Oxidative Stress: Understanding the most lethal phenomenon happening in your body right now


Last Updated October 11th, 2019

What is oxidative stress?

It is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants that are present in our body.  Let us first understand what are free radicals and antioxidants.

Oxygen-containing molecules with the presence of an uneven number of electrons are called free radicals.  This structure allows them to easily react with other molecules.  Due to this reaction with other molecules, they tend to cause large chain chemical reactions.  This reaction process is called oxidation.  This process of oxidation can be both beneficial as well as harmful.  However, when these free radicals chemically interact with these cell components, they steal electrons in order to become stabilized.  This causes the DNA, protein, and lipid to become destabilized.  This process continues and becomes a chain reaction causing damage to these DNA, protein, or lipid.

Molecules that can donate an electron to a free radical without becoming unstable are called antioxidants.  Due to this ability of antioxidants, they reduce the reaction caused by free radicals.  When there is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, oxidative stress is caused.

Why is oxidation bad for you?

It is a process where a substance loses one or more electrons and becomes oxidized.  This process is helpful in various biological processes and on the other hand, can also cause severe cells damage if it is not under control.  When one or more electron is lost, that substance becomes a free radical.  The problem starts when these free radicals interact with DNA, lipids, and proteins.  These free radicals tend to remove the electrons present in DNA, protein, or lipids and make them unstable causing oxidative stress.  It is important to note that certain free radicals are good for the body.

Roles played by free radicals

  • Free radicals cause damage to the body, which is known as oxidation.  The amount of oxidation caused by these free radicals can determine the extent of oxidative stress.
  • Oxidative stress can affect several organ systems in our body.  They are linked to several health conditions namely cancer, heart disease, asthma, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, leaky gut syndrome, etc.  Overall oxidative stress is considered to be the biggest cause of death due to several chronic diseases.
  • The process of oxidation not only affects the organ systems, but also causes damage to the cells, tissues, and muscles.

Few antioxidants you might be aware of

  • Glutathione is a very powerful antioxidant that protects the liver.
  • Vitamin A, C, and E are again very powerful antioxidants.
  • Lipoic acid is an antioxidant that has the ability to repair essential enzymes in the body.
  • Regulation of circadian rhythm (sleep/wake cycle) is managed by melatonin.
  • HDL cholesterol acts as an antioxidant by repairing damaged blood vessels and reducing oxidation.

The major sources of free radicals are

  • Basic body functions such as breathing and digestion.
  • Radiation exposure.
  • Environmental pollutants
  • Social habits such as the use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol
  • Regular use of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance and lead to the development of free radicals.
  • Unhealthy foods such as fats, sugar, as well as synthetic additives
  • Foods containing oxidized fats such as processed foods
  • High levels of physical and mental stress

Ways to fight free radicals

Dietary improvements

  • It is advised to consume brightly colored fruits such as carrots, pumpkin, cantaloupe, sweet potatoes, etc that are helpful to your skin and eyes.  The antioxidants present in these foods protect your vision as well as reduce sunburn and wrinkles.
  • Quercetin present in citrus fruits, as well as lycopene, is present in leafy greens such as spinach.  These antioxidants provide anti-aging effects.  Berries too contain powerful antioxidants such as resveratrol.  These berries are low on sugar and high on fiber, which is an added advantage.
  • Green and white tea contain polyphenols that are effective in fighting cancer.  Cocoa has high concentrations of antioxidants.  It should be noted that only organic and minimally processed cocoa should be consumed.
  • Numerous herbs and spices too contain antioxidants and include oregano, cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, turmeric, etc.
  • Essential oils are also a great source of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.  Eating the food containing rich antioxidants seems to be the best choice we can make, but it is important to consume organic foods in order to prevent the consumption of pesticide-laden foods.
  • It is important to limit the use of antibiotics and hormones to prevent the damage caused by them.

Avoid toxins & exposure to pollutants

In addition to consuming foods rich in antioxidants, there are other ways to start reducing free radical damage:

  • Limiting environmental pollutants, particularly water.
  • Avoiding chemical exposure from cosmetic products.  Cosmetics made from essential oils are advised as an alternative.
  • Avoid stress in your life
  • Exercise regularly and get at least a moderate amount of exercise.  It is not advised to stay sedentary, which will not limit the aging process.  On the other hand, you need not exercise rigorously as it may cause mental fatigue and burnout.  This may cause your body more damage.
  • Aim for weight goal and work towards achieving it.
  • Regulate your blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels to prevent more serious medical illness such as heart problems, diabetes, etc.

High oxidative stress can lead to…

Cancer

The onset of cancer is considered to be a complex process, which requires both cellular and molecular alterations.  It is mediated by endogenous and/or exogenous triggers as well.  As discussed earlier oxidative DNA damage is one of the main causes of cancer development.  Lifestyle changes such as smoking, alcohol consumption, chronic inflammation, as well as environmental pollutants cause oxidative stress by promoting free radicals.

Cardiovascular diseases

These are medical conditions with multifactorial etiology.  It is also associated with a very large amount of risk factors.  Some of the broadly recognized risk factors include hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, unbalanced diet, stress, etc.

Studies have indicated that oxidative stress is considered to be either a primary or a secondary cause for many cardiovascular diseases.  Studies have indicated that plaque formation is a result of early endothelial inflammation.  The circulating LDL in the bloodstream is then oxidized thus leading to lipid accumulation.  Due to this lipid accumulation, it leads to atherosclerotic plaque.  Studies have indicated that the above-mentioned phenomenon plays an important role in causing atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia, cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart failure.

Neurological diseases

This can be classified into many types namely Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, depression, as well as memory loss.  Studies have indicated that oxidative damage plays an important role in neuron loss and development of dementia in the case of Alzheimer disease.  The action of free radicals leads to the production of beta-amyloid, which is a toxic peptide.  This toxic peptide is generally found in Alzheimer’s disease patients’ brain and is considered to be responsible for neurodegeneration, which leads to the onset and progression of the disease.

Respiratory diseases

Oxidative stress is again responsible for several lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  The main cause of these lung diseases is due to chronic inflammation.  As discussed earlier, inflammation is caused due to oxidative stress.  This is accomplished with the activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1 that are called as pathways and transcription factors.

Kidney disease

Oxidative stress is involved in causing numerous kidney related issues such as renal failure, proteinuria, and uremia. The kidneys are highly affected due to the effect of oxidative stress.  This is caused due to the production of ROS, which induces inflammatory cells.   Oxidative stress acts chronically on kidney tissues, which results in inflammation and later the formation of fibrotic tissue.  This causes problems with the functioning of the organ and leading to renal failure.

Caution with regards to supplements

There are several anti-aging supplements that are available in the market these days, it is becoming a concern that people are relying more on these supplements to counteract unhealthy lifestyle choices and poor nutrition.

There is also a concern that consuming high doses of concentrated antioxidants from supplements may cause other problematic effects like interfering with proper exercise recovery.  It should be understood that isolating specific antioxidants and consuming them in the form of supplements to reduce free radicals may not be a good choice as compared to eating whole foods.  It should be noted that the interaction of numerous antioxidants as they are present in food seems to be most beneficial.

Antioxidants have gained enormous attention from the biomedical research.  These compounds have shown a high degree of effectiveness in terms of disease prevention.  They are also free from important side effects.  It should be noted that the best way to reduce free radical damage can be achieved through a healthy diet and lifestyle.  Choosing supplements to fulfill this requirement may sometimes cause unwanted side effects and are generally not as beneficial as eating whole plant foods.


TL;DR?

Oxidative stress

 

Display this infographic on your website

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

 

 

 

Related Posts

Trending Topics

ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the…
Vitamin K2: 8 reasons why you need this bone-building & cancer-fighting nutrient Vitamin K2 is claimed to be essential for your bone health, for reducing the risk…
abdominal-CT-scan- image
Abdominal CT scan Abdominal CT scan is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides a clear picture of the…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are…
Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are non-invasive breathing tests employed for diagnosing and monitoring lung diseases…
anti-thyroglobulin antibody
Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody test Anti-thyrogloubin antibody test measures the level of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cells and…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin.…
Stye : The best natural home remedies to ease the pain Styes developing inside the eyelid tend to be more painful whereas external styes are less…
rubella IgG test
Rubella IgG Test The rubella IgG test is a blood test that checks for the rubella virus IgG…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test is used to measure and monitor the levels of folic acid in…
hlab27 test
HLA-B27 test The HLA-B27 is a blood test that is used to determine the level of a…
Ferritin blood test
Ferritin Test Ferritin test is a blood test that provides vital information on the level of RBCs…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how…
Chromium Picolinate: An essential mineral supplement for faster weight loss Did you know that about 1.6 million deaths were directly linked to diabetes globally? How…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help…
How do neutrophils protect you from fatal bacterial attacks? During an infection, certain enzymes alert the mature neutrophils.  Neutrophils then travel through the bloodstream…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why…
IGE test
IgE test – Immunoglobulin E IgE or immunoglobulin E test is a test that measures the level of IgE in…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but…
POSTPRANDIAL-BLOOD-SUGAR
Post-Prandial Blood Sugar Postprandial blood sugar test is an important diabetes diagnosing tool. This simple blood test measure…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount…
serum zinc test
Serum Zinc Test The serum zinc test is a blood test performed to assess the zinc level in…
Poop chart: Top things you didn’t you your poop could reveal about you Bristol poop chart was designed during the 1990s in order to help doctors identify various…
RHEUMATOID_FACTOR_(RF)
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Rheumatoid factor or RF is a blood test used to diagnose painful joint conditions such…
HELICOBACTER_PYLORI---IgG
Helicobacter Pylori – IgG Test Helicobacter pylori IgG test is a blood, saliva, and urine test performed to determine if…
Free T3 test
Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) Test The free triiodothyronine or FT3 test is an important blood test that is used to…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try…
serum electrolyte test
Serum Electrolyte If there is an electrolyte imbalance in the body, a serum electrolyte test will help…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test involves detecting and measuring the presence of the IgG…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does…
bilirubin-test-result
Bilirubin Test Bilirubin is a substance produced in the body as a result of red blood cell…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking…
How accurate is the hair follicle drug test? Hair follicle drug test is one of the best ways to identify drug use in…
Bubble Tea: Bubbling with nutrition or a hidden sugar mine? The tapioca pearls present in the tea looks like bubbles and hence the name bubble…
TPAB test
Treponema Pallidum Antibody(TPAB) test Treponema pallidum bacteria a gram-negative bacteria that has helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, responsible for STDs…
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the…
lipid-profile
Lipid Profile Lipid profile is a blood test that provides complete information on how much cholesterol is…
Bronchoscopy procedure
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure where in a scope is inserted into the lung pathway to…
EMA antibodies
Endomysial Antibodies (EMA) Test EMA test is an investigative blood examination to locate the presence of certain antibodies, called…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be.…
Silicon Dioxide: How can a component of sand be essential to your wellbeing? Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the nature. Find out how silicon…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight…
Tamarind: The top health benefits of this staple Asian ingredient Did you know this sweet and sour pulpy fruit does more than just add a…
Hydroquinone: Is it the best topical treatment for hyperpigmentation? Darkening of the skin due to high melanin levels is called hyperpigmentation.  Hydroquinone interferes with melanin…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume…
random blood sugar test
Random Blood Sugar Test The random blood sugar or RBS test is a blood test prescribed mainly to check…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders?…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket The dragon fruit is packed with nutrients and yet low on calories and is the…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause…
arterial-blood-gas
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Arterial blood gas analysis is a diagnostic procedure used to determine the volume of oxygen…
CT-scan-machine
CT – Computed Tomography Scan CT scan or computed tomography scan is an diagnostic imaging technique where cross-sectional images of…
free thyroxine ft4
Free thyroxine test (FT4) The FT4 or free thyroxine test is a blood test used to detect the level…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail…
Microneedling: Does this cosmetic procedure live up to the hype? Is microneedling a safe and painless procedure? How can pricking your skin with a series…
What is the right way to take a pregnancy test? A pregnancy test is undertaken to determine if you have conceived. A home pregnancy test…
Inversion Therapy: The anti-gravity way of healing chronic back pain Inversion therapy involves suspending a person upside dow using different types of equipment. This works…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could…
Crossfit with rope
CrossFit: Now get the perfectly sculpted body with this explosive gym routine CrossFit is a fitness regimen that makes use of high-intensity exercises in a shorter period…
EEG
Electroencephalogram – EEG EEG or electroencephalogram is a diagnostic tool used to access the functioning of neurons and…
Chest X-Ray A chest x-ray is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to visualize the structures inside…
Cystoscopy Cystoscopy is intended to look at the abnormalities in the ureters, bladder, and urethra, to…
Helicobacter pylori IGA
Helicobacter Pylori – IgA Test The H.pylori IgA test is a blood test used to identify the level of IgA…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you…
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance: How common diseases become deadly Can a cold kill you? How important is to get a flu shot? Why do…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity ,…
Horny Goat Weed: Can it improve libido in human beings too? This plant got its name as Horny Goat Weed when one of the goats feeding…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more…
Colloidal silver benefits
Colloidal silver: An essential dietary supplement or yet another pharmaceutical hoax? Colloidal silver is hailed as an effective home remedy for infections. Many believe it can…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect…
Vitamin-D-blood-test
25-Hydroxy Vitamin D test 25-hydroxy Vitamin D test is a blood test used to measure the level of vitamin…
erythropoetin test
Erythropoietin (EPO) Test Erythropoetin stimulates the production of RBCs in bone marrow thus an erythropoetin test is done…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in…
oral hygiene tips
6 shocking consequences of bad oral hygiene (and how to avoid them) Did you know bad breath is not just turning off, but also harms your body…
Pumpkin Seeds: Why pumpkins are more than just for pies! Pumpkins have been long associated with Halloween carvings and delicious pies. But did you know…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your…
avocado benefits
Avocado: 15 reasons why this fruit should be a staple in your diet Did you know that the word avocado literally means "testicles". Don't get grossed out as…
Cordyceps: How the Caterpillar fungus works as a proven cancer-shield Strange as it may sound, but cordyceps or "caterpillar fungus", a fungus variety native to…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an…
Pescatarian Diet 101: What are the inherent health advantages of this diet? People opt to become a pescatarian in order to enrich their bodies with the essential…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid…

Related Posts

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.