Type 2 Diabetes


Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Understanding type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus type 2, is a life-long medical condition where the body develops a high resistance to insulin leading to elevated blood-sugar levels. It is a metabolic disorder which destabilizes the metabolism of sugar (glucose) in the body. The hormone insulin is responsible for regulating the movement of sugar in the cells, where they are converted to energy. In a diabetic individual, the body either stops producing adequate insulin or starts opposing its effects.  With no glucose-regulating hormone in the body, the sugar levels start rising which leads to the onset of serious medical complications.

Type 2 diabetes makes up for almost 90% of all diabetes cases.

This condition is not completely curable, but proper medications and lifestyle changes can help control the severity of the symptoms.

The US alone has more than 27 million people suffering from type 2 diabetes.

Studies indicate that 1 out of 3 people might be in the pre-diabetes stage (blood sugar higher than normal but not high enough to be considered diabetes).

The rate of people being affected by this condition has seen a sharp increase since the 1960s, indicating that this disease has been primarily a result of unhealthy lifestyle choices.

 

What causes type 2 diabetes?

Insulin, which is produced by the pancreas, facilitates glucose transport from the bloodstream to the cells.  Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body starts resisting the functioning of this hormone. Over time, the pancreas starts producing more insulin to compensate for the supposed decrease in the hormone. Since the glucose is not reaching the cells, the body starts feeling deficit of energy. Even though the exact cause of this hormonal malfunction is not identified, there are a number of reasons which can add to the occurrence of this disease:

  • There is a marked correlation between a person being obese or over-weight and his/her tendency to become diabetic. More fats in the body lead to higher resistance to insulin. The chances of developing this condition increase further if the fat deposition is high in the abdomen area.
  • Sedentary lifestyle and no physical activities result in the blood sugar remaining unused. This also decreases body’s sensitivity to insulin. Stress is also a dominant factor.
  • Faulty dietary patterns such as high consumption of sweetened drinks, trans-fats, saturated fats etc add to the chances.
  • A family history of diabetes often renders an individual more susceptible to this condition. Certain genetic predispositions also dictate the working of insulin.
  • Other metabolic conditions such as PCOS (Poly-cystic ovarian syndrome) and hyperthyroidism are also contributing factors. Lack of sleep, which directly affects metabolism, is also linked to the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
  • It frequently affects people above the age of 45 and has been detected more in certain races and ethnicities such as Hispanics and Asian- Americans.

 

How do the symptoms appear?

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually go undetected in the initial stages.

It has been estimated that there are around 8 million people who don’t know that they are suffering from it.

In many people, it takes several years to realize that they have diabetes.

The following are the classic symptoms associated with this condition:

  • Increased urination, aka polyuria, is one of the most characteristic symptoms of diabetes. Along with it, the individual also experiences increased hunger and thirst.
  • Difficulty in maintaining a healthy weight. Most diabetic patients witness a drastic weight loss as the body starts using muscles and fats as fuels.
  • The ability to heal wounds is compromised and the body becomes more susceptible to infections especially yeast infections.
  • The high sugar levels affect the fluids in the eye causing blurring of vision.
  • The person experiences prolonged fatigue and pain in the feet.

If left undetected, type 2 diabetes can lead to much serious health complications such as cardiovascular problems (angina, stroke, or atherosclerosis),  nerve and kidney damage, diabetes-induced blindness (diabetic retinopathy), foot complications requiring amputation or even Alzheimer’s Disease.

 

How is type 2 diabetes detected?

In addition to the above-mentioned symptoms, the following tests are conducted to confirm the presence of type 2 diabetes:

  • Glycated hemoglobin test which reveals the blood-sugar levels with the past few months. It should ideally be below 5.7%.
  • Random blood sugar test, where the blood is collected at any time of the day. Values higher than 200mg/dL are suggestive of diabetes. Similarly, fasting blood sugar test is conducted on an empty stomach, which, if higher than 126mg/dL indicates type 2 diabetes.

 

What is the cure for type 2 diabetes?

 

As previously mentioned, this disease cannot be completely cured and it continues life-long.

The treatment procedure includes management of the disease and controlling the severity of symptoms.

Managing diabetes, especially type 2, demands a complete overhaul of lifestyle and habits which contributed to the manifestation of the condition.

 

The following methods should be adopted regularly by a diabetic patient to reduce the bodily complications:

  • Regularly monitor blood-sugar and cholesterol levels.
  • Maintaining a nutrient-rich diet which includes whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and food rich in Omega-3 fatty acids. Regulating the intervals between meals is also very important in controlling glucose spikes in blood. Food items which have low-glycemic index values should be consumed more.
  • Packaged food, processed and baked goods and sugary items should be avoided at all costs.
  • Exercising, at least for an hour every day to keep your heart and blood-sugar both in check.
  • Anti-diabetic medications such as Metformin are prescribed in the initial stages. Additionally, if required the individual is also given insulin injections.

 

How can you prevent type 2 diabetes?

While some risk factors (genetics, race, age etc.) cannot be avoided, type 2 diabetes can be prevented by bringing healthy changes to lifestyle. The inclusion of the following habits can help keep type-2 diabetes at a bay, especially in case of pre-diabetic patients:

  • A healthy and balanced diet with fewer dairy, sugary, and fatty products.
  • Eating at regular time intervals.
  • Being physically active, with at least 30 minutes of exercise 5 days a week.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight. 

 

s

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Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Type 2 diabetes management includes a complete transformation of lifestyle such as eating high-nutrient food and doing proper exercise.
  • Stress reduction and adequate sleep are also key factors in the treatment.
  • Conduct frequent blood sugar checks, especially 2 hours after meals.
Don'ts
  • Smoke in diabetes, as it increases cardiac, renal, and nerve deterioration.
  • Cut on whole-wheat based carbohydrates such as whole-wheat bread and pasta.
  • Consume any kind of packaged or processed food or skip meals.

 

 

 

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Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
fructosamine test
Fructosamine Test A fructosamine test measures blood sugar glucose content. Fructosamine level can indicate blood sugar level in past 2-3…
malarial antigen test
Malaria Antigen Test A malaria antigen test is a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that can detect malarial antigens (proteins) in your…
iron deficiency profile
Iron Deficiency Profile An iron deficiency profile is a battery of blood tests which are performed in order to determine the…
woman with abdominal pain holding ovulation calendar
Ovulation – facts to know about ovulation Learn how and when ovulation occurs, demystify common misconceptions, identify symptoms, methods of detection and right period for…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
How can berberine supplements help you live longer and healthier? Berberine is a turmeric look-alike herbal extract that is credited with numerous health benefits ranging from diabetes cure…
Tamarind: The top health benefits of this staple Asian ingredient Did you know this sweet and sour pulpy fruit does more than just add a tangy flavor to…
Tart Cherry: The healthiest excuse for taking that second serving of pie Tart cherry has been traditionally used in delectable desserts such as pies. Recent studies have revealed that its…
Inhale oxygen, exhale worries: The top breathing exercises and how to perform them Performing the breathing exercise is like becoming mindful of how you breathe.  Here is a list of breathing…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
Strep throat pain
Anti-Streptolysin-O Test The ASO or Anti-Streptolysin-O is a blood test designed to check for the presence of streptococcus bacterial infection…
cystatin C
Cystatin C Test Cystatin C is a specific single-chain protein that is found in body fluids and is a biomarker for…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
oral hygiene tips
6 shocking consequences of bad oral hygiene (and how to avoid them) Did you know bad breath is not just turning off, but also harms your body in ways you…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
DHEA wrinkles
DHEA: Now get unbelievable age defiance with this wonder hormone! DHEA is known popularly as the age-defying hormone. This supplement is widely used to slow down aging and…
Exercises or diet? Find out the healthiest way to gain weight Tired of being called skinny all the time? Looking for healthy ways to beef up? Why not try…
Is it possible to achieve full body detox with Master Cleanse? Master cleanse is a diet consisting of a lemonade based beverage, a salt water drink and a herbal…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
How seitan proved to be a blessing in disguise for vegans worldwide Can only meat-eaters enjoy delicious juicy steaks and burgers? With seitan, the best meat substitute available today,even vegans…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
glucose-tolerance
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test – GTT Glucose tolerance test (or Oral GTT) is used to detect the onset of diabetes or prediabetes conditions. It…
anoscopy
Anoscopy Anoscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure where a small device known as anoscope will be inserted in the…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
leptospira Igm test
Leptospira-IgM Test A Leptospira-IgM test is a blood test which is carried out to detect anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis is…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential for a healthy…
piles
Best treatment for piles in Bangalore All you need to know about piles and piles treatment in Bangalore - the types of treatment available,…
piles fissure fistula
Allopathy vs homeopathy vs ayurveda treatment for piles, fissures, and fistula Read to know the best form of treatment among allopathy, homeopathy,or ayurveda for piles, fissures, and fistula
The Shepherd's diet
Facts about the Shepherd’s diet Kristina Wilds promoted Shepherd's diet, a Christian-based diet that highlights Jesus Christ's diet as mentioned in the Bible.
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
gallbladder diet tomato
Gallbladder surgery :Tips on post-operative care and diet What to eat post a gallbladder surgery? What are the key things to avoid if you had a…
Oil of Oregano: The one-stop essential oil you’ve been looking for Are you plagued by a weak immune system? High body inflammation accompanied by pain and infections? Why not…

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