Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test

Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

What is a venereal disease?

Venereal diseases that are transmitted sexually are caused by harmful microorganisms that can thrive in the moist and warm environment of the genital parts. It is easier for various harmful bacteria, viruses, yeasts, etc to proliferate in this best suitable environment. These microorganisms which survive on skin or mucous membranes are transmitted via sexual contact via semen, vaginal secretions or blood. It is also known as  Morbus venereal or sexually transmitted disease (STD). The few most common sexually transmitted diseases are:
 
– Gonorrhea.
– Syphilis.
– AIDS.
– Chlamydia.
– Chancroid.
-Pelvic inflammatory disease.
– Lymphogranuloma Venereum(LGV)

How many people in India suffer from Syphilis every year?

More than 1,00,000 cases of syphilis are reported every year in India. Syphilis is the most common among all the other sexually transmitted diseases.

What is Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test?

Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test is a diagnosis process used to probe whether a person has Syphilis(Sexually Transmitted Infection). The bacteria Treponema pallidum infects by penetrating the lining of the mouth or genital area resulting in Syphilis. This test helps in the specific diagnosis of syphilis without any error.

What does the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test diagnose?

Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test detects the dissolved content of antibodies(proteins produced for fighting against invaders like bacteria and other harmful microorganisms)in the blood which are produced by our immune system. These antibodies are produced in response to the antigens(harmful proteins) produced by the cells invaded by the Syphilis causing bacteria. The presence of these Syphilis infection antigen-specific antibodies confirms whether a person has Syphilis or not.

Why has my doctor asked me to undergo the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test?

Your doctor might suggest you undergo the Treponema Pallidum HemagglutinationTest if any symptoms of syphilis or any other sexually transmitted diseases are noticed. The doctor suggests a prelim screening of syphilis like VDRL. If the test is positive, then your doctor will suggest you go for the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test. If there are clear symptoms of secondary or tertiary syphilis, Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test might be suggested directly.

What are the symptoms of syphilis?

The primary symptoms of syphilis are:

– Painless sores around the area of infection.
– Dizziness.
– Numbness.
– Rashes.
– Loss of memory.

The secondary symptoms of syphilis are:

– Sore throat.
– Fever.
– Swollen lymph glands.
– Headaches.
– Fatigue.
– Muscle aches.
– Wart-like patches around skin folds or genitals.
– Loss of appetite.
– Joint pain.
– Enlarged lymph nodes.

The tertiary symptoms of syphilis are:

– Problems controlling muscle movements.
– Numbness.
– Vision problems (gradual blinding).
– Dementia.

Do I need to take a Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test if I don’t have any symptoms?

Without any preliminary syphilis screening, the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test is not suggested.

How do I prepare myself for the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test?

There is no need for any preparation for Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test :

– No fasting is required.
– No medications are needed to be stopped.
– No additional medicines have to be taken either.

How is the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test performed?

For Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test to be conducted the blood sample is collected by the following procedure:

– A tourniquet is wrapped around the upper arm to make the veins more prominent.

– A syringe or needle is used to draw blood by puncturing the vein.

– The blood is drawn into the tube of the syringe.

– The tourniquet is unwrapped.

– An antiseptic is applied to the spot of venipuncture to avoid any infection.

– The spot of injection of the syringe is dabbed by a cotton swab or a bandage is put to stop any further bleeding.

– The blood sample is then sent to the laboratory for the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test.

Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test might also be carried out using the Cerebrospinal Fluid(CSF) sample as well. The procedure of collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid includes:
 
– You will have to lie down on your side with the knees pulled closer to your chest and the chin bent downwards.

– The CSF can also be collected while you are sitting bent forward.

– The practitioner then applies a numbing cream or inject a numbing medicine(anesthesia) in the lower back of the spinal cord.

– Once the area on your back is completely numb, a needle or a syringe is injected in between two vertebrae of the spinal cord.

– The CSF is collected inside the tube of the syringe. It can take about five minutes.

– You need to stay still as the cerebrospinal fluid is being withdrawn.

– As the CSF is collected, the area of the puncture is cleaned and bandaged.

You might be asked to lie down on your back for an hour or two after the CSF(Cerebrospinal Fluid) sample collection. This will help you avoid getting any headaches afterward.

Is the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test procedure painful?

There’s no pain associated with the collection of the blood sample. A person might feel a pin pricking sensation for a very brief moment after the test. There are no risks associated as such. Whereas the collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid(CSF) might lead to some pain and tenderness in your back. A feeling of headache is very commonly associated with post CSF collection.

What are the risks of the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test?

– Some people feel light-headed and dizzy after the blood is drawn.
– It might cause Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin causing a lump or bruise).
– There might be pain associated with too many punctures for finding a vein.

What is the price of the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test in India?

The average price of the Treponema Pallidum HemagglutinationTest can range from Rs 500 to 1500 in India. It varies with the location of the laboratory or the diagnostic center.

When will I get my reports?

You can expect the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test result within 24 to 36 hours of the diagnosis. Usually, it is given the very day of the diagnosis itself.

How to interpret the Treponema Pallidum HemagglutinationTest result?

If the Treponema Pallidum HemagglutinationTest Result comes negative, it indicates the absolute absence of antibodies (which are produced against the syphilis infection antigens). Hence, you don’t have Syphilis. If the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test Result comes positive, it indicates the presence of antibodies against Syphilis. Thus you’re diagnosed with syphilis.

What to do if my reports are positive?

If your test result is positive, then you are detected with syphilis. The chances of errors are negligible. This is the most accurate test for syphilis.

Can I take the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test during pregnancy?

Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test is recommended by the doctor during pregnancy to diagnose syphilis specifically. If the VDRL report is positive, the mother is suggested to undergo the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test. Syphilis can be transmitted to the baby during pregnancy if the mother has VDRL report positive which can adversely affect the baby. Syphilis in the mother can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth and even death of the baby after a short while of birth.

Can my newborn undergo the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test?

The test procedure involves the collection of blood samples. Hence it is totally safe for your newborn to undergo this test. Like in adults, a newborn is also suggested to undergo this test if the VDRL reports are positive. Syphilis transmitted to the baby is called congenital syphilis. 
Babies having congenital syphilis can have:

– Bone damage.
– Severe anemia.
– Enlarged liver and spleen.
– Jaundice.
– Nerve problems causing blindness or deafness.
Meningitis.
– Skin rashes.

What are the other tests associated with syphilis diagnosis?

>There are a few other tests which can also be used for diagnosing syphilis:

– Unheated serum Reagin test.
– Rapid plasma Reagin test.
– Reagin skin test.
– Reagin Automatic test.
– Toluidine Red unheated serum test.

What are the advantages of the Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination test?

– It helps in diagnosing syphilis.
– The collection of samples is very simple.
– Protects a baby from syphilis bacteria invasion by detecting the mother with syphilis.
– Cost-effective.
– This test is more specific and accurate.

 

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