Enteritis

ENTERITIS intestines

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Background

The small intestine is an important organ in the digestive system. It is a long and convoluted muscular tube which receives partially digested food from the stomach. Most of the chemical breakdown of the food we eat actually takes place in the small intestine. This organ is also responsible for absorption of the nutrients obtained through digestion. This function is performed by microscopic finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the organ. These are known as villi. The small intestine also maintains a colony of beneficial microorganisms, mainly different varieties of bacteria that aid in the breakdown of nutrients and also confer protection against harmful microbes.

The small intestine is composed of three parts. The duodenum is the section directly adjoining the exit of the stomach. This is followed by the jejunum and finally the ileum which feeds into the large intestine or colon. Just like any other organ, the small intestine can be impaired by disease, infection, and inflammation. One such affliction of the small intestine is enteritis.

 

What Is Enteritis?

ENTERITIS intestinesEnteritis is the medical term for having inflammation in the small intestines. The inflammation may be restricted to one part of the small intestine or it may involve the entire organ. Sometimes, inflammation also involves the stomach and the large intestine. Gastroenteritis refers to inflammation of the stomach and small intestine. Similarly, enterocolitis involves both the large and small intestines.

Treatment for this condition depends on its causes, which can vary widely. Known causes include infection, side-effects of certain treatments and medications and even autoimmune activity. Most often, enteritis is caused by bacterial infection and this can happen if food is not prepared, stored or handled in a hygienic manner. Whatever the cause of enteritis, this inflammation typically gives rise to symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. As a result, the patient loses large quantities of water and essential electrolytes and this can lead to further problems.

 

What Causes It?

Any condition that irritates the tissues of the small intestine can potentially give rise to enteritis. This includes trauma inflicted by surgery or irritation induced by radiation therapy. Infection is one of the predominant causes. Usually, this condition is caused by bacterial infection although viral infection is also a possible cause. Bacterial infection may arise upon consuming contaminated water or food that has not been adequately cooked or hygienically handled. For instance, you risk developing enteritis if you consume unpasteurized milk or raw foods, especially meat. The same applies to partially cooked foods.

A more comprehensive list of possible causes follows below:

  • Drinking contaminated water.
  • Eating contaminated, uncooked or partially cooked food.
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
  • Autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn’s disease.
  • Surgical trauma.
  • Radiation to the pelvic or abdominal areas.
  • Side effects of certain medications or illicit drugs.

 

What Are The Symptoms?

If you notice the following symptoms, you are likely suffering from a form of enteritis:

  • Fever (in case of infection)
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Belching.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Diarrhea. Blood may be present.
  • Mucus or bloody discharge from the rectum.

 

What Are The Different Types Of Enteritis?

ENTERITIS bacteriaDepending upon the severity of symptoms, duration, and patterns of onset, any case of enteritis may be described as either acute or chronic. Typically, acute cases involve sudden and severe onset of symptoms whereas in chronic cases, the symptoms set in gradually and worsen over a considerable length of time. Alternatively, they may come and go intermittently. The causes in both cases can vary. For instance, a bacterial infection usually gives rise to acute rather than chronic forms of enteritis.

Different variants of this condition are recognized on the basis of the causes. These are discussed below in brief:

  • Infectious enteritis: As the name indicates, this type is caused by bacterial or viral infection. This is usually the outcome of eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Common bacterial pathogens implicated in this form of enteritis include Escherichia coli and Salmonella.
  • Staphylococcal enteritis: Staphylococcus bacteria produce certain toxins that, when consumed along with food, can irritate the small intestine and give rise to enteritis.
  • Autoimmune enteritis: Autoimmunity occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own healthy cells, giving rise to inflammation. When the small intestine is the target of autoimmune activity, the patient can develop enteritis. If you have an autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, it is quite possible that you may develop autoimmune enteritis.
  • Radiation-induced enteritis: Enteritis may occur in patients receiving radiation therapy to the pelvic or abdominal regions. Some months after completion of the course of radiation treatment, the inflammation in the small intestine usually goes away. In some cases, it persists for a significant period of time.
  • Trauma-induced enteritis: Sometimes, the small intestine may sustain injury from a surgical intervention or invasive diagnostic procedures. This is a less common cause.

 

What Are Some Potential Complications?

ENTERITIS celiac diseaseThe main complication to worry about, if you are suffering from enteritis, is dehydration. Excessive diarrhea and vomiting lead to loss of water from the body and unless this is replenished, the patient will soon become dehydrated. This will leave them feeling weak, dizzy and very thirsty. Severe depletion of water from the body can lead to a dangerous condition known as hypovolemic shock. This can be life-threatening and should be treated as a medical emergency. Unless treated promptly, shock can lead to organ failure and death.

 

How Is It Diagnosed And Treated?

Based on the patient’s description of symptoms, the physician may suspect enteritis. In order to confirm this, the following procedures may be undertaken:

  • Physical examination.
  • Medical history.
  • Blood tests.
  • Stool cultures.

Treatment for enteritis depends on the cause of the condition. Based on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and test results, the doctor will be able to identify the root cause of inflammation in the small intestine. For instance, if the patient presents with fever, it indicates infection. Hence, treatment may call for antibiotics in case of bacterial infection and antiviral drugs in case of viral infection. In instances where radiation therapy is responsible for triggering the inflammation, modifying the treatment can help to provide relief to some extent. Alternatively, if radiation therapy has been completed, the inflammation can be expected to clear up in a few weeks or months afterward.

The main concern is to avoid dehydration and loss of electrolytes. As a result, the patient will be advised to increase their intake of fluids. Alternatively, fluids and electrolytes may be administered through the intravenous route. The patient will also be advised to take plenty of rest in order to regain their strength.

 

Prevention

Enteritis is a common gastrointestinal disorder. As we have seen, there are a number of different situations that can lead to inflammation of the small intestine.Most cases of enteritis are entirely preventable. Simple precautions such as washing hands before handling or consuming food, cooking foods thoroughly and boiling water before drinking it can go a long way towards preventing infectious enteritis.

Prevention of the condition is mainly by hygiene practices (washing hands with soap and water), cooking food cautiously (at optimum temperature and for the required duration), and refrigerating the food within 2 hours. Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption is also necessary for the prevention of enteritis.

 

Facts

  • As per information furnished by the World Health Organization (W.H.O), Campylobacter is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world.
  • Campylobacter is 1 of 4 chief global causes of diarrheal diseases.

Facts

  • The campylobacter infection is usually foodborne and can spread through undercooked meat, raw milk etc.
  • The small intestine is the longest organ in the human body that measures up to 6 meters (20ft) in length.

Facts

  • Small intestine is longer than the large intestine but named so as the lumen size is smaller as compared to the large intestine.
  • Enteritis can also occur as a detrimental effect of radiation exposure (radiation enteritis).

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Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Drink plenty of fluids and oral rehydration solutions (O.R.S). This will help in restoring the metabolite balance, which gets disturbed due to vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Visit your doctor if vomiting or diarrhea persists for more than a day, blood or mucus is observed in stools, fever goes up to 101˚F.
  • Take care of hygiene practices (wash hands with soap and water frequently, before and after eating, cooking, using toilets etc).
  • Carry a hand sanitizer or hygiene wipes whenever you’re traveling (preferably having 6% alcohol content).
Don'ts
  • Self-medicate for diarrhea without consulting a registered general physician. Medications for diarrhea can sometimes interfere with the body’s natural defense mechanism of getting rid of infective agents by passing them out of the body along with the stools.
  • Drink unpasteurized milk or untreated water. Preferably boil the drinking water before consumption.
  • Consume undercooked meat, fish, and eggs. Refrigerate the leftovers immediately.

 

 

 

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cardioliin antibody iga
Cardiolipin Antibody (ACL) – IgA test Cardiolipins are phospholipids that are constituents of the platelets and the cell membranes. The IgA test detects the…
complement c4 test
Anemia Profile Anemia Profile test (Basic) is a blood screening test that measures the levels of important components of the…
Optavia diet
The features of an Optavia diet The Optavia diet endorses pre-packaged meals and snacks called "fuelings" that are tasty, low in calorie, and incorporates…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
gout diet purines
Gout Diet : Get relief from painful joints by eating these foods Are you a victim of this painful condition? Are medications providing only short relief? Find a list of…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
Epley maneuver: Why is this the best protection from the symptoms of vertigo? Epley maneuver is an exercise that can treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).  It was…
Tart Cherry: The healthiest excuse for taking that second serving of pie Tart cherry has been traditionally used in delectable desserts such as pies. Recent studies have revealed that its…
Ear pain model
Easy and safe tips for ear wax removal you can do at home Cerumen impaction generally occurs when an external object like cotton swabs are used to remove the ear wax.…
Atkins diet weight loss
Atkins Diet: The right steps to carb control that can help you lose those pounds fast The Atkins diet is a high fat, low-carb diet with proven weight loss benefits that is flexible enough…
blood elements analysis
Blood Element Analysis Test A blood element analysis is a blood test performed to measure the level of toxic elements such as…
PROGESTERONE_test
Progesterone test The progesterone test is a blood test used to determine the level of hormone progesterone in the blood…
HSV-1_IGG
Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV)-IgG Test Herpes simplex virus I(HSV)-IgG is an Immunoglobulin protein that acts as an antibody & stays in the blood…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential for a healthy…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
pilonidal sinus
Pilonidal sinus Pilonidal sinus is more common in young men than women. Learn about treatment options, surgical management, risks, and…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
Rick Simpson’s Oil: The truths and controversies of this cannabis product Rick Simpson's Oil is an extract from the much-controversial plant, Cannabis. What is the actual truth behind the…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Pescatarian Diet 101: What are the inherent health advantages of this diet? People opt to become a pescatarian in order to enrich their bodies with the essential health benefits that…
Inversion Therapy: The anti-gravity way of healing chronic back pain Inversion therapy involves suspending a person upside dow using different types of equipment. This works by taking the…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Bone marrow aspiration Bone marrow aspiration is a process where a sample of the bone marrow is withdrawn from the bone…
C-Reactive Protein Test A CRP or c-reactive protein blood test is an important diagnostic tool used to determine the risk of…
malarial antigen test
Malaria Antigen Test A malaria antigen test is a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that can detect malarial antigens (proteins) in your…
lipase test
Lipase Test A lipase test is a blood test performed to quantitatively measure the level of the enzyme lipase in…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…