Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease hands

Last Updated February 20th, 2019

Overview of Parkinson’s Disease

Neurological disorders become very prominent after a certain age, mainly above 60. Usually, these diseases are not self-limiting in nature and in many cases lead to complete degeneration of the peripheral and central nervous systems, causing death. One very severe case of neurological disorder in the old age is the “Parkinson’s disease”. According to epidemiological studies by the American Neurological Association in the year 2016, nearly 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease annually. This has a direct impact on the overall life-expectancy and calls for immediate attention from global health organizations.

 

Definition of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease brainParkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system that is common mainly in aged people. In this condition, severe degeneration of specific nerve cells in the deeper regions of the brain (basal ganglia) occurs in the initial stages. With slow progress of the disease, degeneration, and loss of nerve cells (neurons) in a portion of the brainstem (substantia nigra) takes place. A sharp decline in the level of dopamine (neurochemical messenger) occurs, that disrupts movements and coordination in the patient. This is manifested through certain symptoms such as constant quivering, general imbalance, body stiffness and overall disorientation. Microscopic examinations reveal that the degenerating neurons are associated with a circular structure known as Lewy body, which is one of the main contributing factors of Parkinson’s disease and associated neurological disorders.

 

Causes of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is an outcome of the following etiological factors-

  • Environment: Exposure to certain chemicals may occur due to environmental pollutants, chemicals present in food, or chemicals injected via intravenous drugs. These can lead to Parkinson’s disease at old age. One classic example of such a toxic chemical is – methyl-phenyl-tetraa hydropyridine (MTP), which is an accidental by-product of a legal variety of heroin.
  • Genetics: Research mediated evidence has shown that Parkinson’s disease may be an outcome of an autosomal dominant hereditary pattern that runs in the family. The genes that are primarily responsible for this condition are- Parkin, DJ-1, PINK1, UCH-L1, and synphilin-1. In such cases, Parkinson’s disease may occur in patients suffering from Huntington’s disease. Substantial loss of Dopamine producing brain cells occurs in such cases.
  • Inflammation: Few current or past diseases or external injuries may trigger an inflammatory response within the brain cells. Activation of microglia occurs in this case which triggers the release of cytokines (harmful chemicals released as a result of inflammation). These conditions collectively lead to degeneration and death of neuronal cells.
  • Excitotoxicity: In this condition, overactivation of the brain cells occurs due to oversensitization to neurotransmitter glutamate that shoots up the brain cell activities.
  • Protein degradation: This is characterized by impaired functioning of the protein disposal system of the brain, due to certain gene mutations due to environmental toxicities, that ultimately leads to Parkinson’s disease.
  • Protein Aggregation: This condition is marked by the formation of Lewy bodies that are composed of clustered alpha-synuclein fibrils and other proteins that disrupts neuronal functions and leads to cell death.

 

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease handsThe symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are categorized into two sections- Primary and Secondary symptoms. These are discussed below-

Primary symptoms

  • Tremor at rest: It is medically termed as “shaking palsy” and is characterized by slow and rhythmic tremor of the hands and feet. Occasional quivering of the head and neck is also observed. In few patients, tremor may be observed during holding up an outstretched arm (postural or sustention tremor) or during performing slight movements (action tremor). Internal tremor also occurs in a few patients.
  • Rigidity: This condition is characterized by heaviness or stiffness of muscles at complete rest or during minimal motion conditions. The stiffness may be perceived in the neck, limbs, and even trunk.
  • Bradykinesia: This is characterized by extremely slow movements in general. Few symptoms of this condition are- mask-like expression (hypomimia), reduced blinking, slowness in changing inertial state, cognitive impairment and loss of motor coordination.
  • Gait: In this case, shuffling motion with small fumbling steps occur which is called “festination”. Forward bending (propulsion) occurs when quick steps are initiated. Occasional freezing may also occur during normal movements.
  • Balance and posture: Overall body imbalance occurs that may lead to distorted postures. This happens due to loss of equilibrium. The patient tends to step backward at a stretch and this condition is termed as “retropulsion”.

Secondary symptoms

These usually develop at a much later stage and are described below-

  • Speech: With the gradual progress of the disease, the person may start talking in a monotone or develop a peculiar form of stammering called “palilalia”. Freezing and complete loss of speech may occur at a critical stage.
  • Swallowing: Problems in swallowing (dysphagia) occurs due to uncoordinated movements of the tongue and throat muscles.
  • Drooling: Uncontrolled drooling (sialorrhea) occurs due to the accumulation of excess saliva at the back of the throat resulting from loss of coordination of tongue and throat muscles.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis: Skin of the forehead and scalp becomes extremely oily.
  • Swollen feet and ankles
  • Sweating
  • Urinary problems
  • Dizziness
  • Sexual dysfunctions
  • Impaired vision

 

Stages of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease manParkinson’s disease typically progresses through the following five stages-

  • Stage I: Slight tremor and occasional distortion of facial expressions are observed. This stage is marked by unilateral defects only with no functional impairment as such.
  • Stage II: This stage is characterized by bilateral loss of facial expressions, reduced blinking, speech impairment and stooping posture.
  • Stage III: It is marked by significant loss of equilibrium, unsteadiness, and loss of involuntary movements.
  • Stage IV: In this stage, the patient becomes completely dependent on other people even during performing day to day activities.
  • Stage V: The patient loses the ability to maintain a standing or sitting postures and resorts to a wheelchair or walking stick.

 

Diagnosis

The following tests are normally carried out-

  • Structural and functional imaging
  • Acute Dopaminergic testing
  • Olfactory testing

 

Treatment and prevention

Treatment 

Medications 

  • Carbidopa-levodopa – This is the most common medication that is given to those diagnosed with Parkinson’s. Here, the chemical passes through the brain and passes dopamine.
  • Carbidopa-levodopa infusion – This medication is given via a tube and it enters directly into the small intestine. This goes into the body and passes dopamine.
  • Dopamine agonists – This medication does not release dopamine in the brain, instead, it mimics the effects of dopamine in the body.
  • MAO B inhibitors – This medication helps in restricting the breaking down of the dopamine present in the brain by inhibiting a brain enzyme called monoamine oxidase B (MAO B)
  • Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors – These medications tend to prolong the effect of levodopa in the brain, thereby blocking the enzymes that break down the dopamine in the brain.
  • Anticholinergics – These medications help in controlling the tremors felt by Parkinson’s patients.
  • Amantadine – This medication is used to treat the mild and early symptoms of Parkinson’s.

Surgical procedure 

  • Deep brain surgery (DBS) – Here surgeons implant a small electrode in the brain and the generator is implanted near the collarbone. The electric currents pass through the generator and into the electrode. This help in reducing the symptoms of Parkinson.

Prevention – There are no sure shot prevention methods for Parkinson’s disease. There are certain risk factors that help in reducing the symptoms.

  • If you have a family history of Parkinson’s Disease, pay special attention to the risk factors that could make you more vulnerable to the condition. ( For eg: protection from environmental toxins and keeping a track of dopamine levels as you age).
  • Those who are 60 years and above need to get regular neurological check-ups done, as they are at a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s.
  • Statistics indicate that men are more susceptible to this condition than women. So, as they age, men need to be extra cautious with the initial symptoms of Parkinson’s ( if any).
  • Limit your exposure to environmental toxins and chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals toxicity.

Facts

  • Parkinson’s disease has been known since the ancient times, it is called as ‘Kampavata’ in Ayurveda. ‘Kampa’ is the Sanskrit word for ‘tremor.’
  • Parkinson’s disease is named after a London doctor, James Parkinson, who wrote a long and detailed essay on this disease in 1817. The essay was titled “An Essay on the Shaking Palsy.”

Facts

  • In the 1940s and 1950s, surgeons started performing surgeries on the basal ganglia ( present in the brain). This showed an improvement in the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Facts

  • The expenditure associated with this disease is almost $ 25 billion / year in the USA alone.
  • 50% of PD patients suffer from depression and around 40% of them show symptoms of anxiety.

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Exercise regularly it helps in strengthening the muscles and bones.
  • Maintain a healthy diet; eat foods that will help strengthen your bones.
  • Use a walking cane if required; it helps by providing you support.
Don'ts
  • Isolate yourself. Parkinson’s is known to be closely related to depression.
  • Ignore your weight. Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Wear complex shoes and clothes, they tend to hinder your movement.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a particular liver enzyme…
Vitamin K2: 8 reasons why you need this bone-building & cancer-fighting nutrient Vitamin K2 is claimed to be essential for your bone health, for reducing the risk of cancer, and…
anti-thyroglobulin antibody
Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody test Anti-thyrogloubin antibody test measures the level of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cells and are hence indicative…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body is infected by…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test is used to measure and monitor the levels of folic acid in the blood. The…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin. Find easy and…
rubella IgG test
Rubella IgG Test The rubella IgG test is a blood test that checks for the rubella virus IgG antibodies present in…
abdominal-CT-scan- image
Abdominal CT scan Abdominal CT scan is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides a clear picture of the state of internal…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each spoonful you are…
Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are non-invasive breathing tests employed for diagnosing and monitoring lung diseases such as bronchitis
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help you combat the…
Stye : The best natural home remedies to ease the pain Styes developing inside the eyelid tend to be more painful whereas external styes are less painful and ooze…
Silicon Dioxide: How can a component of sand be essential to your wellbeing? Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the nature. Find out how silicon dioxide can prove…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
hlab27 test
HLA-B27 test The HLA-B27 is a blood test that is used to determine the level of a particular protein called…
Chromium Picolinate: An essential mineral supplement for faster weight loss Did you know that about 1.6 million deaths were directly linked to diabetes globally? How is it linked…
IGE test
IgE test – Immunoglobulin E IgE or immunoglobulin E test is a test that measures the level of IgE in the blood and…
Ferritin blood test
Ferritin Test Ferritin test is a blood test that provides vital information on the level of RBCs and iron in…
serum electrolyte test
Serum Electrolyte If there is an electrolyte imbalance in the body, a serum electrolyte test will help to find out…
How do neutrophils protect you from fatal bacterial attacks? During an infection, certain enzymes alert the mature neutrophils.  Neutrophils then travel through the bloodstream to the affected…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
Poop chart: Top things you didn’t you your poop could reveal about you Bristol poop chart was designed during the 1990s in order to help doctors identify various types of poops…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself is a detoxifying…
Bubble Tea: Bubbling with nutrition or a hidden sugar mine? The tapioca pearls present in the tea looks like bubbles and hence the name bubble tea became popular.…
HELICOBACTER_PYLORI---IgG
Helicobacter Pylori – IgG Test Helicobacter pylori IgG test is a blood, saliva, and urine test performed to determine if the patien is…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
RHEUMATOID_FACTOR_(RF)
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Rheumatoid factor or RF is a blood test used to diagnose painful joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does our poop turn…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
lipid-profile
Lipid Profile Lipid profile is a blood test that provides complete information on how much cholesterol is present in the…
TPAB test
Treponema Pallidum Antibody(TPAB) test Treponema pallidum bacteria a gram-negative bacteria that has helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, responsible for STDs such as syphilis.
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in the bloodstream in…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
POSTPRANDIAL-BLOOD-SUGAR
Post-Prandial Blood Sugar Postprandial blood sugar test is an important diabetes diagnosing tool. This simple blood test measure the level of…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
serum zinc test
Serum Zinc Test The serum zinc test is a blood test performed to assess the zinc level in the blood (serum)…
random blood sugar test
Random Blood Sugar Test The random blood sugar or RBS test is a blood test prescribed mainly to check the level of…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test involves detecting and measuring the presence of the IgG class of beta…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
EMA antibodies
Endomysial Antibodies (EMA) Test EMA test is an investigative blood examination to locate the presence of certain antibodies, called Endomysial antibodies or…
Free T3 test
Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) Test The free triiodothyronine or FT3 test is an important blood test that is used to detect the level…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of RBCs, WBCs, etc…
Cystoscopy Cystoscopy is intended to look at the abnormalities in the ureters, bladder, and urethra, to assist surgeries performed…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
bilirubin-test-result
Bilirubin Test Bilirubin is a substance produced in the body as a result of red blood cell breakdown. A bilirubin…
Helicobacter pylori IGA
Helicobacter Pylori – IgA Test The H.pylori IgA test is a blood test used to identify the level of IgA antigen in the…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
Moringa drink
Moringa: This could be the most nutrient-dense food known to us! Moringa is a lush green tree brimming with over 90 essential nutrients required for a healthy mind and…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of health benefits. Discover…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the three important functions…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
EEG
Electroencephalogram – EEG EEG or electroencephalogram is a diagnostic tool used to access the functioning of neurons and brain activity to…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an inexplicable emotional numbness…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
beta hcg test
Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
How accurate is the hair follicle drug test? Hair follicle drug test is one of the best ways to identify drug use in professional circles. But…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
Bronchoscopy procedure
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure where in a scope is inserted into the lung pathway to observe any growth…
anti-chlamydia antibody tets
Anti-Chlamydia Antibody -IgG Test Anti-Chlamydia Antibody - IgG test is performed by collection of urine or genital fluids as sample for testing…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
Panera bread steak arugula
Panera Bread: The truth behind this “healthy” restaurant chain What to order and what to avoid when dining at Panera Bread ? Know more about this popular…
oral hygiene tips
6 shocking consequences of bad oral hygiene (and how to avoid them) Did you know bad breath is not just turning off, but also harms your body in ways you…
gout diet purines
Gout Diet : Get relief from painful joints by eating these foods Are you a victim of this painful condition? Are medications providing only short relief? Find a list of…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
Colloidal silver benefits
Colloidal silver: An essential dietary supplement or yet another pharmaceutical hoax? Colloidal silver is hailed as an effective home remedy for infections. Many believe it can treat HIV and…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
Internal bleeding brain
Beware: Ignoring these tell-tale signs of stroke could cost a life The signs and symptoms of a stroke differ depending on which part of the brain has been affected.…
blood elements analysis
Blood Element Analysis Test A blood element analysis is a blood test performed to measure the level of toxic elements such as…
fructosamine test
Fructosamine Test A fructosamine test is a blood test that measures blood sugar glucose content. Fructosamine level can indicate blood…
erythropoetin test
Erythropoietin (EPO) Test Erythropoetin stimulates the production of RBCs in bone marrow thus an erythropoetin test is done to diagnose blood…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
aspartame or sugar
Aspartame – Hidden truths about this storm in a teacup Aspartame, the artificial sweetener, has gone under the scanner on several occasions for allegedly doing more harm than…
boost brain health
The ultimate tips on how to boost your brain health Would you like to be smarter? Want a sharp memory but bored of doing sudoku? Try salsa or…
glutamine workout
Glutamine: Why is this the right choice for muscle-gain supplement? Glutamine can help you gain muscles and build higher immunity. Read more to find out how you can…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
Epley maneuver: Why is this the best protection from the symptoms of vertigo? Epley maneuver is an exercise that can treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).  It was…
Erythritol: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another marketing ploy? Erythritol is a popular choice of a healthy alternative sweetening agent in foods. But how healthy can a…
Sputum test Sputum test is a commonly used diagnostic tool that is used to examine the presence of pathogens in…
arterial-blood-gas
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Arterial blood gas analysis is a diagnostic procedure used to determine the volume of oxygen and carbon dioxide…
BoneMarrow-Biopsy
Bone Marrow Biopsy Bone marrow biopsy is a diagnostic procedure where a small amount of bone marrow is extracted from hip…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
apolipoprotein a1 test
Apolipoprotein -A1 (APO-A1) Test Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) is an essential protein that constitutes 70% of protein content in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
nature health benefits
Green Healing: The amazing health benefits of being in nature You have no idea what sitting in a closed room does to your body and mind.Can a stroll…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know some of the…
cold flu sinus treatment
How to beat the common cold, flu, and sinus infection instantly? Can you guess some of the easiest tricks to treat cold and sinus infections? How are these different…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket The dragon fruit is packed with nutrients and yet low on calories and is the dream food that…