Apert Syndrome

Apert syndrome

Overview

Apert syndrome is a congenital disorder identifiable by birth defects such as an abnormal form of the head and webbed condition of the hands and feet. It is quite rare and estimates of its incidence vary somewhat, with recent studies placing it between 1 in 65,000 and 1 in 88,000 live births.

Asian populations display the highest incidence while Hispanics are found to have the lowest. This disorder can affect both males and females in equal numbers and has no known cure at present.  Scientists believe that it arises due to the occurrence of a rare genetic mutation. This means that Apert syndrome is a potentially heritable condition. Yet, in most cases, the mutation arises randomly or ‘sporadically’. Apert syndrome derives its name from that of the French physician, Eugene Apert, who produced detailed case studies of this condition.

 

What Is Apert Syndrome?

Apert Syndrome chromosomesApert syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that involves premature fusing of the skull bones during the development of the fetus. This results in a distorted skull shape impairing the normal growth of the brain. As the brain continues to grow within this restricted space, unable to expand normally towards the front and back, it begins to push outwards sideways. This puts pressure on the bones of the skull and face, resulting in further malformations.

Babies with Apert syndrome also usually display an abnormal fusion of the bones in the hands and feet with noticeably webbed fingers and toes. They may also have extra fingers or toes, although this is rare. Congenital organ defects such as those in the heart can also be present. Since the initial growth of the brain is affected due to abnormal development of the skull, intellectual disability is common. However, cognitive function can also be normal in some cases.

 

What Is Responsible For It?

A gene known as FGFR2 is responsible for the formation of bone cells and the subsequent development of bone structure. A certain mutation arising in this gene is found to be the primary cause of Apert syndrome. This mutation could potentially be triggered by environmental factors. It arises spontaneously and randomly in most instances but can also be inherited. There is a 50% probability of an affected individual passing on the defective mutation to their offspring and in such cases, the risk is seen to increase with parental age.

 

What Are The Indications of Apert Syndrome?

Apert syndrome Several of the symptoms of Apert syndrome appear as a result of the malformation of the skull which affects hearing, vision, cognitive ability and respiratory function among others. The following signs are generally observed in individuals born with this disorder:

  • Distorted shape of the head and face owing to the abnormal fusion of skull bones. The head has a typically ‘peaked’ appearance, flatter at the back and with a high forehead.
  • Sunken and asymmetric face.
  • The nose has a bulbous tip.
  • The upper jaw is tilted backward with the result that the lower teeth usually project further forward than the upper ones.
  • Narrow and arched palate. A cleft palate is present in about 30% of instances.
  • A delayed or ectopic eruption of teeth. The teeth are generally positioned close together in the mouth.
  • Webbed hands and feet because of the partial or complete fusion of bones in these limbs.
  • Thumbs and big toes may be abnormally thick.
  • A common nail spanning multiple fingers or toes.
  • Bulging, sometimes crossed eyes, set wider apart than usual. The eyelids do not close all the way and tilt downwards. There may be problems with vision.
  • Even when born with normal birth weight and length, the individual will eventually display short stature due to the slowing down of growth rate.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Brittle nails.
  • Excessive wrinkling of forehead skin.
  • Severe acne, especially during puberty.
  • The fusing of the spinal bones, mainly in the cervical region.
  • Impaired intellectual development.
  • Noisy breathing and snoring.
  • Recurrent ear or sinus infections.
  • Hearing impairment.
  • Holes in the ventricular walls of the heart.
  • The testicles may fail to descend in males and in females, the vagina may be blocked.

 

What Are The Possible Complications?

Since a number of organs and organ systems can be affected in those born with Apert syndrome, the range of possible complications is accordingly diverse. For instance, the severe buildup of pressure within the skull can eventually result in mental retardation. The eyes, being located in shallow sockets, can develop problems with vision such as blurring. The cleft palate can be responsible for frequent ear infections. Cardiovascular defects such as Fallot’s tetralogy may be present and this is potentially fatal.

 

What Tests Are Needed To Diagnose Apert Syndrome?

apert syndrome skull bonesApert syndrome can be detected prior to birth with the help of techniques such as fetoscopy or ultrasound. Obtaining fetal DNA samples can help confirm the diagnosis. Although it is possible, such prenatal diagnosis is not common.

The physical characteristics of this condition are usually clearly apparent at birth and aid in a prompt diagnosis. The abnormal skull development typical of this condition is also observed in other disorders such as Crouzon’s syndrome, Carpenter syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. However, the fusion of bones in the hands and feet is distinctive of Apert syndrome and can assist in distinguishing it from the other diseases mentioned above.

Genetic testing helps confirm the diagnosis. X-rays, computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help further understand skeletal abnormalities in the skull, vertebrae, hands, and feet as well as congenital heart defects. Psychometric and hearing assessment must also be conducted.

 

Treatment and Prevention

Treatment – Apert syndrome has no known cure. Surgery to correct the abnormal connection between bones is the main treatment for Apert syndrome.

  • Craniosynostosis release (release of skull bone fusion). Here surgery is done to separate the abnormally fused skull bones and partially rearrange some of them. This is done when the child is between 6-8 months.
  • Midface advancement – As the child with Apert syndrome grows, the facial bones again become misaligned. Surgery is done by cutting the bones in the cheeks and jaw to bring forward into a more normal position. This surgery is done when the child is between 4-6 years-old.
  • Hypertelorism correction (correction of wide-set eyes). This surgery is done to remove a wedge of bone in the skull between the eyes. The surgeon brings the eye sockets closer and may adjust the jaw.

Prevention – There is no current known prevention of Apert syndrome.

  • Individuals who have Apert syndrome may meet with genetic counselors to learn about the risk of having children with the disorder.
  • If one parent has Apert syndrome, there is a 50% chance of passing it on to their child.
  • Prenatal screening and diagnosis may be done to determine if a mother’s fetus has the Apert syndrome.

Facts

  • Apert syndrome is also called acrocephalosyndactylia.
  • It was first described by Wheaton in 1894 and further investigated by Eugene Apert.

Facts

  • The term ‘acrocephalosyndactylia’ is derived from the Greek words, ‘acro’ meaning ‘peak’, peaked head syndrome, ‘cephalo’ also meaning peaked head and ‘syndactyly’ meaning webbing of fingers and toes.
  • Apert syndrome is known to affect 1 in 165,000-200,000 new born.

Facts

  • Most children with this condition have delayed developmental milestone, though this varies from child to child.
  • Based on a study in London, UK, it was concluded that all the children with Apert syndrome had mild or moderate visual field loss in both eyes. The reason for this has not been determined yet.

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Make sure that your child is breathing well as an immediate priority.
  • Ensure that your child has proper dental care and bite alignment.
  • Provide your child with proper medication and treatment from doctors specializing in Apert syndrome.
Don'ts
  • Neglect your child’s mental health as it this disease can make children feel segregated from others.
  • Neglect any authentic and necessary surgery.
  • Ignore the possibilities of related disorders.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a particular liver enzyme…
Vitamin K2: 8 reasons why you need this bone-building & cancer-fighting nutrient Vitamin K2 is claimed to be essential for your bone health, for reducing the risk of cancer, and…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are non-invasive breathing tests employed for diagnosing and monitoring lung diseases such as bronchitis
anti-thyroglobulin antibody
Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody test Anti-thyrogloubin antibody test measures the level of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cells and are hence indicative…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
abdominal-CT-scan- image
Abdominal CT scan Abdominal CT scan is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides a clear picture of the state of internal…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin. Find easy and…
rubella IgG test
Rubella IgG Test The rubella IgG test is a blood test that checks for the rubella virus IgG antibodies present in…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
Stye : The best natural home remedies to ease the pain Styes developing inside the eyelid tend to be more painful whereas external styes are less painful and ooze…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test is used to measure and monitor the levels of folic acid in the blood. The…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body is infected by…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help you combat the…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each spoonful you are…
Chromium Picolinate: An essential mineral supplement for faster weight loss Did you know that about 1.6 million deaths were directly linked to diabetes globally? How is it linked…
IGE test
IgE test – Immunoglobulin E IgE or immunoglobulin E test is a test that measures the level of IgE in the blood and…
hlab27 test
HLA-B27 test The HLA-B27 is a blood test that is used to determine the level of a particular protein called…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
Ferritin blood test
Ferritin Test Ferritin test is a blood test that provides vital information on the level of RBCs and iron in…
RHEUMATOID_FACTOR_(RF)
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Rheumatoid factor or RF is a blood test used to diagnose painful joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis…
serum zinc test
Serum Zinc Test The serum zinc test is a blood test performed to assess the zinc level in the blood (serum)…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
POSTPRANDIAL-BLOOD-SUGAR
Post-Prandial Blood Sugar Postprandial blood sugar test is an important diabetes diagnosing tool. This simple blood test measure the level of…
How do neutrophils protect you from fatal bacterial attacks? During an infection, certain enzymes alert the mature neutrophils.  Neutrophils then travel through the bloodstream to the affected…
bilirubin-test-result
Bilirubin Test Bilirubin is a substance produced in the body as a result of red blood cell breakdown. A bilirubin…
serum electrolyte test
Serum Electrolyte If there is an electrolyte imbalance in the body, a serum electrolyte test will help to find out…
HELICOBACTER_PYLORI---IgG
Helicobacter Pylori – IgG Test Helicobacter pylori IgG test is a blood, saliva, and urine test performed to determine if the patien is…
Free T3 test
Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) Test The free triiodothyronine or FT3 test is an important blood test that is used to detect the level…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test involves detecting and measuring the presence of the IgG class of beta…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does our poop turn…
Poop chart: Top things you didn’t you your poop could reveal about you Bristol poop chart was designed during the 1990s in order to help doctors identify various types of poops…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
How accurate is the hair follicle drug test? Hair follicle drug test is one of the best ways to identify drug use in professional circles. But…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
Bubble Tea: Bubbling with nutrition or a hidden sugar mine? The tapioca pearls present in the tea looks like bubbles and hence the name bubble tea became popular.…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the three important functions…
Bronchoscopy procedure
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure where in a scope is inserted into the lung pathway to observe any growth…
EMA antibodies
Endomysial Antibodies (EMA) Test EMA test is an investigative blood examination to locate the presence of certain antibodies, called Endomysial antibodies or…
TPAB test
Treponema Pallidum Antibody(TPAB) test Treponema pallidum bacteria a gram-negative bacteria that has helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, responsible for STDs such as syphilis.
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
Silicon Dioxide: How can a component of sand be essential to your wellbeing? Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the nature. Find out how silicon dioxide can prove…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of RBCs, WBCs, etc…
lipid-profile
Lipid Profile Lipid profile is a blood test that provides complete information on how much cholesterol is present in the…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
Tamarind: The top health benefits of this staple Asian ingredient Did you know this sweet and sour pulpy fruit does more than just add a tangy flavor to…
Hydroquinone: Is it the best topical treatment for hyperpigmentation? Darkening of the skin due to high melanin levels is called hyperpigmentation.  Hydroquinone interferes with melanin production thus treating…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in the bloodstream in…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket The dragon fruit is packed with nutrients and yet low on calories and is the dream food that…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
arterial-blood-gas
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Arterial blood gas analysis is a diagnostic procedure used to determine the volume of oxygen and carbon dioxide…
free thyroxine ft4
Free thyroxine test (FT4) The FT4 or free thyroxine test is a blood test used to detect the level of free thyroixine…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…
Microneedling: Does this cosmetic procedure live up to the hype? Is microneedling a safe and painless procedure? How can pricking your skin with a series of pins help…
What is the right way to take a pregnancy test? A pregnancy test is undertaken to determine if you have conceived. A home pregnancy test is the most…
Inversion Therapy: The anti-gravity way of healing chronic back pain Inversion therapy involves suspending a person upside dow using different types of equipment. This works by taking the…
Crossfit with rope
CrossFit: Now get the perfectly sculpted body with this explosive gym routine CrossFit is a fitness regimen that makes use of high-intensity exercises in a shorter period to achieve muscle…
EEG
Electroencephalogram – EEG EEG or electroencephalogram is a diagnostic tool used to access the functioning of neurons and brain activity to…
Chest X-Ray A chest x-ray is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to visualize the structures inside your chest. It…
Cystoscopy Cystoscopy is intended to look at the abnormalities in the ureters, bladder, and urethra, to assist surgeries performed…
Helicobacter pylori IGA
Helicobacter Pylori – IgA Test The H.pylori IgA test is a blood test used to identify the level of IgA antigen in the…
random blood sugar test
Random Blood Sugar Test The random blood sugar or RBS test is a blood test prescribed mainly to check the level of…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential for a healthy…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance: How common diseases become deadly Can a cold kill you? How important is to get a flu shot? Why do antibiotics fail against…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
Horny Goat Weed: Can it improve libido in human beings too? This plant got its name as Horny Goat Weed when one of the goats feeding on the plant…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of health benefits. Discover…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an inexplicable emotional numbness…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the potatoes) growing close…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself is a detoxifying…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
Vitamin-D-blood-test
25-Hydroxy Vitamin D test 25-hydroxy Vitamin D test is a blood test used to measure the level of vitamin D in the…
erythropoetin test
Erythropoietin (EPO) Test Erythropoetin stimulates the production of RBCs in bone marrow thus an erythropoetin test is done to diagnose blood…
cardiolipin antibody igm
Cardiolipin Antibody (ACL) –IgM Test The types of cardiolipin antibodies are the IgG, IgA and IgM types and this particular test measures the…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
Pumpkin Seeds: Why pumpkins are more than just for pies! Pumpkins have been long associated with Halloween carvings and delicious pies. But did you know that pumpkin seeds…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your survival. However, these…
avocado benefits
Avocado: 15 reasons why this fruit should be a staple in your diet Did you know that the word avocado literally means "testicles". Don't get grossed out as this power-packed fruit…
Cordyceps: How the Caterpillar fungus works as a proven cancer-shield Strange as it may sound, but cordyceps or "caterpillar fungus", a fungus variety native to the Himalayas may…
Pescatarian Diet 101: What are the inherent health advantages of this diet? People opt to become a pescatarian in order to enrich their bodies with the essential health benefits that…
Colloidal silver benefits
Colloidal silver: An essential dietary supplement or yet another pharmaceutical hoax? Colloidal silver is hailed as an effective home remedy for infections. Many believe it can treat HIV and…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption of these could…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid when you experience…
Why calendula extract ought to be part of your personal health kit? Calendula officinalis, or pot marigold, is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family that are…
EMG electromyography
EMG- Electromyography EMG detects the presence, location, and extent of diseases that damage the nerves such motor neuron disease. Electromyography…