Immunoglobulin G Test

immunoglobulin IgG

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

What is Immunoglobulin?

Immunoglobulin is the protein produced by plasma cells and leukocytes. Immunoglobulin functions as an antibody. It plays a pivotal role in the body’s immune system by latching on to foreign substances like harmful bacteria and other microbes and destroying them. Immunoglobulins either reside on the periphery of the cell or it can even more freely in the blood. When circulating in the blood, immunoglobulins are termed as antibodies.

What is Immunoglobulin G?

Immunoglobulin G forms 75% of the total antibodies. It is produced by Plasma B cells. It plays a significant role in providing protection against the infections of the body tissues. It even protects the fetus in the uterus from any infection. It regulates allergic reactions and can also prevent IgE mediated anaphylaxis There are four isotypes of immunoglobulin G:

– IgG1
– IgG2
– IgG3
– IgG4
 

What does IgG test measure?

The Immunoglobulin G test is used to measure and monitor the levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies in the blood. It is also used to diagnose the presence of any infection in the body and also to evaluate the immunity system of our body.

What are the alternate names used for the Immunoglobulin G Test?

There are a few alternate names for the immunoglobulin G test:

– IgG Serum
– IgG test and Serum
– Quantitative IgG

Why did my doctor recommend me the Immunoglobulin G Test?

There are many reasons why your doctor might have suggested you undergo the immunoglobulin G Test. Some of the reasons are as listed below:

To screen if the person had been or has been exposed to any illness regarding the abnormal levels of the IgG. To determine the immunity level post recovery from an illness or post-vaccination.

The doctor might suggest the Immunoglobulin G Test in the case of a recurrent infection as well. If the cause of any infection is assumed to the abnormalities in the level of the immunoglobulin G, this test is highly recommended by the doctors.

The Immunoglobulin G Test also helps in evaluating chronic inflammation cases.

 When should I undergo the Immunoglobulin G Test?

If you are noticing any of the symptoms listed below, it is highly recommended to go for the Immunoglobulin G Test.

– Sinus infections and other respiratory infections
– Gastrointestinal infections
– Ear infections
– Pneumonia
– Bronchitis
– Infections resulting in a sore throat

What are the preparations needed for the Immunoglobulin G Test?

There are no specific preparations needed for conducting this test.

– There is no requirement for fasting.
– There is no addition of any new medication needed.
– The medications which are already in use need no to be stopped.

What is the procedure of the blood test for Immunoglobulin G Test?

The Immunoglobulin G test is carried out using a blood sample which is collected by the process of venipuncture. The procedure is as follows:

A tourniquet is wrapped around the upper arm to make the veins more prominent. A syringe or needle is used to draw blood by puncturing the vein. The blood is drawn into the tube of the syringe.

The tourniquet is unwrapped. An antiseptic is applied to the spot of venipuncture to avoid any infection. The spot of injection of the syringe is dabbed by a cotton swab or a bandage is put to stop any further bleeding.

The blood sample is then sent to the laboratory for the Immunoglobulin G test. In the case of infants, the blood sample is collected from the heels of the infant with a simple pinprick.

What is the procedure of the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) test for Immunoglobulin G Test?

The procedure of collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid includes:
 
You will have to lie down on your side with the knees pulled closer to your chest and the chin bent downwards. The CSF can also be collected while you are sitting bent forward. The practitioner then applies a numbing cream or inject a numbing medicine(anaesthesia) in the lower back of the spinal cord.

Once the area on your back is completely numb, a needle or a syringe is injected in between two vertebrae of the spinal cord. The CSF is collected inside the tube of the syringe. It can take about five minutes.
You need to stay still as the cerebrospinal fluid is being withdrawn.

As the CSF is collected, the area of the puncture is cleaned and bandaged. You might be asked to lie down on your back for an hour or two after the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) sample collection. This will help you avoid getting any headache afterwards.
 

What are the risks of Immunoglobulin G blood Test?

There are no risks related to this test. The procedure of blood collection(venipuncture) might have some risks associated with it:

– Some people feel light-headed and dizzy after the blood is drawn.

– It might cause Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin causing a lump or bruise).

– There might be pain associated with too many punctures for finding a vein.
 

What are the risks of Immunoglobulin G CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) Test?

– Discomfort or pain during the procedure.

– Bleeding into the spinal cord, particularly in people having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).

– Headache as a result of CSF leakage.

– Infection.

– Nerve damage.

What is the price of Immunoglobulin G Test in India?

The price of the Immunoglobulin G test in India ranges from Rs 1000- 3000. It can vary with various locations around the country.

When will I get my results?

You will get your Immunoglobulin G Test within 24 to 36 hours of the test itself.

Age  Clinical reference
0-1 years 231-1411 mg/dL
1-3 years 453-916 mg/dL
4-6 years 504-1464 mg/dL
7-9 years 572-1474 mg/dL
10-11 years 698-1560 mg/dL
12-13 years 759-1549 mg/dL
14-15 years 716-1711 mg/dL
16-19 years705-1680 mg/dL
Older than 19 years 700-1600 mg/dL
According to your age, the abnormalities in the level of the Immunoglobulin G antibody can result in a plethora of severe conditions.

What does it mean if I have high levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies in my blood?

The higher levels of Immunoglobulin G antibodies indicates the following conditions:

– Long-term (chronic) infection, such as HIV.
– IgG multiple myeloma.
– Long-term hepatitis.
Multiple sclerosis.
 

What does it mean if I have lower levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies in my blood?

The lower levels of Immunoglobulin G antibodies indicates the following conditions:

– Macroglobulinemia(A disease in which a higher level of – Immunoglobulin G antibodies stop the growth of the cells producing them).
– Some types of leukaemia.
– Type of kidney damage (nephrotic syndrome).

How to interpret the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) test result for the Immunoglobulin G Test?

If your CSF IgG index shows higher than normal levels, it may indicate the following conditions:

Multiple sclerosis
– Another autoimmune disease, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic infection such as HIV or hepatitis
– Multiple myelomas, cancer that affects white blood cells.

If your IgG index shows lower than normal levels, it may indicate the following condition:
A disorder that weakens the immune system. This disorder prevents the body from fighting against any infection.
If your Immunoglobulin G index results are abnormal, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have a medical condition needing treatment. Results can vary depending on various factors including your age and overall health conditions. The medicines you are taking also influence the CSF IgG results. It is always recommended to consult your doctor as you get the reports. He can suggest other tests if required.

Is the immunoglobulin G test recommended for pregnant women?

Immunoglobulin G Test is highly suggested to a pregnant woman as a part of the routine checkup to assess the levels of the IgG antibodies in the blood. It monitors if the mother has enough antibodies to protect herself and the fetus from any infectious conditions lead by the abnormal levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies in the blood.

Is the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) collection for the immunoglobulin G test safe for the mother and the fetus?

The collection of the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) is completely safe for the mother and the fetus as well at any part of pregnancy. It doesn’t pose any threat of miscarriage.

Is the immunoglobulin G test safe for newborns?

The immunoglobulin G Test is totally safe for the newborns since the test involves just the collection of a blood sample. In the case of newborns, the blood is collected by pinpricking the heels.

When are kids recommended to undergo immunoglobulin G test?

Immunoglobulin G Test is suggested to the kids if the doctor suspects any infections caused by some abnormalities of the levels of Immunoglobulin G antibodies in the blood. This test is recommended especially for kids having recurrent infections.

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