Skin Problems in Children

Skin problems in children _ allergies

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Overview of skin problems in children

Increased levels of pollution and growth of microbial pathogens in the environment are adversely impacting human health worldwide. The most affected group under such conditions are the children.  Infections and allergies are prevalent in children living in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Children exposed to dust and smoke throughout the year, are prone to numerous diseases. The most common problem observed in children living in adverse climatic and environmental conditions is “skin problems”. In the majority of the cases, skin problems in children are left undiagnosed on the assumption that they will resolve on their own. Global health organizations are spreading mass awareness related to the health of children, with special emphasis on skin problems in children.

 

What are the skin problems in children?

Skin problems in children_uticaria“Skin problems in children” is an umbrella term that encompasses all the diseases and infections of the skin that are mostly manifested as skin rashes and pigmentation.

These problems may arise from viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens that cause severe damage to the skin. Many children exhibit allergic symptoms in response to certain environmental triggers.

Some of these triggers are- pollen grains, animal dander, and certain food items. Children who live in industrial areas are exposed to excessive pollution throughout the year that affects the skin badly. In tropical and subtropical counties, the children are exposed to intense heat throughout the year, which may lead to heat rashes and associated complications of the skin.

 

What causes skin problems in children?

Skin problems in children arise from multiple aetiological factors. The most commonly studied causes of skin problems in children are discussed below-

  • Bacterial agents like Staphylococcus and Streptococcus
  • Fungal species like Tinea
  • Viral pathogens like the Herpes zoster virus
  • Allergic agents like pollen grains, animal dander, sea-foods (shellfish)
  • Insect bites caused by various insects like honey-bees, spiders, red ants and mosquitoes
  • Very dry skin (common in patients who have dehydration or lack of humidity)
  • Weak immunity (incapacitates the body to fight infections)
  • Toxicity caused by certain chemicals or compounds present in the environment (lead, mercury)
  • Intake of contaminated food and water (water may contain arsenic)
  • Exposure to strong rays of the sun for a long period of time (at noon)
  • Existing medical conditions which may cause the release of harmful chemicals like histamine and cytokines in the bloodstream
  • Having foods (junk foods) that contain additives which are not good for health
  • Wearing wet diapers for a long time
  • Bathing with hot water and hard soaps regularly
  • Hormonal changes in growing children
  • Being in direct contact with a person suffering from contagious skin diseases
  • Exposure to frequent changes in temperature
  • Incapability of the body to get acclimatized within a short time
  • The extreme sensitivity of skin to heat or cold
  • Clogging of sweat glands (caused by sweat and dust)
  • The regular diet lacking essential vitamins (Vitamins C and D) and minerals (sodium, potassium)
  • Genetic history of skin problems in childhood
  • Use of poor quality baby powders and soaps
  • Wearing poorly aerated clothes
  • Mental stress caused by problems in the family or at school

 

Symptoms of skin problems in children

Skin problems in children_herpesSkin problems in children are manifested through several identifiable symptoms. The most commonly observed symptoms are discussed below-

  • Pigmentation which grows with time
  • Reddish patches at several regions of the skin
  • Formation of tiny reddish or skin-colored lumps on colored and hands
  • Inflammation, pain, itching, and irritation of the affected skin
  • Reddish streaks originating from the blisters
  • Formation of blisters, papules, and pustules
  • The occurrence of acne in growing children
  • A release of fluid and pus from blisters on being scratched
  • Formation of scar marks on the skin after the blisters heal and fall off as thickened scabs
  • Whitish flakes and scales from affected regions of the skin
  • Tenderness and burning sensation in the skin
  • Change of skin texture after several days of skin infection

 

Types of skin problems in children

The classification of skin problems in children depends on the intensity and cause of infection. This section contains a list of all types of skin diseases-

  • Diaper rashes: Children wearing wet diapers for a long period of time acquire diaper infections. They appear as localized reddish patches and tiny elevated red lumps on the skin.
  • Eczema: In this condition, the skin becomes rough, inflamed and dry with whitish flakes originating from the affected area. Reddish blisters form on the skin. These cause pain and itching. These leave prominent scars after complete recovery.
  • Seborrhoeic dermatitis: In this disease, rashes and white flakes appear on the scalp, trunk and face. Inflammation is not present in this disease.
  • Acne: It is very common in growing children. Painful reddish lesions (may or may not contain pus) appear on the face.
  • Cellulitis: In cellulitis, cracks and fissures on the skin facilitate the entry of bacteria. The patients experience sensitivity, warmth, and tenderness of the skin.
  • Impetigo: Children suffering from this disease have blisters on the exposed parts of the body (hands and feet). These blisters may burst and release a purulent discharge. In more advanced stages, these blisters may lead to the formation of sores on large areas of the skin.
  • Ringworm: These are fungal infections. The causative pathogen is Tinea. Reddish, ring-like rashes with thick borders appear in this disease.
  • Scabies: Itch mites are cause scabies in children. The main features are tiny reddish spots on the buttocks, armpit, and forearm.
  • Shingles: The Herpes zoster virus is the main causative agent of shingles. Reddish elevated bumps appear in clusters on the skin. These bumps appear on some specific parts of the skin.
  • Bed sores: These may appear in newborns who have a part of their skin attached to the bed surface throughout the day.

 

Diagnosis

Quite a few laboratory tests are very important for treating skin problems in children-

  • Microscopic diagnosis of skin fragment
  • Dermatopathology
  • Skin biopsy
  • Radioallergosorbent test (RAST)

 

Treatment and prevention

Skin problems in children _ allergiesTreatment – The treatment for skin problems varies based on the type and symptoms of the skin problem.

Eczema 

  • Creams that help reduce the itching and repair the skin and drugs that control inflammation are given to those who have been diagnosed with eczema.
  • Understanding and avoiding the cause of skin irritants.
  • Do not expose them to extreme weather conditions.
  • Make sure to keep their skin moisturized using baby oils and creams.

Diaper rash 

  • As soon as diaper rashes are detected, air out the area and give the skin some time to breathe.
  • Use a diaper rash cream to create a layer above your baby’s skin.
  • Keep the area of the rash clean and dry to avoid it from getting infected.

Acne 

  • Antibiotics are used to kill the extra skin cells and reduce redness.
  • Using creams that contain tretinoin, adapalene, salicylic acid and azelaic acid can help prevent hair follicle plugging and making sure that there is no acne development during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Using gels that contain dapsone as this help reduce the symptoms of inflammatory acne.

Warts

  • Freezing – Here, the doctor freezes warts with liquid nitrogen. This method does not cause discomfort.
  • Burning – Here, the doctor uses liquid nitrogen and then burns warts. This method does not cause much discomfort.
  • Chemical – A chemical cantharidin is used. This chemical is injected into the wart and a blister will form. Once the blister peels off the wart are removed.

Impetigo 

  • Mild or minor cases of impetigo can be treated by cleaning the scabs and removing them. Post which an antibiotic ointment will be applied.
  • Oral antibiotics may need to be prescribed in severe cases of impetigo.

Cellulitis 

  • A general course of antibiotics is prescribed for those who have cellulitis. The symptoms disappear within 3-4 days of the antibiotic course.
  • You might need to be hospitalized if the symptoms of cellulitis do not go away, if you have a high fever and if the oral medications do not have any effect on you.

Prevention 

Eczema 

  • Do not scratch your skin.
  • Keep your skin moisturized.
  • Have your medications on time.

Diaper rash 

  • Do not put the diaper on too tight. Let it be a little lose.
  • Make sure to wipe with every diaper change.
  • Change diapers often.
  • Give your baby some time away from diapers.

Acne 

  • Keep yourself hydrated.
  • Use the appropriate moisturizer for your skin type.
  • Reduce the oil content of your food.

Warts 

  • Avoid direct contact.
  • Do not bite your fingernails.
  • Wash your hands frequently.
  • Do not scratch or pick at warts.

Impetigo 

  • Wash your hands frequently.
  • Cut the nails of your child short to make sure that they do not itch their skin.
  • Use gloves while applying ointment to your child.

Cellulitis 

  • Keep an eye out for infections.
  • Wash your wound every day.
  • Keep your wound covered.

Facts

  • Approximately 31 million children and adults have been diagnosed with eczema in the USA.
  • 15-20% of infants have dry skin right from the birth.

Facts

  • Babies may develop diaper rashes in case there is a change in their diet or their mothers.
  • Acne starts at the age of 11 for girls and 13 for boys.

Facts

  • 85% of 12-25 year-olds develop some form of acne in the United States.
  • Warts are untreatable and they go away on their own within a few months or a year.
  • There are 40 types of HPV that can be transmitted sexually.

Related Conditions

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Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Test new skin care products before using among those with eczema.
  • Use products that are mild for diaper rash.
  • Those with warts keep your hands clean and dry.
Don'ts
  • Rub your skin dry after a bath or swim, pat your skin dry instead – for those with eczema.
  • Make the diaper too sung; make sure that it is a little loose – for diaper rash.
  • Bite your fingernails – for those with warts.

 

 

 

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DHEA: Now get unbelievable age defiance with this wonder hormone! DHEA is known popularly as the age-defying hormone. This supplement is widely used to slow down aging and…
Cordyceps: How the Caterpillar fungus works as a proven cancer-shield Strange as it may sound, but cordyceps or "caterpillar fungus", a fungus variety native to the Himalayas may…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption of these could…
Surgery or home-remedy; what is the right way to treat a burn The treatment of a burn injury depends on its severity. You can save a life by offering the…
Coffee Enema: Turn your favorite morning beverage into a powerful colon cleanser The wonders of coffee are not just limited to waking you up every morning. You can now use…
anoscopy
Anoscopy Anoscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure where a small device known as anoscope will be inserted in the…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
Plexus Slim: Is this pink slimming drink the ultimate one-stop fat burner? How effective is Plexus Slim in helping people lose weight? What are its ingredients? Can it be safely…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself is a detoxifying…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
EEG
Electroencephalogram – EEG EEG or electroencephalogram is a diagnostic tool used to access the functioning of neurons and brain activity to…
LFT-test
Liver Function Test – LFT LFT or Liver Function Test is a blood test used to determine the levels of hepatic enzymes which…
Vitamin-D-blood-test
25-Hydroxy Vitamin D test 25-hydroxy Vitamin D test is a blood test used to measure the level of vitamin D in the…
HSV-1_IGG
Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV)-IgG Test Herpes simplex virus I(HSV)-IgG is an Immunoglobulin protein that acts as an antibody & stays in the blood…
apolipoprotein a1 test
Apolipoprotein -A1 (APO-A1) Test Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) constitutes 70% of protein content in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and helps in lipid metabolism.
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Hepatitis A virus infected liver
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Total Blood test to look for IgM antibodies to know if you are infected with Hepatitis A virus (HAV),…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
lose weight fast
12 easy and instant steps to successful weight loss Do you want to lose weight without losing your mind? Does weight loss always mean saying goodbye to…
Jack in the box fast food
Jack In the Box : The perils of surging fast food culture in the USA Jack in the Box - How a culture of fast-food can clog your arteries, weaken your heart, fatten…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
avocado benefits
Avocado: 15 reasons why this fruit should be a staple in your diet Did you know that the word avocado literally means "testicles". Don't get grossed out as this power-packed fruit…
Cottage cheese: What can you find in this healthy chunk of fresh milk cheese? Love cheese but scared of putting on extra pounds? With cottage cheese, you can get the best of…
General adaptation syndrome: Understanding stress, one step at a time The struggle of the body to produce hormones during a stressful situation is the main theme of general…
Inversion Therapy: The anti-gravity way of healing chronic back pain Inversion therapy involves suspending a person upside dow using different types of equipment. This works by taking the…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
How to scrub away stress and fatigue with an Epsom salt bath? Epsom salt is a popular home remedy for many skin ailments. Though there is a lack of scientific…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
phenytoin test
Phenytoin test Phenytoin is a drug that is administered mainly to epilepsy patients. The phenytoin blood test measures the level…
Rubella IgM test
Rubella IgM Test The Rubella IgM test is a blood test that is performed to diagnose the presence of the rubella…
Thyroid disorders
Thyroid Profile Thyroid profile is a panel of blood tests performed to check if an individual is suffering from any…
Unbelievable health benefits of gooseberries (and a few tasty recipes) Gooseberries are antioxidant-rich tasty fruits that can be easily added in daily diet to improve overall health and…
piles fissure fistula
Allopathy vs homeopathy vs ayurveda treatment for piles, fissures, and fistula Read to know the best form of treatment among allopathy, homeopathy,or ayurveda for piles, fissures, and fistula
Optavia diet
The features of an Optavia diet The Optavia diet endorses pre-packaged meals and snacks called "fuelings" that are tasty, low in calorie, and incorporates…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
aspartame or sugar
Aspartame – Hidden truths about this storm in a teacup Aspartame, the artificial sweetener, has gone under the scanner on several occasions for allegedly doing more harm than…
High Fiber Diet – Fire up your fiber intake for these health benefits! Regular bowels, healthy detox, higher immunity, and guaranteed weight loss - a high fiber diet can bring all…