Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia (HPV)

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Overview of cervical dysplasia

The cervix is an integral part of a woman’s reproductive system. It lubricates the vagina at the time of sex. It maintains the position of the fetus in the womb in the pregnancy period. Several factors may cause structural. All these factors can collectively contribute to major diseases of the cervix. One such disease which is common in the elderly women is- “Cervical Dysplasia”. The American Cancer Society has recently reported that nearly 13% of women suffer from this disease in the United States alone.  Many of these women develop cervical cancer in future. Around 2,70,000 people die out of cervical cancer in the United States each year.

 

What is cervical dysplasia?

Cervical dysplasiaCervical dysplasia (sometimes called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) is the pathological condition in which abnormal cells are present on the surface of the cervix. It is usually mediated by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).

It is a pre-cancerous state. Majority of cervical dysplasia cases lead to cervical cancer. Lesions that are formed in this disease may exhibit any of the three features- regression (resolve on their own), persistence (state of lesions remains constant) and progression (lesions develop into cancer). It normally affects the genital region, mainly the vagina, vulva, anus, and cervix.

Statistics by the American Cancer Society prove that nearly 75% of the population actively engaged in sexual activities are susceptible to infections by the HPV virus and may develop cervical dysplasia in future.

 

Causes of cervical dysplasia

The primary causative agent is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). There are several other factors which cause dysplasia. The general causes of the disease are discussed below-

  • Infection: Infections caused by the HPV virus may occur via skin-to-skin contact or sexual interactions that may lead to cervical dysplasia. This may be caused by any of the 100 strains of the HPV virus. Genital warts and pre-cancerous lesions are seen in many cases. Chlamydia infection accounts for cervical dysplasia in numerous cases.
  • Sexual activities: Unprotected sexual intercourse (anal or vaginal) with an infected partner can increase risks of cervical dysplasia. Past occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases can exacerbate the situation. Polygamous sex and sexual activities from a young age can contribute to the disease.
  • Immune suppression: Women suffering from autoimmune diseases or HIV infections have high risks of developing cervical dysplasia. The condition worsens with the drop in the count of CD4+ cells in the body.
  • Substance abuse: Excess alcohol and tobacco can impact the health of cervical cells. High quantities of harmful chemicals are present in the cervical fluids in this disease. This may lead to cervical dysplasia.
  • Childbirth: Women who give birth at a very young age (below 22 years) can have cervical dysplasia. Women who have 3 or more children are prone to the disease.
  • Medications: Several over-the-counter drugs (corticosteroids or androgenic drugs) can damage the cervical cells. Use of birth control pills or fertility drugs (Diethylstilbestrol) for a long time can increase risks of cervical dysplasia.
  • Genetics: History of cervical dysplasia in the family can increase risks of the disease in the future generations as well.
  • Deficiency: Absence of essential vitamins and micronutrients in regular diet can lead to deficiencies in the body and reduce the body’s capacity to fight infections. These conditions may lead to cervical dysplasia in many cases.
  • Obesity: Obese people often suffer from Adenocarcinoma of the cervix. This condition is preceded by cervical dysplasia in most of the cases.

 

Symptoms of cervical dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia stagesIdentification of the signs and symptoms of cervical dysplasia is necessary for early detection and treatment. The most common symptoms are as follows-

  • Rashes and lesions on the genitals, anus or adjoining skin
  • Skin outgrowths (resembling cauliflower) around the anus or the genital region
  • The dampness of skin in the affected regions
  • Constant itching and irritation in the affected region (anus, vagina, vulva)
  • Painful intercourse accompanied by bleeding
  • Prolonged menstrual periods with abnormally heavy bleeding
  • Bleeding in between consecutive menstrual cycles
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • Pain in lower abdomen that may radiate to lower back
  • Vaginal bleeding after menopause and pelvic examination
  • Swollenness and pain in legs
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fatigue

 

Types of cervical dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia or Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) has a few sub-types, that depend on the stage of infection-

  • CIN 1: In this type, low-grade lesions and cellular changes occur in the lower part (one-third) of the epithelium (basal epithelium). The medical dictionary terms it as “mild dysplasia”. It is self-limiting in nature (resolves within one year).
  • CIN II: In this disease, high-grade lesions and cellular changes take place in the lower part (two-thirds) of the basal epithelium. Doctors call it “moderate dysplasia”.
  • CIN III: High-grade lesions are present in the epithelium. The other name for this disease is “severe dysplasia”. Pre-cancerous cells are present in many cases. The abnormal cells do not spread beyond the basement membrane. The cervical tissue starts to degenerate.

 

Diagnosis

Accurate diagnosis of cervical dysplasia prevents the disease to progress to cervical cancer. Doctors recommend some mandatory tests for cervical diseases-

  • Pap-smear test: It is the most popular test. It detects the presence of cancerous or pre-cancerous cells in the cervix.
  • Colposcopy: The purpose of this test is the full examination of the vulva, vagina, and cervix.
  • Cervical biopsy: This test checks for abnormal cells and tissues in and around the cervix.

 

Treatment and prevention

Cervical dysplasia (HPV)Treatment – Most women with mild dysplasia will undergo spontaneous regression without any treatment.

  • Cryosurgery (freezing) – Here liquid nitrogen is used to destroy the precancerous cells in the cervix.
  • Electrocauterization – Here electric current is used to remove abnormal tissues or minimize the bleeding in the cervix.
  • Laser surgery – The carbon dioxide laser uses a small beam of light to destroy abnormal cells. This can usually be done with minimal discomfort to the patient.
  • Loop excision – This treatment method is also called LLETZ or LEEP, this method uses a loop with electrical energy passing through it to remove the abnormal part of the cervix.
  • Cone biopsy – This method removes a cone-shaped or cylindrical-shaped piece of the cervix.

Prevention – Women can lower the risk of cervical dysplasia by:

  • High-risk sexual behavior associated with HPV infections.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Get the HPV vaccinations – Gardasil, Gardasil-9, and Cervarix.
  • In case you are pregnant get a pelvic scan and an STI test is done to get it treated so that it does not pass on to the baby.
  • Both boys and girls must get vaccinated by the age of 11-12 before they become sexually active.
  • Those between 13-26 who have not been vaccinated should get vaccinated as well.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Use a condom during sexual intercourse as it reduces the chances of getting HPV.
  • Go to the doctor in case of vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, unusual vaginal discharge, or pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Get a regular pelvic exam done.
Don'ts
  • Indulge in smoking and excess alcohol consumption.
  • Have multiple sexual partners.
  • Practice unprotected sex.

 

 

 

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ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a particular liver enzyme…
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in the bloodstream in…
Pescatarian Diet 101: What are the inherent health advantages of this diet? People opt to become a pescatarian in order to enrich their bodies with the essential health benefits that…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
PREGNANCY
Pregnancy During pregnancy, the body undergoes a number of biological and physical changes to accommodate and provide for the…
Vitamin b12
Vitamin B12 Test Vitamin b12 is an essential nutrient required for healthy functioning of the nervous system and also development of…
Gua sha: Scraping away layers of pain with this ancient healing tool Gua sha is an ancient oriental healing method which focuses on scraping the body with specific tools to…
Helicobacter pylori IGA
Helicobacter Pylori – IgA Test The H.pylori IgA test is a blood test used to identify the level of IgA antigen in the…
Top reasons why you need to pay attention to your vitamin B6 intake Vitamin B6- An essential water-soluble vitamin. Its deficiency leads to physical changes such as sores & glossy tongue…
Threatened abortion
A few facts about threatened abortion A threatened miscarriage indicates an early pregnancy loss. Look out for symptoms like bleeding, vaginal discharge, and pain.
blood ketone test
Blood Ketone (D3HB) Test The Blood Ketone Test measures and monitors the levels of ketone in the blood which is usually performed…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
Hepatitis A virus infected liver
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Total Blood test to look for IgM antibodies to know if you are infected with Hepatitis A virus (HAV),…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
tonometry
Tonometry Tonometry uses a device called tonometer to measure the pressure inside the eye. This pressure is depends upon…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
6 arguments in favour of glucosamine and where can you find it Studies have shown that glucosamine works by preventing the breakdown of cartilage of the joints. This is usually…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
piles
Best treatment for piles in Bangalore All you need to know about piles and piles treatment in Bangalore - the types of treatment available,…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
creatinine
Creatinine Test The level of creatinine in the blood is a significant indicator of the health of your kidneys. This…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…
General adaptation syndrome: Understanding stress, one step at a time The struggle of the body to produce hormones during a stressful situation is the main theme of general…
immunoglobulin M
Immunoglobulin M Test Immunoglobulin M is the largest and the first produced antibody which helps in the prevention or fighting of…
C-Reactive Protein Test A CRP or c-reactive protein blood test is an important diagnostic tool used to determine the risk of…
Exercises or diet? Find out the healthiest way to gain weight Tired of being called skinny all the time? Looking for healthy ways to beef up? Why not try…
labiaplasty
Labiaplasty Labiaplasty is a surgical procedure to modify the labia minora and the labia majora. Learn about who can…
kidney stones
Kidney stones Kidney stones are solid substances made up of crystals. They can be of various sizes. Treatment depend on…
castor oil hair
Castor oil : A vitamin-rich oil for shiny locks and healthy bowels Castor oil bestows unlimited benefits, whether you use it for your hair or skin. But did you know…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
lp-pla2
LP-PLA2 Test The LP-PLA2 test is a test which is carried out to assess the levels of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2…
anoscopy
Anoscopy Anoscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure where a small device known as anoscope will be inserted in the…
Appendix pain: Recent findings on this not-so vestigial organ The exact function of the appendix is still not clear. Some consider it as an organ that once…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
lose weight fast
12 easy and instant steps to successful weight loss Do you want to lose weight without losing your mind? Does weight loss always mean saying goodbye to…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…
free testosterone test
Free testosterone Free Testosterone Test measures and monitors the level of the free testosterone in the blood. Less than 4%…
toxo gondii igm test
Toxo Gondii-IgM Test The toxo gondii IgM test is a blood test that tells the presence or absence of toxoplasmosis IgM…
avocado benefits
Avocado: 15 reasons why this fruit should be a staple in your diet Did you know that the word avocado literally means "testicles". Don't get grossed out as this power-packed fruit…
Crossfit with rope
CrossFit: Now get the perfectly sculpted body with this explosive gym routine CrossFit is a fitness regimen that makes use of high-intensity exercises in a shorter period to achieve muscle…
Is it possible to achieve full body detox with Master Cleanse? Master cleanse is a diet consisting of a lemonade based beverage, a salt water drink and a herbal…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
Hymenoplasty
Hymenoplasty Read on to find out all about hymenoplasty, the procedure, post-surgery care, the risks, and the benefits.
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
Goji berry: A traditional Chinese berry that packs the best of antioxidants Goji berry is an ancient berry that is considered to be power-packed with nutrients and antioxidants. Which means…

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