb also hiccups.
  • It is estimated that an average bout of hiccups lasts for around 5 minutes.
Bronchiectasis:
  • Bronchiectasis is a condition that can develop at any age.
  • Common variable immunodeficiency, HIV/AIDS, and similar immunodeficiency disorders can increase the risk of bronchiectasis.
  • Out of all the affected individuals, around two-thirds are females.
  • In case of children, the condition more commonly occurs in boys as compared to girls.
Leprosy: • As per the information furnished by the World Health Organization (WHO), at the end of 2015, the global prevalence of leprosy was 176176 cases which come to around 0.2 cases per 10,000 individuals.
  • The incidence of the disease was found to be 213899 in the year 2014 and 215656 in the year 2013.
  • The last Sunday of January each year is observed as the World Leprosy Day.
Albinism:
  • The incidence of albinism is roughly 5 cases per 100, 000 people in the USA and Europe but in other parts of the world, it is higher.
  • Albinism is not limited only to human beings. Technically, every living organism can undergo the particular genetic mutation that leads to albinism.
  • In the African nations of Tanzania and Burundi, there is one case of albinism reported every 1500 people.
  • The rate at which albinism affected individuals synthesize vitamin D is 5 times that of dark-skinned people.
Empyema:
  • The name of this disease has been derived from the Greek word “empyein” which roughly translates to “producing pus”.
  • Staphylococcus Aureas is the number one cause of empyema infections in adults , constituting roughly 90% of all cases of lung infections in children and infants.
  • Empyema is not restricted only to the lungs. This has been observed in the gallbladder and in the pelvic region as well.
Ectopic Pregnancy:
  • Only half of the women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy show all the three classic symptoms of the condition namely abdominal pain, an absence of menses, and abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • The prevalence of this is condition is around 1-2% of all pregnancies.
  • Before the advent of surgical intervention for ectopic pregnancies, the mortality rate due to this condition was as high as 50%.
Beriberi:
  • The word beriberi has been derived from Sinhalese language meaning “ I can’t, I can’t” – which reflects the gradual crippling of the patient due to the disease.
  • The prevalence of beriberi is high in the south-east Asian countries and could be linked to high consumption of white rice.
  • There are two types of beriberi – dry and wet. Dry beriberi affected the central nervous system whereas wet affects the cardiovascular system.
  • Cerebral beriberi, which is mainly caused by chronic alcoholism, is also known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Acute Pericarditis:
  • In most cases of pericarditis, the exact cause of inflammation remains unknown. Doctors contend that it could be linked to a viral infection.
  • When there is a large accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, it results in pericardial tamponade, where the heart can’t pump blood properly.
  • The pericardium or the sac that envelops the heart consists of two layers – visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium.
Lisp:
  • The medical name for this condition is stigmatism. It occurs when an individual can’t pronounce the sibilant consonant sounds (s or z containing words).
  • According to the latest research, 1 out of every 6 Americans suffers from some sort of language and communication disorder.
  • In some cases, children who are subject to deep emotional stress or trauma may develop lisping.
  • One theory suggests that overuse of pacifiers or too much thumb-sucking could lead to the onset of lisping.
Cat-Scratch Disease:
  • This is a relatively uncommon disease caused by the bacterium, Bartonella henselae, and is transferred from cats to human beings.
  • While cats and kittens carry the pathogen, they don’t suffer from the infection. In fact, 40% of all cats carry this microbe at any given point of time.
  • In very cases, a cat-scratch infection can lead to an oculoglandulor syndrome which may cause blindness.
Throat Cancer:
  • Throat cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 65-80% worldwide.
  • Men have a 5 times higher chances of developing throat cancer than women.
  • Throat cancer is common among African-American men compared to Caucasian and Hispanic men.
  • Throat cancer is more prevalent in those who are above the age of 65 years.
Actinic Keratosis:
  • This condition is also known as solar Keratosis as it is common among fair-skinned individuals with years of sun exposure.
  • These could become cancerous in nature.
  • People who expose their bodies to indoor tanning radiations often develop this condition.
  • Almost 420,000 cases of skin cancer in the USA alone can be attributed to indoor tanning, out of these 168,000 are cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
Diplopia:
  • High alcohol consumption and intake of few recreational drugs can result in temporary double-vision or diplopia.
  • There are certain chronic disorders which can lead to the onset of diplopia – diabetes, stroke, thyroid dysfunction, and multiple sclerosis.
  • Childhood-onset of strabismus (misalignment of eyes) can also be a contributing factor.
Cerebral Cavernoma:
  • Approximately 20% of cases of cerebral cavernoma depict inheritance as a cause.
  • Around 75% of the total brain mass comprises water.
  • The brain can survive without an oxygen supply only for around 4 to 6 minutes.
Trichomoniasis:
  • As per the information furnished by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 7 million individuals in the United States have trichomoniasis.
  • Out of the affected population, only 30% develop any symptoms of trichomoniasis.
  • Trichomoniasis affects around 2 million females in the United States, of the age group 14 years to 49 years.
  • Females are more susceptible to trichomoniasis as compared to males.
  • Older females are more likely to get infected as compared to younger females.
  • After being infected, an individual might experience symptoms within 5 days to 28 days.
  • Low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds) is commonly observed in babies born to infected mothers.
Myopia:
  • The onset of myopia generally occurs during the age group of 6-12 years. This condition worsens with age.
  • If a child’s both parents are nearsighted, it is highly likely that the child will be myopic too.
  • Professionals who work too much on computers and/or use a microscope a lot tend to develop myopia.
  • In the figure “20/20” (measure of eyesight), the numerator refers to the distance of 20 feet and the denominator refers to smallest size of the letter you can read. This means that 20/15 refers to better vision than 20/20.