Acute Renal Failure

Acute Renal Failure dialysis

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Overview of acute renal failure

Acute Renal Failure (ARF) is a frequent fallout of critical illness. It affects people who are under intensive care. Under these conditions, the kidney loses its ability to purify the blood. It affects the balance of fluids in the body. This accumulates wastes and salts in the blood. This is not good for many other bodily functions. Typically, ARF aggregates quickly, over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It requires immediate attention and treatment. ARF is fatal most times. It is curable and reversible only through a healthy lifestyle.

 

Definition of acute renal failure

Acute Renal Failure kidneyThe function of the kidney is to purify the blood in the human body.

Acute Renal Failure is the abrupt failure of the kidney to carry out its regular functions. Failure of the kidneys to function normally results in the accumulation of wastes and electrolytes in the blood.

These elements are toxic to the body. The aftermath of ARF is fatal. They need immediate and intensive treatment. Urologists regard acute renal failure as “Acute Kidney Failure” or “Acute Kidney Injury”.

 

What causes acute renal failure?

There are numerous causes of ARF. Below is a list of the important causes of ARF.

  • Reduction of the flow of blood to the kidneys
  • Urinary tract blockage
  • Sepsis – As a cure for infections, chemicals are released into the bloodstream which triggers inflammation throughout the body.
  • Acute tubular necrosis – death of the renal tubules of the kidney
  • Ingesting certain kind of medication (Antibiotics)
  • Direct injury of the kidney
  • After undergoing a major surgery (In the paper “Incidence and associations of acute kidney injury after major abdominal surgery”, O’Connor ME has stated that 13.4% of the patients who’ve undergone a major surgery develop ARF)
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Diseases like diabetes, insulin resistance

 

Symptoms of acute renal failure

ARF is difficult to predict. There are some prominent symptoms that hint at the possible threat of ARF. The fatality of ARF intensifies rapidly. One should monitor the symptoms closely. Consultation with a doctor is necessary for the possible requirement of treatment. The prominent symptoms are-

  • Fatigue
  • Blood in stools
  • Blood in urine
  • Unpleasant metallic taste in the mouth
  • Vomiting
  • Water weight in the body
  • Constant nosebleeds
  • High blood pressure
  • Prolonged body pain (back, abdomen, headache)

 

What are the different types of acute renal failure?

There are three types of ARF, each with their own causes.

  • Postrenal ARF: Urinary tract blockage is the primary reason for postrenal ARF.

Causes: Renal injury, bladder stones or kidney stones (in both kidneys) or enlargement of prostate gland.

  • Prerenal ARF: an insufficient flow of blood to the kidneys gives rise to prerenal ARF.

Causes: Low blood pressure, heart diseases, dehydration, liver failure or allergic reactions.

  • Intrinsic ARF: In intrinsic ARF, one or both kidneys may be injured.

Causes: Vascular diseases, Ischemia (inadequate blood supply to the kidneys).

 

Are there some long-term effects of acute renal failure?

Acute Renal Failure manIf one is healthy and fit, ARF is reversible and curable. ARF proves to be fatal if the patient does not receive immediate treatment. Chronic Kidney Disease, progressive kidney failure and excessive blood loss are the consequences that arise if ARF is not treated immediately and effectively. Pulmonary edema can arise. This means that the fluids will enter your lungs.

ARF is curable. In many cases, the mortality after diagnosis with ARF is high. 5-10% of the patients who have ARF do not regain full kidney functionality. Restoration of normal kidney functions after a thorough treatment does not guarantee full recovery. Death of the patient may occur.

 

What are the main vulnerable groups?

If one is 65 years or above he or she is susceptible to ARF. There are others who are at risk of being beset with ARF. People who have kidney diseases, high blood pressure, or blockage in their urinary tract and those who often face intensive dehydration should test themselves for ARF.

 

Genetics of acute renal failure

A journal written for the Translational Research Investigating Biomarkers and Endpoints for Acute Kidney Injury (TRIBE-AKI) Consortium reveals that “Current association studies are unable to provide definitive evidence linking genetic variation to AKI.”

 

Important diagnostic tests

Acute Renal Failure dialysisDiagnosis of ARF involves monitoring the urine output and performing blood tests. If the measure of the chemical creatinine, waste breakdown product produced by the muscle, in the blood is high, it means you are at the risk of having ARF. If the kidney functions properly, the creatinine will be excreted from the body. The concentration of creatinine will be low. For children and teenagers, urologists recommend the measurement of the plasma creatinine level. If the laboratory test results are positive, here is a list of instructions one should follow-

  • Visit a doctor and get the necessary treatment.
  • Ensure an intake of food rich in salt, potassium, and phosphorus.
  • Monitor the amount of fluid intake in 24 hours
  • Go for dialysis if the toxins multiply in the body.
  • Some irreversible and extreme cases require a renal transplant or long-term dialysis.

 

Treatment and prevention

Diabetic neuropathy 

Treatment 

  • Since there is no sure shot cure for diabetic neuropathy, patients will need to control their blood pressure within the normal range that their doctor has set for them. The range is decided on factors such as the patients’ age, overall health and the number of years that the patient has had diabetes.
  • Seizure medications are known to relieve pain and ease some of the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Some antidepressants have the property to disrupt that part of the brain that transmits pain signals; these may be prescribed to those who have diabetic neuropathy.

Prevention 

  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Consume clean and healthy food.
  • Treat diabetes and other medical conditions.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Manage and control blood pressure.

Liver failure 

Treatment 

  • Regular blood and urine tests will be done to check if there are any infections. If an infection is detected, doctors will prescribe medications to treat the infections.
  • In some cases of liver failure, there may be excessive bleeding. Doctors will need to find the cause of the bleeding and medications to stop the bleeding will be prescribed.
  • In the initial stages, medicines are prescribed to counter the effect of toxins on the liver. In case of liver poisoning cannot be treated, a liver transplant must be done. Here, a surgeon removes the damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver that is given by a donor.

Prevention 

  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Consume clean and healthy food.
  • Practice safe sex and refrain from using used needles and syringes.
  • Make sure that infected blood is not used during blood transfusions.
  • Make sure to get vaccinated for hepatitis and other conditions that could hamper liver health.
  • Abstain from drinking alcohol.

Sepsis 

Treatment 

  • Medications to treat the bacterial infection will be given intravenously. At times if antibiotics do not work vasopressors will be administered to help in increasing blood pressure.
  • Depending on the condition of the patient, supportive care will be provided. Here, oxygen may be provided to help the patient breathe or a dialysis machine will be provided as well.
  • Surgery to stop the bleeding and remove any abscess may be conducted.

Prevention 

  • Consume immune system strengthening foods.
  • Make sure to treat your injuries properly. No wound should be allowed to become infected.
  • Take medicines as prescribed, especially antibiotics.
  • Stay up-to-date with vaccinations.
  • Practice good hygiene.

Kidney stones 

Treatment 

  • For minimal symptoms make sure to drink 1.9-2.8 liters of water every day. This helps in flushing out the urinary system.
  • Certain pain medications to relieve pain while passing small kidney stones may be provided.
  • Alpha blockers help in relaxing the ureter, thereby making to easier to pass kidney stones.
  • Depending on the size and location of the kidney stones, doctors may use sound waves to breaks down the kidney stones in small pieces so that they can be passed through urine.
  • If the size of the kidney stone is big, a small incision will be made in the back, and a small telescope will be inserted into the kidney to remove the stones.
  • The doctor will use a lighted tube to find the location of the kidney stones. Once the kidney stones have been found, they will be broken down into small pieces so that they can pass during urination.
  • At times the thyroid glands need to be surgically operated to prevent the excess production of calcium in the body that cause kidney stones.

Prevention  

  • Maintain a healthy and clean diet.
  • Do not consume excess salt and animal fats.
  • Drink plenty of water throughout the day.
  • Maintain an adequate amount of calcium intake.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Maintain a healthy diet, this helps in ensuring that the blood surge levels in the body remain constant.
  • Get a shot of the hepatitis B vaccination. This helps in preventing any further infections or diseases of the kidney as well.
  • Have a healthy calcium intake. Too much or too less of it can lead to kidney stones.
Don'ts
  • Skip any meals, it is not good for the digestive system and you may not notice the symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  • Consume alcohol in excessive amounts; consuming excess alcohol is equivalent to toxic to the kidneys.
  • Consume excess amounts of salt. High sodium levels increase your blood pressure and make you more vulnerable to kidney diseases.

 

 

 

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Moringa: This could be the most nutrient-dense food known to us! Moringa is a lush green tree brimming with over 90 essential nutrients required for a healthy mind and…
Shilajit: A miracle Himalayan herb for an active and happy life The Himalayas contain more wonders than you thought. Shilajit is a miracle herb that is widely used in…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help you combat the…
Mood swings
The real reasons for your mood swings and how to overcome them Are you prone to heated moods frequently? Do you also feel bouts of depressive feeling creeping up on…
What is the right way to take a pregnancy test? A pregnancy test is undertaken to determine if you have conceived. A home pregnancy test is the most…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
beta hcg test
Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) test Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that is found in every cell of the body and it plays…
Rubella IgM test
Rubella IgM Test The Rubella IgM test is a blood test that is performed to diagnose the presence of the rubella…
woman with abdominal pain holding ovulation calendar
Ovulation – facts to know about ovulation Learn how and when ovulation occurs, demystify common misconceptions, identify symptoms, methods of detection and right period for…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
sodium chloride
Halotherapy: How inhaling salt can work wonders for your body Halotherapy is quickly gaining popularity amongst those with respiratory diseases. It has shown promise in its treatment.
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a particular liver enzyme…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
iron deficiency profile
Iron Deficiency Profile An iron deficiency profile is a battery of blood tests which are performed in order to determine the…
Jack in the box fast food
Jack In the Box : The perils of surging fast food culture in the USA Jack in the Box - How a culture of fast-food can clog your arteries, weaken your heart, fatten…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
Experts reveal the safest ways to perform an enema at home The idea of pushing some up your rectal area might make you queasy but an enema could actually…
Tart Cherry: The healthiest excuse for taking that second serving of pie Tart cherry has been traditionally used in delectable desserts such as pies. Recent studies have revealed that its…
Gua sha: Scraping away layers of pain with this ancient healing tool Gua sha is an ancient oriental healing method which focuses on scraping the body with specific tools to…
Vagus nerve: 7 health benefits of stimulating the “gut-brain” connection As a matter of fact, there are two vagus nerves namely the left and the right but is…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption of these could…
Urologist: When should you visit one and why? A urologist can treat not only genitourinary problems of both men and women but also can treat various…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
valproic acid test
Valproic Acid Test Valproic acid test is performed to generally check for psychiatric and even neurological conditions such as bipolar disease…
malarial antigen test
Malaria Antigen Test A malaria antigen test is a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) that can detect malarial antigens (proteins) in your…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
aspartame or sugar
Aspartame – Hidden truths about this storm in a teacup Aspartame, the artificial sweetener, has gone under the scanner on several occasions for allegedly doing more harm than…
High Fiber Diet – Fire up your fiber intake for these health benefits! Regular bowels, healthy detox, higher immunity, and guaranteed weight loss - a high fiber diet can bring all…
Is it possible to achieve full body detox with Master Cleanse? Master cleanse is a diet consisting of a lemonade based beverage, a salt water drink and a herbal…
How can berberine supplements help you live longer and healthier? Berberine is a turmeric look-alike herbal extract that is credited with numerous health benefits ranging from diabetes cure…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…
How accurate is the hair follicle drug test? Hair follicle drug test is one of the best ways to identify drug use in professional circles. But…
Appendix pain: Recent findings on this not-so vestigial organ The exact function of the appendix is still not clear. Some consider it as an organ that once…
Hysteroscopy_procedure
Hysteroscopy Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive tool to help specialists view the uterus to diagnose and even treat several…
ANTIPHOSPHOLIPIDANTIBODY(APL)_IgG
Antiphospholipid (APL) antibody-IgG The Antiphospholipid Antibody testing is a blood test used to determine an autoimmune disorder called Antiphospholipid syndrome linked…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
Diabetes blood test
Diabetic Profile The diabetic profile is a set of tests used for testing and monitoring the various kinds of Diabetes…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential for a healthy…
shoudler exercises
Keep your shoulders pain-free with these shoulder exercises Shoulder exercises are important in order to prevent chronic back and neck pain. Learn more about how you…
Drinking water benefits
8 reasons why you should grab a bottle of water now! Did you know you don't have to be thirsty for hours to be dehydrated?You could be dehydrated right…
ginger benefits healthy
Ginger: Why is it called the root of all remedies? Be it in form of tea or juice, ginger has a lot to offer when it comes to…
The right way to prepare Alfalfa sprouts at home Alfalfa or lusan ghas is not just a nutritious animal fodder. This flavonoid-rich herb has some amazing health…
Psyllium Husk: More than just an effective natural laxative Psyllium husk, or isabgol, is a popular natural laxative . But did you in addition to regulating bowels,…
sodium blood test
Blood Sodium Test A blood sodium test measures the amount of sodium (an important electrolyte) in your body. It is also…
lipase test
Lipase Test A lipase test is a blood test performed to quantitatively measure the level of the enzyme lipase in…
Period sanitary napkin-menstruaion-blood-colors
Period blood – what it says about your health Your period blood color and consistency indicate what is happening in your body. Is your blood bright red…
kshar sutra
Kshar sutra treatment for piles, fissures and fistula Read to know the benefits and side effects of kshar sutra to treat anal piles, fissures, and fistula…
lose weight fast
12 easy and instant steps to successful weight loss Do you want to lose weight without losing your mind? Does weight loss always mean saying goodbye to…

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