Hypocalcemia


The role of calcium

Calcium is one of the minerals found as an electrolyte in your blood. But only less than 1% is present there and in extracellular fluid, muscles, and other tissues. Here it plays a major rule in vascular contraction and dilation, muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and nerve transmission. About 99% of it is in an uncharged state (deposited and forming your bones and teeth).

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. It combines with phosphorus to form your bones and teeth. It is biologically very important as it is required for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and also participates in several enzymatic processes.

A normal, healthy teenager will have blood calcium levels that are a little over 10 mg/Dl. The highest blood calcium levels are seen between the ages 15 and 25. As you get older, calcium levels tend to decrease. A healthy patient in his 60s will have a calcium level in the 9s.

The states of calcium

Calcium is present in the blood in unbound and bound states. In the bound state, it exists in binding with albumin. Protein-bound calcium merely acts as a reserve source of calcium and has no active function in the body. In the unbound state, it acts as an electrolyte and helps in the vital functions of the body. Hypocalcemia is a medical condition in which there is a deficiency of unbound calcium. Therefore, it is important to measure the amount of unbound calcium in the blood, when the blood serum test is done. Unbound calcium also has an electrical charge, which is why it is also referred to as ionized calcium.

The role of Vitamin D

A transcellular pathway involves the transfer of solutes through epithelial cells instead of around them through intercellular spaces (paracellular pathway).

Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium absorption in the duodenum and upper jejunum. It mediates the active transcellular pathway for the absorption of calcium. Research suggests that the calcium-binding protein calbindin-D9k helps to facilitate calcium diffusion through the cell.

The paracellular pathway

There is also a passive paracellular pathway for the absorption of calcium. The paracellular pathway traverses the entire length of the intestine, predominates the distal regions. It also does not require Vitamin D for the absorption of calcium. The intake of calcium activates the passive absorption pathway.

Other substances that also help in calcium absorption

Other substances that enable calcium absorption or increase its bioavailability are lactose and casein phosphopeptides in milk. Estrogen, in women, also aids in calcium absorption. The absorption of calcium in the bowel and the reabsorption in the kidney is estrogen-dependent.

Factors affecting calcium absorption

The absorption of calcium is crucial in determining calcium intake or whether the preferred mode of calcium intake is actually helping. The factors affecting calcium intake are:

  • Amount consumed: As the intake increases, the absorption efficiency is reduced.
  • Age: Net calcium absorption is 60% in infants and young children because they need substantial amounts of calcium to build their bones. Absorption is decreased to 15–20% in adults (though it increases during pregnancy) and continues to decrease as people age.
  • Vitamin D: The intake of Vitamin D either as supplements or when produced under the skin in the presence of direct sunlight improves calcium absorption.
  • Other components: Phytic acid and oxalic acid found in plants can bind to the calcium and inhibit its absorption in the body.

Blood test to measure calcium level in the body

There are two types of blood tests to measure the level of calcium in your body.

  • A total calcium test measures the levels of both free and bound calcium. It is ordered by doctors most often.
  • An ionized calcium test, which measures the level of only free calcium.

What is hypocalcemia?

A deficiency of calcium in the bloodstream leads to a disease called hypocalcemia. The normal level of calcium in the bloodstream is 4.5-5.5 mEq/L. Other diseases associated with calcium deficiency are osteopenia and osteoporosis.

Measure of hypocalcemia

A measure of blood serum albumin is necessary to identify hypocalcemia. True hypocalcemia involves a reduction in total ionized calcium. Factitious hypocalcemia on the other hand only denotes a reduction in the total calcium in the blood serum.

How is hypocalcemia diagnosed?

The first step as described above is to determine the calcium levels in your blood. A physical exam, which includes a study of your hair, muscles and skin, may be followed by a mental examination. The mental examination for hypocalcemia involves checking for:

  • Dementia
  • Hallucinations
  • Irritability
  • Confusion

Chvostek’s and Trousseau’s Signs

The doctor may also check for Chvostek’s and Trousseau’s signs which indicated acute hypocalcemia. Chvostek’s sign is evidenced by a twitching response when a set of facial nerves is tapped. Trousseau’s sign is a twitching or spasm that is produced because of a restriction of blood supply to the tissues.

Causes of Hypocalcemia

A number of factors cause calcium deficiency. The most common cause of hypocalcemia is hypoparathyroidism, which occurs when the body secretes a less-than-average amount of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Low PTH levels lead to lower calcium levels in the body because PTH is the hormone that regulates the level of calcium in the body. Hypoparathyroidism is caused by the removal of the parathyroid gland from the body.

The other causes of hypocalcemia are:

  • Poor calcium intake, especially in childhood and sustained over a long period of time
  • Lactose intolerance or intolerance towards foods rich in calcium
  • Lower levels of Vitamin D, making it harder to absorb calcium
  • Medications, such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampin, corticosteroids, and drugs that are used to treat elevated calcium levels
  • Pancreatitis
  • Septic shock
  • Massive blood transfusions
  • Renal failure (predominant in adults)
  • Hypermagnesemia and hypomagnesemia
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Certain chemotherapy drugs
  • Hormonal changes, especially in women, which lead to lower levels of estrogen
  • Certain genetic factors
  • Smoking can also lower the estrogen levels and in turn lead to calcium deficiency.

Risk Factors for Hypocalcemia

The following people are at a risk of developing hypocalcemia

  • Those with a history of gastrointestinal disorders
  • Women over the age of 50
  • Children who are premature and especially those born to diabetic mothers
  • Those suffering from anxiety disorders

Symptoms of Hypocalcemia

Hypocalcemia can present itself as asymptotic in mild cases or as a life-threatening condition in severe cases of hypocalcemia. The symptoms of hypocalcemia are:

Certain psycho-emotional symptoms are also observed in the case of hypocalcemia. They are:

Treatment of hypocalcemia

For the treatment of hypocalcemia, one must distinguish an acute case of hypocalcemia from a chronic case and also an asymptomatic case from a severely symptomatic one. In the case of a chronic case of hypocalcemia, where the condition is well tolerated, treatment must be such that it prevents long-term complications. In the case of an acute case of hypocalcemia, a rapid method of treatment is required. In every case, it is also important to identify the underlying cause for the condition.

Mild Hypocalcemia

Most cases of hypocalcemia are mildly symptomatic and respond well to treatment. In patients with mild hypocalcemia confirm true hypocalcemia. Mild hypocalcemia requires only supportive treatment. There may be further laboratory testing of PTH, if ordered by the doctor. Depending on the PTH level, the doctor may order testing for Vitamin D levels.

Severe Hypocalcemia

IV replacement is recommended in symptomatic or severe hypocalcemia with cardiac arrhythmias or tetany. Doses of calcium chloride or calcium gluconate (both of which are rich in elemental calcium) are administered. Calcium chloride delivers 3 times the elemental calcium that is delivered by calcium gluconate, but it must be used with caution. Calcium chloride must also be administered via central venous access (i.e., access to a large vein in the body).

In addition, oral calcium and Vitamin D treatment must be started early. Treatment with calcium and vitamin D for 1-2 days prior to parathyroid surgery may also help prevent the development of severe hypocalcemia.

Chronic Hypocalcemia

The treatment of chronic hypocalcemia also involves identifying the cause. Both hypoparathyroidism (where the body is unable to make enough parathyroid hormone) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (where the body is not able to respond to the parathyroid hormone) can be managed initially with oral calcium supplements.

Dietary Recommendations for Calcium Intake in Children

The dietary recommendations for children according to the health experts from HHS and USDA are mentioned below:

Age Group (in years)FemaleMale
1-3700700
4-810001000
9-1313001300
14-1813001300

As the ability to absorb calcium (which is as high as 60% in infants) drops, there is a need to increase calcium intake with age. This explains the recommendations.

Dietary Recommendations for Calcium Intake in Adults

According to the health experts from USDA and HHS, the dietary recommendations for the intake of calcium in adults are:

Age GroupFemaleMale
19-3010001000
31-5010001000
51+12001000

There is a drop in recommended calcium intake because the bone formation is near complete by the age of 19 and over, and therefore a steady intake of 1000 mg is recommended. With the increase in age beyond 50, however, in women, the risk of osteoporosis is higher and therefore the increased intake suggested for women.

How to improve calcium levels

The following tips will help to improve the levels of calcium in your blood.

  • Include dairy products in your diet. Choose from milk, cheese, yogurt, or milk-based custard. Research has shown that dairy products help increase calcium levels in the body in a much better way because of the presence of lactose.
  • Leafy green vegetables are good for you. Include a serve of broccoli, cabbage, or spinach during both lunch and dinner every day.
  • Eat foods rich in vitamin D. Fatty fish like salmon or tuna, mushrooms, and egg yolks contain vitamin D. Vitamin D can also be obtained by regular exposure in the sun, but make sure you have got that sunscreen on.
  • Eat more of fresh fish. If you cannot get fresh fish, eat tinned fish such as sardines or salmon that have their bones left in.
  • Replacing the meat in your meals with tofu or tempeh also helps to reduce the saturated fats in your diet and this, in turn, improves calcium levels.
  • Snack on calcium-rich nuts like almonds or Brazil nuts. Keep a container of nuts and seeds with you and have a small handful as a daily snack.
  • Reduce your intake of caffeine, soft drinks, and alcohol. They all inhibit calcium absorption and should be used in moderation.
  • Sprinkle sesame seeds over vegetables or salads. Sesame seeds are easy to include in all meals and are high in calcium.
  • Try calcium-fortified foods for a more healthy breakfast. Some breads, cereals and even milk are now calcium fortified.
  • Educate your children on the importance of dairy products in their diets. Substitute soymilk with regular milk and if that doesn’t work add calcium to the soymilk.
  • Lactose-free yogurts will still help you if you are lactose intolerant. These products also have calcium in them.

Final Words

Hypocalcemia is a condition resulting from a deficiency of calcium. Calcium is a mineral that is most abundant in the body and it is the change in a 1% of it that affects the body severely. Our body is therefore highly sensitive to calcium. It is important to understand this and include calcium in your diet every day. If you are unable to do so or are unable to find a suitable diet, please use calcium supplements. They evidently work the same magic with less pain!

Facts

  • The incidence of ionized hypocalcemia is difficult to quantify.
  • In a study conducted in 2011-2014, the incidence of transient hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy (thyroid removal) was 27% and that of permanent hypocalcemia was 1%.

Facts

  • Hypocalcemia can be caused by a lack of vitamin D.
  • Most cases of hypocalcemia have no symptoms.

Facts

  • Death is rare in hypocalcemia but has been reported in some cases (data not available).
  • Both lab tests and imaging are always required for the detection of hypocalcemia

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

Test Your Knowledge

Welcome to your Nutrient Deficiency Quiz

What type of sun rays help synthesize vitamin D?
Which disorder is characterized by inability to speak in certain social situations?
Beriberi is caused by the lack of this micronutrient-
Can stuttering be genetic?
Which of these vitamins are needed for calcium absorption by the body?
What is scoliosis?
People with darker skin are more prone to vitamin D deficiency.
If you have thiamine deficiency, which of these should you avoid consuming with your thiamine rich diet?
Which of the following is a speech disorder that affects the pronunciation of letters like s, z, r?
Consumption of mushrooms exposed to UVB rays help with low vitamin D levels.

Take the full quiz

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Let your doctor know of any recent medications when presenting with hypocalcemia.
  • Increase your vitamin D and lactose intake along with calcium intake for better results.
Don'ts
  • Take medications that reduce calcium levels without consulting your doctor.
  • Take calcium supplements without reading warnings and recommended dose.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

anal sex
Anal Sex : Tips from experts on how to be kinky yet safe Whether it irks you or stokes your fantasies, anal sex has always been an intriguing sexual act. Learn…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
Penis pump: Pump your way out of erectile dysfunction One of the options to treat erectile dysfunction is by the use of a penis pump. It is…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
Top natural diuretics: The instant benefits you can get from nature’s water pills Since diuretic drugs are known to cause side effects, it is better to choose a natural diuretic that…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
Latest findings on Kombucha; a teacup full of yeast and bacteria How can a tea consisting of a live culture of bacteria & fungi be healthy? With Kombucha, you…
about mediterranean diet
Why you should be adopting a Mediterranean style of diet today Ever wondered why the Mediterranean diet is so healthy? One simple solution to lowering risk of several deadliest…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
How can Kegels help you overcome weak pelvic muscles & incontinence? Kegel exercises are pelvic floor strengthening exercises that can help you overcome incontinence issues that rise out of…
Coconut oil woman
Coconut Oil: How one oil dominates the kitchen and the medicine kit too Coconut oil has been a favorite in many Asian kitchens. But more than a cooking oil, coconut oil…
Benefits of exercise: Top reasons why you should be sweating it out more in the gym Are you leading a sedentary life and still not motivated enough to get up from your couch and…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
Melatonin: Fascinating facts on the hormone that brings you the Zzzs Did you know, melatonin - the chemical that puts you to sleep every night is also involved in…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
TRX: Why is this total resistance workout the best choice for your body? TRX or total resistance exercise is a form of exercise where suspension belts are used to produce that…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
eating myths debunked
8 ‘healthy eating’ myths you believed until now Is a zero-carb diet really healthy for you? Are organic products worth their cost? Did you know how…
paleo keto diet
Paleo vs. Keto: Which diet plan is best suited for your body goals? Is eating like a caveman the right way to go? Can you really eat fats to burn fats…
Improve sex life
9 best tips from around the world for better sex life How can the pungent-smelling garlic pack in a punch to your libido? How could something as slimy as…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Hemp Seeds: The actual science behind this controversial crop Inspite of being credited as a superfood, hemp seeds are still shrouded with layers of controversies. Are these…
PiYo (Pilates + Yoga): Bringing you the best of both the worlds PiYo exercise routine was formulated for people who find it tedious and grueling exercise regimens such as extensive…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket The dragon fruit is packed with nutrients and yet low on calories and is the dream food that…
Creatine: Is this the right peak athletic-performance supplement for you? Creatine is the amino acid that boosts our energy. Did you know creatine supplements can help you reach…
erectile dysfunction treatment
Erectile Dysfunction: Effective tips to help you get back on charge Erectile dysfunction is a common male sexual dysfunction. Don't stress out. Just follow these amazing tips to get…
Vitamin B12: The unknown repercussions of this nutrient deficiency Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamine; involved in the development of red blood cells in the bone marrow.…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each spoonful you are…
Lauric Acid: 8 health benefits you can derive from coconuts Appropriate use of saturated fats containing lauric acid can provide you numerous health benefits. This is the main…
Cranberry: Top reasons why you should grow this “superfruit” in your own backyard Cranberry is a favorite among foodies and health enthusiasts alike. Read more on how it can benefit your…
cancer facts
8 hard-hitting truths no one tells you about cancer Did you know that 1.5 million new cases of cancer are reported every year? Can second-hand smoking kill…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know some of the…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of health benefits. Discover…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the potatoes) growing close…
Female Masturbation: Tips on how to turn up the heat during a solo mission As a female, do you find yourself constantly wondering as to what is the best way to please…
Burpees: World’s most challenging fitness routine now made simple for you The majority of the fitness regimens mainly concentrate on a particular muscle group whereas Burpees is s whole…
Surgery or home-remedy; what is the right way to treat a burn The treatment of a burn injury depends on its severity. You can save a life by offering the…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
What is the right way to take a pregnancy test? A pregnancy test is undertaken to determine if you have conceived. A home pregnancy test is the most…
Fibromyalgia fatigue
HCG Diet: The dangers of using this diet to lose weight HCG is a natural hormone produced by both men and women that corresponds to fertility. But how is…
What is the average penis size and why should you care? Scientifically speaking, the average size of the penis depends on numerous factors such as genes, environmental circumstances, etc.
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
Keto diet healthy
Keto Diet: Did you know you could eat fats to burn fats? Keto diet - A wonder diet that lets you eat fats and lose weight too! Read on to…
collagen benefits skin
Collagen: Get age-defying skin and faster hair growth with this miracle protein Collagen – Wrinkle-free skin, stronger nails, and thicker locks – now you have more reasons to eat these…
Isagenix diet
Isagenix Diet: Do you really need liquid meal replacements to lose weight? Isagenix Diet - What are liquid meal replacements and why is the world going ga-ga over them? Are…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an inexplicable emotional numbness…
Anticholinergics: The diverse range of diseases a single drug can easily treat What started as a novel treatment for Parkinson' disease has now become an all-encompassing drug. What all can…
Erythritol: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another marketing ploy? Erythritol is a popular choice of a healthy alternative sweetening agent in foods. But how healthy can a…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid when you experience…
11 unbelievable health benefits of thyme you didn’t know! Thyme is a herb that has been used in alternative medicine.It is a well known seasoning in the…
Orgasms: How to perfect the art of achieving intense bursts of pleasure (every time!) Orgasms are dependent not just on the sexual activity but on your partner as well. What you must…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance: How common diseases become deadly Can a cold kill you? How important is to get a flu shot? Why do antibiotics fail against…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
castor oil hair
Castor oil : A vitamin-rich oil for shiny locks and healthy bowels Castor oil bestows unlimited benefits, whether you use it for your hair or skin. But did you know…
glutamine workout
Glutamine: Why is this the right choice for muscle-gain supplement? Glutamine can help you gain muscles and build higher immunity. Read more to find out how you can…
iron food shellfish
Iron-Rich Foods: Eat these foods to keep fatigue and anemia away! How to ensure a muscles as strong as iron? Eat iron rich foods ! Iron is one of…
black seed oil benefits
Black Seed Oil: What secret benefits could it bestow on your health? Black seeds or nigella seeds are tiny packets of health brimming with amazing benefits. Find out why should…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
calorie counter
Calorie Counter: Count your calories before they flab Is calorie counting good? Are calories always bad for you? How do you if you are getting enough…
Cordyceps: How the Caterpillar fungus works as a proven cancer-shield Strange as it may sound, but cordyceps or "caterpillar fungus", a fungus variety native to the Himalayas may…
L-arginine: Your search for the ultimate fitness booster ends here L-arginine is an amino acid necessary for the body to perform various functions.  It is essential in producing…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption of these could…
The Vegan Diet: The benevolent way of eating that wins hearts (and tummies) The vegan diet involves fauna-friendly outlook towards food. Could the diet that hopes to balance everything based on…
The complete fitness guide on how to perform Tabata This fitness routine is called Tabata workouts, which is named after Dr. Izumi Tabata who developed this intensive…
Burn those years of stubborn fat-deposits with a few minutes of HIIT! HIIT or high-intensity interval training seems to be the right type of fitness training that is required where…