Joint Damage

Joint damage wrist

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Overview of joint damage

Degeneration of musculoskeletal structures is a common occurrence at the onset of old age. They lead to numerous complications and may even cause chronic disability. A common disorder belonging to the above category is “joint damage”. The epidemiological studies by the Arthritis Foundation, United States suggest that nearly 40.9% of the adult population with diabetes will suffer from some form of joint disease. Now, joint damage and diseases are common in young adults, teens and small children. Numerous factors are responsible for these incidences. At present, the joint damage has become a major global health burden. It affects performance and productivity in different spheres.

 

What is joint damage?

Joint damage fractureJoint damage is a collective term for a group of conditions which cause degeneration and damage of the bones, joints, and cartilages, leading to temporary or permanent disability.

Mechanical injury, loss of mineral content of bones or structural deformities may precipitate this condition.

In a majority of the cases, joint damage is manifested as pain, inflammation, swelling, and in worst cases, immobility of the vital joints in the body.

At present, joint damage is one of the primary causes of disability in old people. Statistics show that joint damage affects people of all age groups, genders and ethnic groups worldwide.

 

What causes joint damage?

Joint damage is caused by multiple environmental, physiological and genetic factors. The commonly analyzed causes are described below-

  • Natural degeneration of joints and cartilages with age
  • Degeneration of synovial fluid present in the joints (knee joints), leading to increased friction
  • Erosion of cartilage tissues
  • Bones become very porous (cause: mineral loss)
  • Infection and inflammation of cartilage tissues
  • Autoimmune diseases (defects in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 22 gene) that affect the synovium tissues
  • Hormonal fluctuations after menopause
  • Joint damage wristMechanical injury
  • Infections or diseases of the joints
  • Deficiency of vitamins (Vitamin C and D) and essential micronutrients in the regular diet
  • Rigorous physical activities
  • Stress and strain on muscles, bones, and joints (common in people who lift loads or stand for long hours. Eg: Factory workers)
  • A few food items like processed meat, refined carbohydrates, and artificial fats (cause joint inflammation and pain)
  • History of joint diseases in the family
  • Obesity and overweight conditions (exert pressure on knee and ankles)
  • Over-the-counter drugs like antihistamines, corticosteroids, tranquilizers, diuretics etc
  • Incorrect body postures
  • Accidental bending or twisting (may cause injury to the meniscus, ligament or tendons)
  • Accumulation of waste products (Eg: uric acid) in the body
  • Chemicals like lead, arsenic, cadmium, benzene or mercury (induce toxicity)
  • Low intake of fluids
  • Defective metabolism
  • Congenital defects

 

What are the warning signs of joint damage?

Joint damage is easily recognized through some common symptoms. These are described below-

  • Pain and inflammation in joints
  • Joints become stiff and immobile in the morning
  • Redness, warmth and increased tenderness of affected joints
  • Bones that stick at different locations form bulges
  • The occurrence of sudden shooting pain and burning sensation in and around the joints
  • Pain may radiate from joints to the nearby areas like pelvic region, lower back or lower extremities
  • Bone deformities
  • Peeled off whitish flakes from the skin covering affected joints
  • Difficulty performing normal activities like walking, running, climbing stairs etc
  • Restricted motion of joints
  • Fever and general body weakness
  • Body pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • The height of a person reduces (erosion of joints in the vertebra forms humps and affects the height)
  • Joint movements lead to sounds at the joints
  • Throbbing pain in joints and adjoining muscles after some physical activity or normal movements
  • Joint pain at night disturbs sleep
  • The patient cannot restore proper postures

 

What are the different types of joint damage?

Joint damage xrayAs a person grows old, the joints degenerate. This predisposes the body to several joint diseases. These are as follows

  • Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is the most severe type of joint damage. Here the joints, muscles and the nearby tissues erode and degenerate. Pain and inflammation of joints occur in this disease. The bones may protrude at odd locations. This may lead to deformed bones. The patients may experience immobility at the very end stage of the disease.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: It is a type of joint damage wherein inflammation of the linings of the joints occurs. This can cause bone displacement and bone erosion. This condition severely affects the joints of the cervical spine, hands, feet, and knees.
  • Osteoporosis: In this type of joint damage, essential minerals are lost from the bones. Most of the bones become brittle and porous. Here, the rate of bone degradation (resorption) exceeds the rate of bone formation.
  • Paget’s disease: It is a type of metabolic bone disease. Here the bones get replaced by fibrous tissues. This causes joint damage.
  • Osteomalacia: Osteomalacia is a type of joint damage in which the bones become very soft. Deficiency of Vitamin D or calcium in the body triggers this condition.
  • Osteomyelitis: In this disease, bacteria infect the bones and bone marrow.
  • Gout: Gout is a joint disease in which excess waste products build up in the body. The most common waste product is “uric acid crystals”. Acute joint pain and inflammation occurs in this condition.
  • Degenerative disc disease: It is a kind of joint damage caused by erosion and dislocation of vertebral discs.

 

What diagnostic tests are necessary?

A few diagnostic tests are essential to detect the exact cause of joint damage-

  • X-rays (to look for damage of joints or cartilages)
  • Synovial fluid analysis (to detect presence of crystals)
  • MRI scan (to detect injuries in joints and cartilages)
  • CT scan
  • Digital radiography

 

Treatment and prevention

Osteoarthritis 

Treatment 

  • Medications to help relieve pain and reduce inflammation are prescribed.An antidepressant is prescribed to those with osteoarthritis to help relieve pain.
  • Individual therapies such as physiotherapy can help in strengthening muscles and increasing mobility in the joints.
  • Ways to reduce stress in the patient’s lifestyle will be taught during occupational therapy. Here, the patients are taught ways to help make their day-to-day activities easier by reducing stress levels and pain.
  • Certain exercises can help in stretching the muscles and increase mobility. Tai chi and yoga can help in reducing stress levels and increasing muscle strength.
  • In case other treatment methods do not work, surgery is done to help realign the joints or replace the joints depending on the severity of osteoarthritis.

Prevention 

  • Maintain a healthy body weight.
  • Do not indulge in first or second-hand smoking.
  • Maintain a clean and healthy diet.
  • Get a regular checkup done if you are above the age of 50 years.

Osteoporosis 

Treatment 

  • In cases, if the risk of fracture is low, doctors recommend that the patient gets a good amount of exercise to help maintain mobility and flexibility. They also look at ways in which they can help ease the symptoms of the conditions.
  • Medications to help retain the bone density are prescribed to reduce pain.
  • Certain home therapies such as taking estrogen supplements help in increasing bone density.

Prevention 

  • Maintain a healthy diet.
  • Get sufficient amounts of vitamin D.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Maintain a healthy body weight.

Gout 

Treatment 

  • Medications to help reduce the attacks of gout are prescribed. These medications may start off on a higher dosage, but over time the dosage of the medications are reduced.
  • Medications that can help relieve pain and inflammation are prescribed to those with gout. These medications can be consumed orally or injected into the joints.

Prevention 

  • Stay hydrated.
  • Maintain a healthy body weight.
  • Maintain a clean and healthy diet.

Paget disease 

Treatment 

  • If the symptoms of Paget’s disease are not as severe, treatment will not be necessary. In case, the symptoms increase, treatment options will be considered.
  • Medications that are prescribed to osteoporosis patients will be prescribed to those who have been diagnosed with Paget’s disease. These medications help in reducing the symptoms and increase bone density.
  • In rare cases, surgery may be required to help fractures heal, replace damaged joints, realigning joints and reducing the pressure on the knees.

Prevention 

  • Maintain a healthy diet.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Ensure that you do not fall.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle; doing so can reduce the chances of joint damage.
  • Consume clean and healthy foods. Practicing this habit can go a long way in not only reducing joint pains and damage but also avoiding other health conditions.
  • Exercise regularly, maintaining this habit can help keep the joints active and reduce pain.
Don'ts
  • Consume alcohol, doing so can increase bone degeneration.
  • Indulge in smoking, this habit can lead to degeneration of spinal disks and contribute to osteoarthritis.
  • Wear shoes that may be tight or too high. Doing so can increase pain and discomfort.

 

 

 

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Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your survival. However, these…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
immunoglobulin M
Immunoglobulin M Test Immunoglobulin M is the largest and the first produced antibody which helps in the prevention or fighting of…
blood ketone test
Blood Ketone (D3HB) Test The Blood Ketone Test measures and monitors the levels of ketone in the blood which is usually performed…
Cayenne: The remarkable benefits of these red hot chili peppers These may make you rush for a glass of water, but cayenne pepper is actually a healthy additive…
Inhale oxygen, exhale worries: The top breathing exercises and how to perform them Performing the breathing exercise is like becoming mindful of how you breathe.  Here is a list of breathing…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 igm
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgM The Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test detects IgM class of antibodies in the blood.The presence of beta-2…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
Low fat diets
A complete list of low-fat diets and how to follow them Low-fat diets help you lose weight in a healthy way, but it works only with regular exercise and…
Pelvic_ultrasound
Pelvic Ultrasound Pelvic ultrasound is a process where sound waves are used to create image of your pelvic region organs…
antiHEV IgM test
Anti hepatitis E virus (Anti HEV) IgM Test Anti HEV IgM test determines the level of the IgM antibodies in the blood, The disease is often…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
18 instant steps to make your jogging routine more powerful Jogging is a form of Aerobic Endurance training which includes running at a slow pace. Jogging is slower…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
11 unbelievable health benefits of thyme you didn’t know! Thyme is a herb that has been used in alternative medicine.It is a well known seasoning in the…
blood elements analysis
Vitamin Profile Your doctor will recommend you undergo the vitamin profile test if you are showing signs of either vitamin…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
complement c4 test
Complement 4 (C4) Test The Complement 4 or C4 test measures the level of the protein in the bloodstream, and is primarily…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
High Fiber Diet – Fire up your fiber intake for these health benefits! Regular bowels, healthy detox, higher immunity, and guaranteed weight loss - a high fiber diet can bring all…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
toxo gondii igm test
Toxo Gondii-IgM Test The toxo gondii IgM test is a blood test that tells the presence or absence of toxoplasmosis IgM…
anti-chlamydia antibody tets
Anti-Chlamydia Antibody -IgG Test Anti-Chlamydia Antibody - IgG test is performed by collection of urine or genital fluids as sample for testing…
How to correctly perform nasal irrigation using a Neti Pot? Neti pot has been a part of Ayurveda since centuries. This ancient tool is extremely effective in treating…
Top reasons why you need to pay attention to your vitamin B6 intake Vitamin B6- An essential water-soluble vitamin. Its deficiency leads to physical changes such as sores & glossy tongue…
sodium chloride
Halotherapy: How inhaling salt can work wonders for your body Halotherapy is quickly gaining popularity amongst those with respiratory diseases. It has shown promise in its treatment.
free psa test
Free PSA Test The free PSA test is used to detect the level or percentage of free PSA in the body…
Miracle extract from the root of maca: 10 ways it can help you! Maca root has been used for years in herbal medicine. Today scientific research is unearthing fresh evidence in…
lp-pla2
LP-PLA2 Test The LP-PLA2 test is a test which is carried out to assess the levels of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2…
stain blood
Blood in your stool Know the reason for blood in your stool, toilet bowl or tissue and the important steps to take…
Lauric Acid: 8 health benefits you can derive from coconuts Appropriate use of saturated fats containing lauric acid can provide you numerous health benefits. This is the main…
piles
Best treatment for piles in Bangalore All you need to know about piles and piles treatment in Bangalore - the types of treatment available,…
PREGNANCY
Pregnancy During pregnancy, the body undergoes a number of biological and physical changes to accommodate and provide for the…
Ear pain model
Easy and safe tips for ear wax removal you can do at home Cerumen impaction generally occurs when an external object like cotton swabs are used to remove the ear wax.…
Crossfit with rope
CrossFit: Now get the perfectly sculpted body with this explosive gym routine CrossFit is a fitness regimen that makes use of high-intensity exercises in a shorter period to achieve muscle…
Krill Oil: Does the solution to human illnesses really lie at the depths of the ocean? The word "krill" means “small fry of fish” in Norwegian. They are usually the primary food source of…
Tart Cherry: The healthiest excuse for taking that second serving of pie Tart cherry has been traditionally used in delectable desserts such as pies. Recent studies have revealed that its…
Hot cups for detox? Read all about the ancient technique of cupping Did you know inverted hot cups on your back can squeeze out and eject toxins from your body?…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
50 common health conditions
What are the top 50 deadly and widespread diseases? A complete list of the top 50 most common and deadly diseases that plague humanity. Which disease is…

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