Adenosine Deaminase Test

adenosine deaminase

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

What is Adenosine Deaminase?

Adenosine Deaminase is a protein that is produced by almost all the cells of the body. It plays a very significant role in the activation of the lymphocytes i.e. the white blood cells. The lymphocytes, on the other hand, play a very important role in the immune system of the body. Hence the primary function of the Adenosine Deaminase is to maintain the immune system of the body.

What is the Adenosine Deaminase test?

The Adenosine Deaminase test is used to measure and monitor the levels of the Adenosine Deaminase in the serous fluids like the Peritoneal fluid, the Pericardial fluid, Pleural fluid and the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid). This test is specifically used for diagnosing tuberculosis.

Why did my doctor recommend the Adenosine Deaminase test?

Your doctor might recommend the Adenosine Deaminase test if he suspects you are infected by the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in the pleural fluid. The Adenosine Deaminase test is highly recommended by doctors to rule out the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. He might also suggest the Adenosine Deaminase test with the other body fluids such as the peritoneal fluid, the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) and the Pericardial fluid.

When should I go for the Adenosine Deaminase test?

There are some symptoms associated with the abnormal levels of the Adenosine Deaminase in the various body fluids. If you are experiencing the symptoms related to tuberculosis, the Adenosine Deaminase test is highly recommended. Some of the most common symptoms are:

– Persisting cough for three or more weeks
– Coughing up blood
– Experiencing pain with breathing or coughing
– Chest pain
– Sudden weight loss
– Fatigue and tiredness. Getting exhausted very fast.
– Frequent or recurrent fever
– Night sweats
– Chills and shivers 
– An abrupt shift of appetite

What are the preparations for the Adenosine Deaminase test?

There are no specific preparations required for the Adenosine Deaminase test.

– Fasting is not required.
– No new medications are included.
– There is no need to stop any old medications. You can consult your doctor before the test. He might guide you with further guidelines if you need to stop ay particular medication.
 

What is the procedure of the collection of the Pleural fluid for the adenosine deaminase test?

The cavity space between the outside lining of the lungs (pleura) and the chest wall is called the pleural region. The fluid in this space is known as the pleural fluid. The procedure of collection of the pleural fluid is called Thoracentesis which is used for the pleural fluid collection. The procedure of the pleural fluid collection is as follows:

– You will have to sit on a bed or on the edge of a chair resting your head and arms on a table.

– The area of the insertion of the needle of the syringe is detected.

– A local or general anesthesia or a numbing cream is applied. These are used for numbing the particular area of the puncture.

– A hollow needle is guided by the ultrasound. It is then is inserted into the pleural space.

– Coughing, breathing heavily or moving at all during the test procedure can cause injuries and bruises. Hence it is instructed to stay still throughout the procedure of the pleural fluid sample collection.

– The fluid is drawn and collected inside the tube of the syringe. After the collection of the pleural sample, the area is cleaned and bandaged to avoid any kind of infection.

The pleural fluid is then sent for the Adenosine Deaminase test.

What is the procedure of the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) test for the Adenosine Deaminase test?

The procedure of the CSF collection involves the following steps:
You will be instructed to lie down in a particular way. According to the required position, the knees should be pulled closer to your chest and the chin should be bent downwards. The CSF collection can also be done even if you’re sitting bent forward.

– Numbing medicine is injected in your lower back. Sometimes a numbing cream is also used as an anesthetic. This numbs the area where the syringe has to be injected. This is done to avoid any pain.
After the complete numbing of the area, a syringe is injected and the CSF sample is collected into the tube.

– You will be instructed to stay still while the CSF is being collected. As the collection of the CSF sample gets done, the spot of the puncture is cleaned(to avoid any infection) and bandaged.

– Generally, it is always suggested to lie down on your back for an hour or two after the CSF collection. This is to avoid any headache or dizziness after that.

The CSF sample is sent for the Adenosine Deaminase test.
 

What is the procedure of the collection of the Pericardial fluid for the Adenosine Deaminase test?

The serous fluid secreted into the pericardial cavity by the serous layer of the pericardium is called the Pericardial Fluid. The procedure of the collection of the pericardial fluid s called pericardiocentesis. The collection of the pericardial fluid is done by using the following steps:

– Your health practitioner will instruct you to lie down on a special table in the cardiac catheterization lab.

– Firstly, a mild sedative will be administered for relaxing you. So you will be conscious throughout the test.

– An intravenous(IV)line is inserted into your hands and arms. Any required medications or fluids are passed through this IV(Intravenous line).

– A local or a general anesthetic is introduced for numbing the area on your chest.

– As the area gets numb, a needle is inserted and then a catheter guided by X-ray or ECG(EchoCardioGram) is tunneled into the sac around your heart.

– The pleural fluid sample is withdrawn into the catheter. The catheter is removed after the pleural fluid collection is done. It takes about 20 minutes to 60 minutes for the completion of the whole procedure of the pericardial fluid collection.

The collected Pericardial sample is then sent to the laboratory for the Adenosine Deaminase test.
 

What is the procedure of the peritoneal fluid collection for the test?

The abdominal fluid is associated with the lubrication surfaces of the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and pelvic cavity. The procedure of the collection of  the Peritoneal fluid is done in the following way as elaborated in the steps below:
 
– Depending on the amount of the sample required, you will be instructed to sit or lie down. For the withdrawal of a small amount of the sample, generally, you will be told to sit down but in the case of the collection of a larger amount of the sample, it is necessary for you to lie down on your back with your head a little elevated.

– The area of the insertion of the needle is cleaned and sterilized by the healthcare provider. Your abdomen will be draped with sterile covering after clearing the skin. For avoiding any kind of pain, a local or a general anesthetic is applied. 

– After numbing the skin, a syringe is injected into the peritoneal area. The Peritoneal fluid sample is collected. The test might take 30 minutes to 45 minutes. You will be instructed to stay still until the test lasts. Any movement can cause injuries and bruises.

The Peritoneal Fluid sample is then sent for the Adenosine Deaminase test.
 

What are the risks associated with the collection of the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) sample?

There are a few common risks associated with the collection of the CSF sample:

– The feeling of discomfort and pain during the procedure of the collection of the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) sample.

– Some people might experience bleeding in the spinal cord in the case of having a low platelet count.

– A dizzy feeling along with a persisting headache if there is a CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage)

– There are risks of the nerve getting damaged.

– Various infections can be caused by the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) collection procedure.

What are the risks associated with the collection procedure of the Pericardial fluid?

Pericardiocentesis(the Pericardial fluid collection) procedure involves very severe side effects. Some of the risks posed by the Pericardial fluid collection procedure are:

– An irregular pattern of beating the heart.

– High chances of Myocardial infarction(heart attack).

– Puncturing of the organs like the heart, liver, lung or stomach might occur during the collection of the Pericardial Fluid sample.

The collection procedure of the Pericardial Fluid poses a very high risk of Cardiac Arrest.

What are the risks associated with the collection of the Peritoneal Fluid?

Some of the most common risks associated with the collection of the peritoneal fluid are as follows:

– A persistent or recurrent fever with a high temperature above 100°F.

– Excruciating abdominal pain and tenderness.

– There can even be chances of heavy bleeding on the site of puncture.

– Any movement during the sample collection of the peritoneal fluid can result in wounding or bruising.
 

What is the price of the Adenosine Deaminase in India?

The price of the Adenosine Deaminase test in India ranges from Rs 450 – 1500. the prices can vary depending on the location,i.e. the city or the state the diagnostic center is located in.

When will I get my results for the Adenosine Deaminase test?

You will get your results for the Adenosine Deaminase test within 24 hours to 36 hours of the test.

What does my result of the Adenosine Deaminase test depict?

Serosal body fluidsClinical ranges of the Adenosine Deaminase in Non-Tuberculosis(U/L)
Pleural Fluid  18
Peritoneal Fluid  12
Pericardial Fluid 15.33


Body fluidsClinical ranges of the Adenosine Deaminase in Tuberculosis(U/L)
Pleural Fluid  100
Peritoneal Fluid  92
Pericardial Fluid 90

What does the CSF test result for the Adenosine Deaminase test depict?

The clinical ranges of the Adenosine Deaminase for tuberculosis and the non-tuberculosis are elaborated in the chart given below:  

Adenosine Deaminase Tuberculosis Non-Tuberculosis
Positive  64 3
Negative  0 53

What does it mean if I have elevated levels of the Adenosine Deaminase?

If you are having higher levels of the Adenosine Deaminase, it can indicate the following:
 
– Tuberculosis
– Infections caused by various bacteria
– Lymphoproliferative disorders(abnormal and unregulated proliferation of lymphocytes) 
– Rheumatologic diseases and disorders(inflammation of joints, bones, ligaments, tendons, etc).

Some other abnormalities such as sarcoidosis, pulmonary embolus, cancer or lupus are also caused due to elevated levels of the Adenosine Deaminase.

What does it mean if I have lower levels of the Adenosine Deaminase?

Having lower levels of the Adenosine Deaminase can indicate the following:

– Type II Diabetes mellitus(in this condition the insulin is produced by the pancreas but can’t be used by the body).

– Biliary tract diseases such as cholangitis, gall bladder, etc.

Is the Adenosine Deaminase test recommended for pregnant women?

The changes in the levels of the Adenosine deaminase is normal during pregnancy. Hence it is very important to undergo the Adenosine Deaminase test during the pregnancy. This test mostly recommended during the first trimester for the diagnosis of a specific case of complicated pregnancy.
 
The Adenosine Deaminase test is recommended to pregnant women who are experiencing the symptoms related to tuberculosis.
The cases of Ectopic pregnancy can be easily diagnosed with the Adenosine Deaminase test.

When should my kid undergo the Adenosine Deaminase test?

Adenosine Deaminase test is completely safe for kids except for the risks posed by the collection procedure of various body fluids. If your kid is experiencing the symptoms of abnormal levels of the Adenosine Deaminase or if your kid shows the signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, the Adenosine Deaminase test is highly recommended. The most common symptoms in younger children are:

– Fever and chills 
– Sudden loss of weight
– Poor growth and development
– Recurrent cough
– More susceptibility to cold and influenza
– Swelling of glands

The most common symptoms in adolescents are:
 
– Persisting cough lasting longer than 3 weeks
– Chest pain
– Blood in sputum while coughing up
– Weakness and tiredness
– Glands swelling
– Sudden weight loss
– Decreased appetite
– More than often suffering from fever and chills
– Sweating at night

 

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