Skin Problems

Skin problems types

Last Updated February 21st, 2019

Overview

Environmental factors combined with numerous physiological conditions may give rise to numerous complications in the human body. The skin bears the maximum adverse effects in such cases. People irrespective of their age, gender and ethnicity suffer from skin problems of varying degrees. Skin problems in any form is serious. It may lead to various skin diseases. In many cases, skin problems are the indicators of major disorders and can even result in skin cancer. Epidemiological studies by the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that around 3,00,000 non-melanoma and 4500 melanoma skin cancers will be diagnosed in the upcoming years. It is evident that skin problems have become a major global health burden in the recent years.

 

What are skin problems?

“Skin problems” is an umbrella term that encompasses all categories of skin damage or disorders that may affect a healthy lifestyle. Skin problems may manifest as skin rashes which occur in people of any age group. Many people suffer severe burn injuries, which may lead to skin problems of serious forms even after complete recovery. Skin problems can occur in the course of aging. The old people (above 65) have wrinkles and spots. Skin problems should be addressed on an emergency basis. This will help avoid complications in the future.

 

What causes skin problems?

Skin problems handSkin problems may be an outcome of multiple external and internal factors. Here is a list of the most common causes-

  • Microbial infections caused by pathogens like bacteria (Staphylococcus), virus (Herpes zoster) or fungus (Tinea)
  • Living in extremely polluted regions that causes a regular exposure to dust particles, vehicular pollutants, industrial emissions and other particulate matter
  • Consuming contaminated food and water
  • Direct exposure to toxic metals like lead, cadmium, mercury or asbestos (common in factory workers, residents of urban areas)
  • Natural regeneration of skin cells in the course of aging (causes wrinkles and spots)
  • Accidental injury to the skin in different types of burns (chemical burn or thermal burn)
  • Leading an unhygienic lifestyle (Eg: using unclean towels, wearing clothes without washing, using toilets lacking sanitization)
  • Deficiency of vitamins (Vitamins C and D) and essential micronutrients (Sodium and Potassium) within the body
  • Having oily or greasy foods on a daily basis
  • Using greasy make-ups or cosmetics containing toxic chemicals
  • Wearing poorly aerated clothes
  • Applying skin-products that accelerate aging
  • Exposure to frequent changes in temperature (say extreme hot to extreme cold)
  • Lack of body immunity to fight infections or diseases
  • Excessive sweating
  • Exposure to strong sunrays for a long period of time (between 10AM-2PM)
  • Exposure to ultraviolet rays (in the course of radiation therapies to treat other diseases)
  • Hormonal imbalance that occurs in puberty, pregnancy or menopause
  • Ancestral history of skin problems
  • Excess intakes of over-the-counter drugs like corticosteroids and diuretics
  • The release of harmful chemicals called cytokines in the bloodstream as an immune response to certain allergens like pollen grains, sea-foods etc
  • Bathing regularly with hard soaps and extremely hot water
  • Having a very dry skin (may cause diseases like dermatitis and eczema)
  • Dehydration

 

Skin Rashes

Skin rashes present as blisters and red patches on the skin. They may appear as a single lump or in clusters on different parts of the body. Microbial infections or allergic reactions to certain substances may be the contributors of skin rashes. The common types of skin rashes are as follows-

  • Diaper rashes: These are evident only in children and appear as reddish patches over large areas of the skin. It occurs due to contact of the tender skin with wet diapers for a long time.
  • Cold sores: They are caused by the Herpes simplex virus. They are manifested as tiny reddish fluid-filled blisters on the lips and around the mouth.
  • Eczema: It is characterized by inflammation of the skin and reddish blisters. The patients tend to rub the rashes very hard. Pale white flakes may develop. A very dry skin is prone to this condition.
  • Acne vulgaris: It is characterized by fluid-filled reddish bumps on the skin.
  • Impetigo: These are mostly observed in children and occur on exposed parts of the skin.
  • Plantar warts: These appear as rough and hard outgrowths on those parts of the skin that experience constant pressure and rubbing.
  • Cellulitis: Inflammation of the subcutaneous connective tissues causes cellulitis.
  • Psoriasis: It is characterized by whitish flakes and blisters on the scalp.
  • Scabies: Tiny reddish bumps appear on the skin. Itch mites are responsible for scabies.
  • Ringworm: The main causative agent of Ringworm is Tinea. It is characterized by ring-shaped elevated lumps with prominent borders.

 

Aging

Skin problems typesAging comes with biological changes at the cellular and organ level. A number of skin problems occur after a certain age, which is as follows-

  • The appearance of wrinkles on the skin
  • Presence of spots or pigments
  • Dryness of skin
  • Benign outgrowths of the skin (skin tags)
  • Formation of reddish or whitish patches on the skin
  • Extreme heat and cold sensitivity of the skin

 

Burns

Burns represent severe injuries of the skin and underlying body tissues on contact with thermal, chemical or electric sources. According to the severity of the skin problem observed, burns are classified into three categories viz- first-degree burn, second-degree burn, and third-degree burn. Below is a list of skin problems that occur in burn injuries-

  • Reddish to dark-brown patches all over the affected area
  • Extreme tenderness of the skin
  • Leathery texture of affected skin areas along with whitish or yellowish discoloration
  • Large fluid-filled blisters
  • Bleeding from skin
  • Loss of skin
  • Exposure of underlying skin layers (and tissues) and skeletal structures

 

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of skin problems is necessary to determine the severity of the problem. A few laboratory tests are very important-

  • Blood tests (Full Blood Count and ESR)
  • Radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
  • Dermatopathology
  • Skin biopsy (to check for skin cancer)

 

Treatment and prevention

Rashes 

  • Ringworm – Antifungal medications are prescribed to treat this condition. To prevent this condition, use antifungal soaps and bath gels after you return home to make sure that you may not have contracted the bacteria.
  • Eczema – Medications to reduce the itching are prescribed. To help prevent this condition from aggravating do not itch the affected area.
  • Diaper rash – As soon as you notice any redness, air out the buttocks and keep the area clean. To prevent your child from this discomfort, make sure that the diaper is not too tight.
  • Acne – Creams are prescribed to make sure that the pores do not get plugged and to help reduce inflammation. To prevent this condition, make sure that you wash your face regularly and remove your makeup before you go to bed.
  • Impetigo – For mild cases of impetigo, remove the scab and clean it with an antibiotic ointment. For moderate to severe cases, oral antibiotics will be prescribed. To prevent this condition use gloves while applying the ointment to make sure that the condition does not spread.
  • Psoriasis – Medications to reduce the severity of the symptoms will be prescribed. Exposing the skin to moderate amounts of sunlight can help in reducing the symptoms. Since there are no preventive measures, there are certain lifestyle changes that an affected individual can make such as reducing stress levels and ensuring that they treat their injuries properly.

Burns

  • Skin problems cancerDoctors will use an ultrasound mist treatment method to help treat the burns.
  • Fluids will be administered intravenously to ensure that the patient does not get dehydrated.
  • Medications to help relieve pain and anxiety will be prescribed while treating burns.
  • Ointment and creams will be applied on the burn site to help keep it moist to speed up the healing process.
  • A dressing will be done to make sure that the burn site does not get infected and help speed up the healing process.
  • In case an infection may have developed, antibiotics will be administered intravenously.
  • A tetanus shot will be given to the burn patient to make sure that they do not contract any infection.
  • In cases where the skin around the face and neck are burnt, doctors will make a slit in the throat and insert a breathing tube, to help the patient breathe.
  • Due to severe burns around an entire limb or the chest, breathing may become difficult. To help the patient breathe, doctors decompress the scab (wounded area).
  • A skin graft is put in place of severe burns, using the patient’s own skin.
  • Plastic surgery is recommended to make sure that there is mobility in the joints, in cases where the joints may have been damaged due to the injury. This procedure is also done to cover up larger scar tissues (in this case, the burnt area)

Prevention 

  • Make sure that you have turned the stove off, before leaving the kitchen.
  • Do not leave your child unattended in the kitchen.
  • Switch off electric gadgets and appliances before you leave the room.
  • Never wear loose clothing or fabrics such as cotton, polyester, nylon, wool, and silk while undertaking any fire-related activities.

Wrinkles 

Treatment 

  • Certain skin care medications contain vitamin A. These may be prescribed to those who have wrinkles.
  • Some over-the-counter (OTC) creams can help reduce wrinkles.
  • Treatments such as dermabrasion, laser therapy, chemical peel, facelift, botox, and fillers are undergone by patients for aesthetic reasons.

Prevention 

  • Limit sun exposure.
  • Use sunscreen.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Do not consume excessive amounts of alcohol.
  • Maintain a healthy diet and get at least 7 hours of sleep.

Dry skin 

Treatment 

  • Over-the-counter lotions or moisturizers can help lubricate dry skin.
  • Using a humidifier in your home tends to trap moisture in the skin that helps to keep it soft.

Prevention 

  • Do not take hot showers frequently, as doing so tends to dehydrate, crack and dry the skin.
  • Use moisturizer regularly, they help in keeping the skin moist and soft.

Facts

  • People of all ages and skin tones are prone to pigmentation. Though it is most commonly seen in those who have a darker skin tone.
  • 40-50 million people have acne in the United States.

Facts

  • Excessive stress can cause wrinkles.
  • Young adults between the age group of 15-25 years are affected by acne.

Facts

  • 500 children of 14 years and below succumb to fire accidents in the United States each year.
  • Diaper rashes are one of the most common types of rashes. They generally appear in babies who are 4-6 months old.

Related Conditions

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Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Run tap water or room-temperature water over the burn site. Doing so helps in reducing pain and swelling – in case of burns.
  • Use a gentle wash, in case of open sores. This can help avoid any further irritation of rashes.
  • Wash your face only 2 times a day and not more. Washing your face frequently tends to increase the infection, inflammation and cause dehydration of the skin leading to more breakouts.
Don'ts
  • Use cold water or ice on the burn site; this can cause more skin damage – in case of burns.
  • Rub alcohol on the rash sit. Doing so only aggravates the condition – in case of rashes.
  • Itch, squeeze or burst your acne, this can aggravate the condition – in case of acne.

 

 

 

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Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
about mediterranean diet
Why you should be adopting a Mediterranean style of diet today Ever wondered why the Mediterranean diet is so healthy? One simple solution to lowering risk of several deadliest…
Agave nectar: The bitter truth about this sweetener revealed Agave nectar is considered to be sweeter than the normal table sugar and even contains higher amounts of…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Experts reveal the safest ways to perform an enema at home The idea of pushing some up your rectal area might make you queasy but an enema could actually…
Sputum test Sputum test is a commonly used diagnostic tool that is used to examine the presence of pathogens in…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…
Hysteroscopy_procedure
Hysteroscopy Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive tool to help specialists view the uterus to diagnose and even treat several…
Diabetes blood test
Diabetic Profile The diabetic profile is a set of tests used for testing and monitoring the various kinds of Diabetes…
macadamia nuts in food
Proven health benefits and nutrition of macadamia nuts Know all about scientific, amazing health benefits of macadamia nuts, its nutrition, recipes, how to consume, price and…
macadamia nuts in food
Proven health benefits and nutrition of macadamia nuts Know all about scientific, amazing health benefits of macadamia nuts, its nutrition, recipes, how to consume, price and…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
kefir bottle
Kefir: Top reasons why this probiotic drink should be consumed by you Yet another remarkable fermented food, kefir is a much healthier version of yogurt. These chewy white grains can…
Did you know drinking alkaline water could be the healthier choice for you? Ever wondered how safe is your drinking water in terms of pH? Recent studies have revealed that Alkaline…
How to correctly perform nasal irrigation using a Neti Pot? Neti pot has been a part of Ayurveda since centuries. This ancient tool is extremely effective in treating…
Oxidative Stress: Understanding the most lethal phenomenon happening in your body right now Free radicals cause damage to the body, which is known as oxidation.  The amount of oxidation caused by…
Hydroquinone: Is it the best topical treatment for hyperpigmentation? Darkening of the skin due to high melanin levels is called hyperpigmentation.  Hydroquinone interferes with melanin production thus treating…
11 unbelievable health benefits of thyme you didn’t know! Thyme is a herb that has been used in alternative medicine.It is a well known seasoning in the…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody (tTG) Test Transglutaminase is an enzyme present in our body and is involved in protein metabolism. A tTg test is…
anoscopy
Anoscopy Anoscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure where a small device known as anoscope will be inserted in the…
immunoglobulin M
Immunoglobulin M Test Immunoglobulin M is the largest and the first produced antibody which helps in the prevention or fighting of…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
Beware of these common foods that cause high bodily inflammation! Maybe its the long list of inflammatory foods in your diet that is making you frequently sick. Find…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption of these could…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
Coffee Enema: Turn your favorite morning beverage into a powerful colon cleanser The wonders of coffee are not just limited to waking you up every morning. You can now use…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
quinoa salad
Quinoa : A prodigious superfood you need to include in your diet today! Quinoa - what is so special about this native South American grain that has taken the world by…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
avocado benefits
Avocado: 15 reasons why this fruit should be a staple in your diet Did you know that the word avocado literally means "testicles". Don't get grossed out as this power-packed fruit…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
Coconut sugar: What is it and is it healthier than table sugar? In the long list of things that the wonderful coconut gives us, coconut sugar is another remarkable addition.…
The right way to prepare Alfalfa sprouts at home Alfalfa or lusan ghas is not just a nutritious animal fodder. This flavonoid-rich herb has some amazing health…
Pescatarian Diet 101: What are the inherent health advantages of this diet? People opt to become a pescatarian in order to enrich their bodies with the essential health benefits that…
How to scrub away stress and fatigue with an Epsom salt bath? Epsom salt is a popular home remedy for many skin ailments. Though there is a lack of scientific…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
lp-pla2
LP-PLA2 Test The LP-PLA2 test is a test which is carried out to assess the levels of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2…
complement c4 test
Anemia Profile Anemia Profile test (Basic) is a blood screening test that measures the levels of important components of the…
shoudler exercises
Keep your shoulders pain-free with these shoulder exercises Shoulder exercises are important in order to prevent chronic back and neck pain. Learn more about how you…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…