Manic depression

manic depression

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

What is manic depression/bipolar disorder?

Bipolar, which was formerly known as manic depression, is a serious mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings, spells of mania (emotional highs) and melancholia (depression).

The mania spells are accompanied by euphoria, sleeplessness, hallucinations, psychosis, grandiose delusions, or paranoid rage. The depressive episodes, meanwhile, are accompanied by severe depression, loss of interest in doing any activity, low energy, and excessive sleepiness. These mood swings, which can happen multiple times a year or rarely, can have an adverse effect on a person’s life as they are unable to think properly.

Types

There are four types of bipolar disorder

Bipolar I disorder

This type is characterized by manic episodes that last at least a week. The person who has this type of bipolar may need hospitalization due to the manic symptoms being too severe. The depressive episode, meanwhile, last for at least two weeks. Episodes with both depression and manic symptoms at the same time may also happen.

Bipolar II disorder

Bipolar II is also accompanied by episodes of mania and depression. However, bipolar is characterized by more episodes of depression than mania. Also, the mania associated with bipolar II is less severe compared to bipolar I and is known as hypomania. A person with bipolar II will have at least one spell of mania in his/her lifetime.

Cyclothymic disorder

Cyclothymia (also known as cyclothymic disorder) is a mild form of bipolar and is characterized by short episodes of mild depression and hypomania.

Mixed bipolar disorder

This type is characterized by simultaneous symptoms of opposite mood polarities during manic or depressive episodes. A person with this type may have high energy, sleeplessness, and racing thoughts but at the same time he/she may also feel hopeless and suicidal.

Causes

The exact cause of bipolar is still unknown. However, it is believed that bipolar disorder may be caused by

  • Physical chances in the brain: Studies have shown that patients with bipolar disorder have physical changes in their brains.
  • Neurotransmitter imbalances: All mood disorders have been linked to neurotransmitter imbalances. This happens when the brain has too much or too little quantities of certain chemicals known as neurotransmitter, which are known to be responsible for mood regulation.
  • Hormonal imbalances: It is believed that hormonal imbalances may also cause bipolar disorders.
  • Environmental factors: Factors like abuse (sexual, physical, and mental), stress or a traumatic event may also cause bipolar disorders.
  • Genetics: Bipolar disorder is more prevalent in people who have a first-degree relative (sibling or parent) with this condition.

Symptoms

The symptoms vary depending on the type of bipolar a person has. Some of the symptoms include

Bipolar I

During a manic episode, a person with this type feels

  • Intense enthusiasm
  • Happiness
  • excitement
  • Anger
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability
  • Increased energy
  • Less need for sleep
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Racing thoughts
  • Difficulty concentrating and making decisions
  • Reckless behavior
  • Increased interest in sex, alcohol, and drugs
  • High self-esteem

During the depressive episode, people feel

  • Extreme sadness
  • Hopelessness
  • Low energy and constant fatigue
  • Changes in sleeping patterns
  • Loss or gain in appetite
  • Poor concentration
  • Loss of interest in formerly enjoyable activities
  • Low self-esteem
  • Aches and pains that have no apparent physical cause
  • Suicidal behavior

Bipolar II

During a hypomanic episode, a person with this type feels

  • Increase in energy
  • Feeling agitated
  • Upbeat
  • Increased self-confidence
  • Decreased need to sleep
  • Racing thoughts
  • Talking too fast or talking much more than normal
  • A tendency towards reckless behavior, such as spending too much, drinking or using drugs
  • Impaired decision making

During the depressive episode, people feel

  • Sadness
  • Emptiness
  • Hopelessness
  • Loss of interest in activities
  • Inability to sleep or sleeping too much
  • Decreased energy
  • Feelings of worthlessness
  • Guilt
  • Trouble concentrating or focusing
  • Weight gain or weight loss
  • Suicidal thoughts or tendencies

Cyclothymia

During a hypomanic episode, a person with this type feels

  • An exaggerated feeling of happiness or well-being
  • Extreme optimism
  • Inflated self-esteem
  • Talking more than usual
  • Poor judgment
  • Risky behavior or unwise choices
  • Racing thoughts
  • Irritable or agitated behavior
  • Excessive physical activity
  • Increased drive to perform or achieve goals
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Easily distracted
  • Inability to concentrate

During the depressive episode, people feel

  • Sadness
  • Hopelessness
  • Emptiness
  • Tearfulness
  • Irritability (especially in children and teenagers)
  • Loss of interest in activities
  • Changes in weight
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Sleep problems
  • Restlessness
  • Fatigue or feeling slowed down
  • Problems concentrating
  • Thinking of death or suicide

Mixed bipolar disorder

This type is characterized by the following symptoms

  • Mania with mixed features usually involves, over activity, high energy, racing thoughts, irritability or agitation.
  • Depression during episodes with mixed features involves worthlessness, sadness, guilt, loss of interest in activities, low energy, and thoughts of suicide.

Diagnosis

When diagnosing any bipolar disorder, other mental illnesses like schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, delusional disorder, or schizophreniform disorder have to be ruled out. As lab tests or imaging tests cannot be used, bipolar disorder has to diagnosed by analyzing symptoms, including their severity, length, and frequency.

Cyclothymic disorder

For at least two years, many periods of hypomanic and depressive symptoms (see above), but the symptoms do not meet the criteria for hypomanic or depressive episode.

During the two-year period, the symptoms (mood swings) have lasted for at least half the time and have never stopped for more than two months.

Treatment

Bipolar I

Bipolar I disorder is very treatable. Medication alone or a combination of talk therapy (psychotherapy) and medication are often used to manage the disorder over time. Each person is different and each treatment is individualized. Different people respond to treatment in different ways. People with bipolar disorder may need to try different medications and therapy before finding what works for them.

Medications

Mood stabilizers are the most commonly prescribed type of medication for bipolar disorder. Anticonvulsant medications are also sometimes used.

Psychotherapy

manic depressionIn psychotherapy, the individual can work with a psychiatrist or other mental health professional to work out problems, better understand the illness and rebuild relationships. A psychiatrist is also able to prescribe medications as part of a treatment plan. Because bipolar disorder is a recurrent illness, meaning that it can come back, ongoing preventive treatment is recommended. In most cases, bipolar disorder is much better controlled if treatment is continuous.

Electroconvulsive therapy

In some cases, when medication and psychotherapy have not helped, a treatment known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be used. ECT uses a brief electrical current applied to the scalp while the patient is under anesthesia. The procedure takes about 10-15 minutes and patients typically receive ECT two to three times a week for a total of six to 12 treatments.

Support groups

Since bipolar disorder can cause serious disruptions and create an intensely stressful family situation, family members may also benefit from professional resources, particularly mental health advocacy and support groups. From these sources, families can learn strategies to help them cope, to be an active part of the treatment and to gain support for themselves.

Eat a healthy diet

You may be surprised to know how diet plays an important role in relieving your stress and depression.  Studies have found that people consuming high fat foods and processed foods are more likely to suffer from psychological disorders as compared to others who consume a healthy diet.

Diet plays an important role in determining how hormones are secreted.  Studies have claimed that avoiding high sugar content foods, caffeine, and alcohol can reduce the number of anxiety and panic attacks.  Adding foods rich in lean protein, omega-3 fatty acids, and fiber can overall improve immune system and regulate the hormonal balance.  This in turn helps in providing a more stable and calm mind.

Meditation and yoga

Meditation is an important way to have a control on mind.  Similarly, yoga postures help the body to concentrate and prevent harmful thoughts to affect the mind.  The best part is that both meditation and yoga can be performed at the comfort of your house.  There is no specific time or place needed to perform meditation and yoga.

Apart from having a control over the mind, it also increases the cognitive level of thinking.  This type of therapy is highly beneficial for people suffering from bipolar disorder where the mind seems to be wandering even if the person is physically present and addressing a completely different subject.  This wandering of mind can be prevented by practicing meditation and yoga.

Bipolar II

Treatments for bipolar II are similar to those for bipolar I — medication and psychotherapy. Medications most commonly used are mood stabilizers and antidepressants, depending on the specific symptoms. If depression symptoms are severe and medication is not working, ECT (see above) may be used. Each person is different and each treatment is individualized.

Cyclothymic Disorder

Treatment for cyclothymic disorder can involve medication and talk therapy. For many people, talk therapy can help with the stresses of ongoing high and low moods. People with cyclothymia may start and stop treatment over time.

Bipolar disorder and creativity

A number of creative people in the arts have been reliably diagnosed as having bipolar disorder such as writers Ernest Hemingway, Robert Lowell, Theodore Roethke, and Virginia Woolf, composers Robert Schumann and Hugo Wolf, artists Jackson Pollock, probably Vincent Van Gogh, Edvard Munch, and Arshile Gorky, actors Vivian Leigh, Dick Van Dyke,  Jason Robards, and Robin Williams

There may now be a scientific explanation as to why many creative people have bipolar disorder. Several recent studies have showed that people who are genetically predisposed to bipolar disorder are more likely than others to show high levels of creativity, particularly in artistic fields where strong verbal skills are helpful.

Bipolar Disorder and Suicide

People with bipolar disorder are at great risk for suicide if they are not getting treatment. The National Mental Health Association reports that 30%-70% of suicide victims have suffered from a form of depression. Men commit almost 75% of suicides, even though twice as many women attempt suicide.

Risk factors for suicide include:

  • Having mental and substance abuse disorders
  • Family history of mental or substance abuse disorders
  • Having attempted suicide previously
  • Having a family history of physical or sexual abuse
  • Having family members or friends who have attempted suicide
  • Keeping a firearm in the home

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Address mood swings one step at a time.
  • Speak with family or friends about your thoughts.
  • Follow a healthy sleeping pattern.
  • Seek medical treatment when things are getting out of hand.
Don'ts
  • Follow an unhealthy dietary regimen.
  • Indulge in alcohol and substance abuse.
  • Follow a stressful lifestyle.
  • Avoid social encounters.

 

 

 

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The actual science behind smelling salts and how it helps in injury recovery Most smelling salts are a mixture of ammonium carbonate and some perfumes which are sniffed by an individual…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Sputum test Sputum test is a commonly used diagnostic tool that is used to examine the presence of pathogens in…
piles
Best treatment for piles in Bangalore All you need to know about piles and piles treatment in Bangalore - the types of treatment available,…
anoscopy
Anoscopy Anoscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure where a small device known as anoscope will be inserted in the…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
High Fiber Diet – Fire up your fiber intake for these health benefits! Regular bowels, healthy detox, higher immunity, and guaranteed weight loss - a high fiber diet can bring all…
free thyroxine ft4
Free thyroxine test (FT4) The FT4 or free thyroxine test is used to detect the level of free thyroxine of FT4 thyroid…
18 instant steps to make your jogging routine more powerful Jogging is a form of Aerobic Endurance training which includes running at a slow pace. Jogging is slower…
Cayenne: The remarkable benefits of these red hot chili peppers These may make you rush for a glass of water, but cayenne pepper is actually a healthy additive…
Bubble Tea: Bubbling with nutrition or a hidden sugar mine? The tapioca pearls present in the tea looks like bubbles and hence the name bubble tea became popular.…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
Garlic health benefits cloves
Garlic: Nature’s white pill as an effective home remedy What are the secrets hidden in these tiny white pills? Find out the immense health benefits of using…
hYdroxycut pills
Hydroxycut: How safe are these so-called weight loss supplements? Hydroxycut is a blend of several different ingredients formulated to promote weight loss; powered by a key weight…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
How seitan proved to be a blessing in disguise for vegans worldwide Can only meat-eaters enjoy delicious juicy steaks and burgers? With seitan, the best meat substitute available today,even vegans…
blood ketone test
Blood Ketone (D3HB) Test The Blood Ketone Test measures and monitors the levels of ketone in the blood which is usually performed…
11 unbelievable health benefits of thyme you didn’t know! Thyme is a herb that has been used in alternative medicine.It is a well known seasoning in the…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
sodium chloride
Halotherapy: How inhaling salt can work wonders for your body Halotherapy is quickly gaining popularity amongst those with respiratory diseases. It has shown promise in its treatment.
CT-scan-machine
CT – Computed Tomography Scan CT scan or computed tomography scan is an diagnostic imaging technique where cross-sectional images of body are obtained…
kidney stones
Kidney stones Kidney stones are solid substances made up of crystals. They can be of various sizes. Treatment depend on…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
Rubella IgM test
Rubella IgM Test The Rubella IgM test is a blood test that is performed to diagnose the presence of the rubella…
lp-pla2
LP-PLA2 Test The LP-PLA2 test is a test which is carried out to assess the levels of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
beta hcg test
Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
Tart Cherry: The healthiest excuse for taking that second serving of pie Tart cherry has been traditionally used in delectable desserts such as pies. Recent studies have revealed that its…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
Vitamin b12
Vitamin B12 Test Vitamin b12 is an essential nutrient required for healthy functioning of the nervous system and also development of…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
Chest X-Ray A chest x-ray is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to visualize the structures inside your chest. It…
Exercises or diet? Find out the healthiest way to gain weight Tired of being called skinny all the time? Looking for healthy ways to beef up? Why not try…
blood elements analysis
Vitamin Profile Your doctor will recommend you undergo the vitamin profile test if you are showing signs of either vitamin…
woman with abdominal pain holding ovulation calendar
Ovulation – facts to know about ovulation Learn how and when ovulation occurs, demystify common misconceptions, identify symptoms, methods of detection and right period for…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 igm
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgM The Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test detects IgM class of antibodies in the blood.The presence of beta-2…
beta alanine energy powder
Beta-alanine: A powerhouse of proteins to charge up your workout How can a simple amino acid be a crucial health supplement for champion athletes? Find out how you…
apolipoprotein a1 test
Apolipoprotein -A1 (APO-A1) Test Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) constitutes 70% of protein content in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and helps in lipid metabolism.
Low fat diets
A complete list of low-fat diets and how to follow them Low-fat diets help you lose weight in a healthy way, but it works only with regular exercise and…
Mood swings
The real reasons for your mood swings and how to overcome them Are you prone to heated moods frequently? Do you also feel bouts of depressive feeling creeping up on…
anti-chlamydia antibody tets
Anti-Chlamydia Antibody -IgG Test Anti-Chlamydia Antibody - IgG test is performed by collection of urine or genital fluids as sample for testing…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your survival. However, these…
antiHEV IgM test
Anti hepatitis E virus (Anti HEV) IgM Test Anti HEV IgM test determines the level of the IgM antibodies in the blood, The disease is often…
Creatine: Is this the right peak athletic-performance supplement for you? Creatine is the amino acid that boosts our energy. Did you know creatine supplements can help you reach…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid when you experience…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
hepatitis B envelope antigen
Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen (HBeAg) The HBeAg or hepatitis B envelope antigen test is a screening test used to diagnose the onset of…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
tonometry
Tonometry Tonometry uses a device called tonometer to measure the pressure inside the eye. This pressure is depends upon…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…

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