What is the Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG test?
The Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG blood examination assists in the diagnosis and assessment of patients who have exhibited symptoms of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS). The test identifies the presence of beta-2 glycoprotein 1 immunoglobulin, IgG antibodies in the blood and assists in the investigation of symptoms such as thrombotic episode (improper clotting of blood) or the reasons for recurrent miscarriage. The specific type of immunoglobulin tested for is IgG. Therefore, the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test involves detecting and measuring the presence of the IgG class of beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody in the blood.
What are immunoglobulins?
Plasma cells or white blood cells in the body produce glycoprotein molecules called Immunoglobulins, which are otherwise called antibodies. They are an integral part of the immune system as they spot and bind themselves to antigens such as bacteria and viruses, and destroy them. An immunoglobulins test typically investigates the presence of three specific immunoglobulins- IgG, IgM, and IgA. Abnormal levels of IgG, IgM, or IgA can point towards a potential health problem.
Does this test have alternative names?
The test is known with few names such as beta 2 GP1 Ab, and IgG.
What is beta2 glycoprotein1 IgG?
Beta 2 glycoprotein IgG is a type of antibody found in the blood. Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgG is an antibody that is linked to the improper clotting of blood. Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgG is an autoantibody that targets the lipid proteins, called phospholipids in the body. These phospholipids are present in the outer membrane of cells and platelets.
Antibodies are an integral part of the immune system, which seek to spot, neutralize and eliminate the presence of foreign organisms in the form of viruses, bacteria, and parasites. IgG antibodies are involved in enabling immunity for a prolonged period against a chronic pathogen.
Antiphospholipid antibodies hamper the clotting process in the body.
Therefore, the presence of Antiphospholipidantibodies increases the risk of blood clots in the veins and arteries. Blood examinations of victims of other autoimmune disorders, such as lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) also show the presence of one or more Antiphospholipid antibodies.
What is Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is categorized under autoimmune disorders, where the body’s immune system produces antibodies that are destructive and damage cells and tissues. Sadly, it can affect anyone and age is no restriction. Even children and babies can be victims of APS. Statistics point out that most of the diagnosis of patients of APS occurs between 20 and 50 years of age.
Abnormal levels of beta-2 GP1 IgG antibodies are detected in Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients. APS is linked to the formation of inappropriate blood clots, poor platelet count and complications associated with pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, and recurrent miscarriages.
Some of these patients exhibit symptoms such as thrombosis, hemolytic anemia, or circulatory problems. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or with systemic rheumatic diseases, beta2 glycoprotein IgG antibodies are found with unimaginable frequency.
What health issues are caused by APS?
Some of the health problems caused by APS are:
– Pulmonary embolism
– Kidney damage
– Deep vein thrombosis
– Heart attack
– Miscarriage in pregnant women
APS can be life-threatening in the event of the formation of huge blood clots in the brain, lungs or heart.
Why has the doctor ordered this test for me?
Some patients have suffered unexplained blood clots in an artery or vein. This is a good reason to investigate. Further, if patients have suffered repeated miscarriages in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, doctors may order the Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG test. A few important symptoms may prompt your doctor to order a Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG test:
– Inflammation and pain in the limbs
– Chest pain
– Apparent changes in speech and cognition
– Recurrent miscarriages
– Persistent headaches and breathlessness
– A clot in artery /vein
– Loss of memory
A beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgG antibody test is required in cases where the initial tests performed for APS have turned negative, yet the suspicion of APS remains.
In the event of either the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG test turning positive, the blood test needs to be repeated after a gap of 3 months to check if the presence of the antibody was just temporary or chronic.
This test is also necessary for those who suffer an autoimmune disorder and have tested negative for beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody. Periodic testing may be needed for such people to monitor the development of antibodies.
Is there any special preparation needed before the Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG test?
The test is simple with no additional preparation required before performing the test.
What is the procedure for the beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgG antibody test?
It is a very simple test performed by collecting a blood sample from your vein. A doctor or a technician performs the procedure to draw the blood sample.
An elastic band is wrapped around your forearm to ensure the veins fill up with blood. Before inserting the needle, the area is disinfected
Next, a needle is inserted into the vein and the blood sample is drawn into a tube attached to the needle. Patients may feel a slight sensation equivalent to a pinprick when the needle is inserted
One the blood is drawn, the band is loosened and the needle is slowly pulled out from the arm. Using minimal pressure, a cotton swab or gauze is applied to the area where the needle was inserted to stop the bleeding
The blood sample now makes its way for testing. It is a very safe process and does not take longer than a few minutes. Some patients may need several punctures in their vein to draw out the required amount of blood especially if it takes some effort to spot a suitable vein.
It is very rare that the injected site becomes infected. If patients complain of bruise or pain, it settles down in a day or two. Some patients feel faint after the blood is drawn and they may need some extra care for a while before they recover.
How is this test beneficial?
Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgG antibody test helps explain the reason for thrombotic episodes or blood clots or recurrent miscarriages. It is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It can also help detect the presence of autoantibodies in people suffering from other autoimmune disorders.
How long does it take to get the test results of the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG antibody test?
Results of beta 2-glycoprotein 1 IgG antibody test takes about a week to be ready.
How can I get to know the normal range for the beta 2 glycoprotein1 IgG test?
– 0-39.9 U/mL (Borderline)
– 0-79.9 U/mL (positive)
– ≥80.0 U/mL (strongly positive)
– <15.0 U/mL (negative)
How do I interpret the test results?
If the beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) antibodies are more than 40 U/mL for IgG, it points to Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Those with clinical signs of APS may show lower levels of beta-2 GP1 antibodies in the blood.Beta-2 GP1 IgG antibodies must be found in the blood at least during two or more blood tests performed after an interval of 12 weeks.
If the beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgG antibody test is positive, it is indicative of Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In case the level of beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG antibody is high during the test performed after 12 weeks, it is very likely that the person has APS. Doctors also match the blood tests with the symptoms manifested in the patient to make a confirmed APS diagnosis.
If the test result showed moderately positive for beta-2 glycoprotein 1 IgG antibodies, it is likely the presence of antibodies is temporary. This is especially so if the tests for the presence of other Antiphospholipid antibodies came out negative.
What else should I know about this test?
It is important to know that just one positive beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody result does not point to the diagnosis of APS. Similarly, a negative test result does not mean there is no antibody development. It just shows the presence or absence of antibodies during the period of the test.
What clinches the conformed diagnosis of APS is the manifestation of clinical symptoms as well as a positive report from at least two blood examinations conducted after 12 weeks of the first test.
Should the general population undergo this screening tool?
This test is not meant for everyone. Only those who exhibit clinical symptoms of autoimmune disorders need periodic testing of blood samples to detect the presence of Antiphospholipid antibodies.
Can this test be performed on children?
Children who portray clinical symptoms of APS or other autoimmune disorders can undergo the test to check for the presence of beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG.
Can pregnant women undergo this test?
Recurrent miscarriages in women or complications such as preeclampsia prompt doctors to order a beta2glycoproteins1 IgG test to ascertain the presence of autoimmune disorders.
How much does this test typically cost in India?
The price of the beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG test can differ across facilities and cities. The cost of this test ranges from Rs 782 to 1,836.
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