Leprosy

LEPROSY patients

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

What Is Leprosy?

Leprosy is a chronic and progressive infectious ailment that mainly targets the skin and nerves of the peripheral nervous system. It can also affect the eyes, nose, face and mucous membranes. Generally, children are more likely to develop leprosy than adults. This much-dreaded disease develops as a result of infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.

Contrary to popular perception, however, this disease is not highly contagious. Its progress is very gradual and the disease is curable in the earlier stages. Yet, leprosy has been the subject of extreme stigma and fear mainly because of the disfigurement and disability it can cause. The term ‘leper’ even has a highly derogatory connotation.

India alone accounts for 58.85% of all leprosy cases worldwide, even though it has been declared that the disease has officially been eliminated from this country. As many as 1,27,000 Indians are diagnosed with this disease annually. According to the Indian Journal of Medical Research, the prevalence of leprosy was estimated at 0.68% per 10,000 individuals in the year 2014 as compared to the worldwide prevalence of 0.32% per 10,000 individuals for the same period of time.

 

What Causes It?

LEPROSY bacteriaScientists and medical practitioners do not as yet fully understand the modes of transmission of leprosy. The most well-documented mode of transmission is via prolonged exposure to airborne droplets. Contrary to common belief, one does not contract leprosy merely by coming into brief contact with an infected individual. Nor is it sexually transmitted. Although it is a communicable disease, it is not highly contagious as is the prevailing belief in many parts of the world even today. In fact, scientists believe that a majority of humans – as many as 99% of them – are naturally immune to the disease. You are only likely to develop leprosy if you have had prolonged contact with infectious droplets from the nose and mouth of a person suffering from the untreated disease. Research studies have also identified genes that render certain individuals more susceptible to developing leprosy.

 

How Do I Recognise A Case of Leprosy?

Leprosy is more common in areas with warmer climates and, at present, Asia and Africa are home to the largest number of diagnosed cases. The bacterium M. leprae is a slow-growing one and this pathogen generally takes between 3 to 5 years to begin causing symptoms of the disease. In fact, the incubation period can be on a scale of decades in some documented instances. Typically, the disease causes noticeable sores in the skin along with damage to the nerves and resultant weakness in the muscles. The list below outlines the identifying symptoms:

  • Patches of discolouration in the skin.
  • Skin nodules and ulcers.
  • Pain or numbness in the affected areas of skin.
  • Nosebleeds.
  • Weakening of muscles.
  • Complete loss of sensation.
  • Paralysis

 

What Are The Different Forms of Leprosy?

LEPROSY patientsThere exist multiple different systems of classifying leprosy. According to the scheme preferred by the World Health Organisation, cases of leprosy fall under either of two broad categories. The main criterion for classification, in this case, is the quantity of bacteria present and the number of skin lesions.

  • Paucibacillary disease: In such cases, the patient typically presents with five or fewer skin lesions. Another indicator is that tests performed on skin samples or smears fail to detect bacteria at all.
  • Multibacillary disease: In this form of the disease, the patient displays a significantly higher number of lesions. Alternatively, bacteria are conclusively detected in skin smears and biopsies.

Another system of classification recognizes two main types of leprosy. The basis for this classification is the strength of the patient’s immune response although it broadly corresponds with the system outlined above.

  • Tuberculoid leprosy: This form of leprosy is relatively mild and less contagious since the patient’s immune response is fairly robust. In such instances, the skin sores are limited to a small number and are not extensive in nature.
  • Lepromatous leprosy: This is much more severe and is also more contagious. Typically, skin lesions are more in number and more extensive and this is related to a weak immune response. Nerve damage is more pronounced and leads to muscle weakness. Patients may also suffer from infertility and damage to the tissues of the nose. A certain subtype of lepromatous disease is what is known as the histoid form of leprosy. In instances of histoid leprosy, patients develop both cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules and also exhibit a high bacillary load as a result of which they are more likely to pass on the disease to others.

Other methods of classification include the Ridley-Jopling and ICD-10 systems.

 

What Are Some Possible Complications?

In advanced stages of leprosy, the patient risks permanently losing fingers, toes and even entire limbs. As a result of the loss of nerve function, the patient loses sensation in the affected areas and is, therefore, more prone to injuries and infection in those areas. The list below enumerates some possible complications:

 

How Is This Disease Diagnosed?

An effective method of confirming a diagnosis of leprosy is by means of a skin biopsy. A sample of skin is taken from a skin sore and it is examined under a microscope. A skin smear aids in detecting bacteria and polymerase chain reaction tests help to detect the DNA of the bacteria and confirm their presence.

 

How Can It Be Treated?

LEPROSY skinAccording to the WHO, leprosy can be treated by a combination of drugs. This treatment method is known as multidrug therapy (MDT). In case of monotherapy (use of only one antileprosy drug), there are possibilities of development of resistance.

The MDT recommended by the WHO expert committee is made available free of charge across the globe. The antibiotics that treat leprosy by destroying the bacteria are rifampin, dapsone, clofazimine, ofloxacin, minocycline.

More than one antibiotic is prescribed by doctors in order to treat the infection of the bacteria. Additionally, an anti-inflammatory medication (such as prednisone, aspirin or thalidomide) might also be prescribed.

In general, dapsone and rifampicin are prescribed to treat paucibacillary leprosy, and for multibacillary leprosy, clofazimine is administered along with dapsone and rifampicin. Generally, the antibiotics are prescribed for the duration of 6 to 12 months. However, in some cases, more than 2 months might be required in order to treat the condition. The detrimental effects of the disease before the initiation of the antibiotic course are usually irreversible.

Dapsone is contraindicated (not advised) in patients with a history of allergy to any of the sulpha drugs. Thalidomide should not be given if the infected female is pregnant or has plans to conceive in the near future as it might lead to serious birth defects (such as phocomelia) in the baby.

Surgeries are sometimes performed in advanced lesions. Surgery aims to improve esthetics and restore the limb function. Avoiding contact from the infected droplets (such as from the nasal secretions) can prevent the occurrence of the disease. Prompt treatment of individuals with leprosy can also prevent the spread of the infection.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Follow standard hygiene protocols if you are the caregiver of an infected individual.
  • Wear gloves and protective clothing if you handle certain animals such as armadillos, sooty mangabey, African chimpanzee etc.
Don'ts
  • Take thalidomide if you are pregnant or have plans to conceive as it might cause birth defects in the baby.
  • Take dapsone if you have a history of allergy to any of the sulpha drugs.
  • Miss the dose of the medications (the multi-drug therapy) prescribed by the doctor.

 

 

 

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kefir bottle
Kefir: Top reasons why this probiotic drink should be consumed by you Yet another remarkable fermented food, kefir is a much healthier version of yogurt. These chewy white grains can…
The Shepherd's diet
Facts about the Shepherd’s diet Kristina Wilds promoted Shepherd's diet, a Christian-based diet that highlights Jesus Christ's diet as mentioned in the Bible.
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Optavia diet
The features of an Optavia diet The Optavia diet endorses pre-packaged meals and snacks called "fuelings" that are tasty, low in calorie, and incorporates…
stress adverse effects
Fight, flight, or freeze: 8 ways stress can ruin your body Did you know that stress is in-built in our systems? It helped our ancestors respond to danger. How…
Ezekiel Bread: How to make the “world’s healthiest bread” in your own kitchen Learn more about Ezekiel bread - a bread belonging to the biblical time and containing the secrets to…
antichlamydia antibody Igm
Anti-Chlamydia Antibody IgM Anti-Chlamydia antibody IgM an automated ELISA-based blood examination evaluates and measures IgM antibodies against Chlamydia infection.
buckwheat in a jar
Buckwheat: Instant health benefits of adding this super healthy grain in your diet  Buckwheat is a type of plant product in the form of a grain which is used to make…
The dangers of having insufficient digestive enzymes (and how to pump these naturally) Digestive enzymes are compounds in your GI tract that help you digest food properly and also in the…
Rick Simpson’s Oil: The truths and controversies of this cannabis product Rick Simpson's Oil is an extract from the much-controversial plant, Cannabis. What is the actual truth behind the…
Strep throat pain
Tonsillectomy: When do you actually need to get your tonsil glands removed? Tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of tonsil glands. Why does one need to undergo this surgery and what…
Ear infections check up
Troubled with ear infections? Find easy and instant home remedies here Ear infections are common in both children and adults and may lead to hearing loss if left untreated.…
How seitan proved to be a blessing in disguise for vegans worldwide Can only meat-eaters enjoy delicious juicy steaks and burgers? With seitan, the best meat substitute available today,even vegans…
These are the top foods to increase your hemoglobin count It is important to add iron-rich foods into your diet in order to increase hemoglobin. Deficiency of hemoglobin could…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body is infected by…
aspartame or sugar
Aspartame – Hidden truths about this storm in a teacup Aspartame, the artificial sweetener, has gone under the scanner on several occasions for allegedly doing more harm than…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
Turner syndrome and infertility
Infertility profile (women) The infertility profile tests in women are conducted to form a complete picture of the hormonal balance and…
Sputum test Sputum test is a commonly used diagnostic tool that is used to examine the presence of pathogens in…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
working mom with kids
Practical Motherhood Tips for Working Women Check out these effective tips for working mothers to manage motherhood and work life. Raise your children easily…
black seed oil benefits
Black Seed Oil: What secret benefits could it bestow on your health? Black seeds or nigella seeds are tiny packets of health brimming with amazing benefits. Find out why should…
Miracle extract from the root of maca: 10 ways it can help you! Maca root has been used for years in herbal medicine. Today scientific research is unearthing fresh evidence in…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
Garlic health benefits cloves
Garlic: Nature’s white pill as an effective home remedy What are the secrets hidden in these tiny white pills? Find out the immense health benefits of using…
diagnosis of lipoma
Lipoma Click to know all about lipoma, its causes, types, risks, diagnosis , and treatment of this non-cancerous tumor
diagnosis of lipoma
Lipoma Click to know all about lipoma, its causes, types, risks, diagnosis , and treatment of this non-cancerous tumor
Hydrocele
Hydrocele Hydroceles occur when fluids accumulate in the male scrotum. They may not be a major health problem but…
CHIKUNGUNYA IgM
Chikungunya-IgM Test Chikungunya-IgM is a blood test that is used to check the elevated levels of the IgM antibodies associated…
Tattoo Aftercare: The best practices to follow once you get inked Planning getting permanently inked? Make sure you follow these critical tattoo aftercare techniques to avoid infectious agents attacking…
beta alanine energy powder
Beta-alanine: A powerhouse of proteins to charge up your workout How can a simple amino acid be a crucial health supplement for champion athletes? Find out how you…
The most effective tips on how to stay awake at work Do you often find yourself snoozing off at your work desk? This might be a sign of sleep…
The most effective tips on how to stay awake at work Do you often find yourself snoozing off at your work desk? This might be a sign of sleep…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…

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