Sensory Processing Disorder

SENSORY PROCESSING DISORDER

Last Updated February 21st, 2019

What is Sensory Integration?

Humans require sensory input in order to understand and navigate their environment. Input received from sensory receptors in various organs such as the skin, eyes, nose, and ears is passed on to the brain where it is processed and analyzed. The brain then formulates an appropriate response and relays instructions to execute this response to organs or limbs involved. This process is known as sensory integration.

SENSORY PROCESSING DISORDERIn performing this complex role, the brain must also take into account factors such as the cultural or social appropriateness of its responses and actions.

This process of sensory integration is ongoing on and we are usually not even aware of its complexity and importance.

However, at times there can be difficulties or errors that complicate or disrupt it, creating abnormal reactions that are out of proportion with the degree of stimulus. Such disorders may be referred to as sensory integration dysfunction or sensory processing disorders. These disorders are not well understood. Fortunately, there are a variety of therapies available to help alleviate them.

What is Sensory Processing Disorder?

This is a generic term used to refer to a range of disorders characterized by difficulties in the accurate and appropriate integration of sensory input. Hence, another name for this disorder is sensory integration dysfunction. Those suffering from it tend to be either over-sensitive or under-sensitive to sensory stimuli. Their reactions do not match with those of others who are exposed to the same stimuli.

Some patients are unable to tolerate certain sensations, often ones that are a part of the normal everyday environment. Normal sensory stimuli may elicit disproportionate responses such as vomiting or alarm.  Alternatively, others may fail to respond even to extreme changes in environment or significant injury that should normally induce pain response. This can affect children as well as adults. The condition can be mild or severe enough to impair day to day functioning of the individual. One sense may be affected or several. There may also be disproportionate emotional responses, leading to temper tantrums in children or mood swings in adults.

What Causes It?

Sensory processing autismSensory processing disorder is considered to occur as a result of errors in processing multisensory input.

There may be difficulty in both receiving and responding to the input. The exact cause for this dysfunction is not well understood.

Generally, research shows that the symptoms have a neurological basis and some studies indicate that there may be an underlying genetic factor responsible for this. Statistics show that it tends to affect boys more often than girls.

What Are The Signs of Sensory Processing Disorder?

Sensory processing disorder can take on a variety of manifestations of varying severity. Any of the sensory abilities or faculties of perception may be affected. Accordingly, there is a very wide spectrum of possible symptoms.

Patients may remain unaware of sensations that others can experience. Alternatively, they may be overwhelmed by sensory input in situations where others are able to pick one stimulus to concentrate on while tuning out others. This is a complex condition expressed through a combination of physical, emotional and behavioral symptoms. Different individuals are affected differently. Symptoms like these are sometimes seen in otherwise healthy children. Often, these tend to go away by adulthood. Sometimes, they persist and result in a variety of difficulties in day to day functioning. The list below enumerates a variety of symptoms and several conflicts with others in the list. This is a reflection of the variation in manifestations of SPD.

  • Aversion to some sensations such as certain sounds, tastes or textures.
  • Lack of response to certain stimuli that should otherwise elicit a response such as pain.
  • Temper tantrums.
  • Avoidance of eye contact.
  • Having very strong preferences in terms of foods and clothing and a strong resistance to deviations from these preferences.
  • A dislike of being touched.
  • Dislike of grooming activities such as bathing, cutting hair or nails and brushing of hair.
  • Inability to remain still, and a tendency to be hyperactive.
  • Difficulty accepting changes in routine.
  • Difficulty in learning new activities or skills.
  • Challenges in executing tasks involving fine motor skills.
  • Frequent variations in moods and fluctuations in behavior.
  • Difficulty in following instructions.
  • Socially disruptive or ‘inappropriate’ behavior
  • Poor articulation.
  • Being clumsy or having a reduced ability to judge the positions of objects relative to oneself and other objects.
  • Chronic lethargy.
  • Having a floppy, hypotonic body.

This list above is not comprehensive, but it serves to give a sense of the range of difficulties that individuals suffering from SPD have to contend with.

What are the Different Types of Sensory Processing Disorder?

There are multiple categories and subtypes of SPD. A few of these are:

Sensory processing strokeSensory Modulation Disorder: This is generally characterized by an inability to respond in a manner that is proportionate to the degree and nature of the sensory stimulus. It can take three forms.

  • The patient may be under-responsive to stimulation. In other words, their response may be absent, delayed or less intense than those offered by others in the same situation.
  • Alternatively, they may be hypersensitive to certain stimuli. Normal stimuli can elicit disproportionately severe responses such as vomiting or screaming. Responses may also occur too soon or be prolonged beyond the normal tendency. Patients generally appear withdrawn, passive and isolated.
  • The third form is known as sensory seeking. Such patients have an intense craving for certain sensory experiences and arrange their behaviors in such a way as to achieve this stimulation. However, these cravings tend to remain unfulfilled which means that inappropriate behaviors will continue. Common manifestations of this occur in the form of hyperactivity, constantly touching things, being overly affectionate etc.

Sensory-Based Motor Disorder: A normal individual is able to execute tasks by planning them in advance and then executing them in a controlled and sequential manner. The process adapts to unforeseen changes as it goes along and this requires a combination of cognitive, sensory and motor faculties. Individuals with sensory-based motor disorders often find it challenging to achieve this seamless integration of functions. Broadly, this disorder can take two forms:

    • Postural disorder. Such individuals are unable to maintain physical control of their bodies in order to adopt postures necessary to execute tasks. Such individuals are unable to process information accurately enough to be able to plan a series of actions in advance or to formulate a goal to achieve. They tend to have difficulty executing tasks that involve fine motor coordination. They may compensate for this with verbalization or fantasies.
  • Sensory Discrimination Disorder: Individuals with this form of SPD typically face difficulties in processing sensory input in such a way as to be able to distinguish between or identify different stimuli. They take longer than others to understand or process input as a result of which their motor abilities may also suffer. This can make them appear inattentive and impassive.

How Does It Affect Growth and Personality In The Long Term?

Individuals with mild cases of SPD may be able to lead normal lives with minimal impairment. However, when there are severe challenges faced in sensory integration, there can be any number of complications.

The individual may be prone to injury, may have learning difficulties and low self-esteem as a result. They may find it difficult to relate with the experiences and abilities of others, becoming withdrawn or emotionally isolated. There can be challenges in forming close interpersonal relationships and friendships.

Having SPD can also make it difficult to accurately execute day to day tasks or occupational tasks. This condition can interfere with learning and play in childhood and work in adulthood. Hypersensitivity can make the patient feel like their senses are overloaded and they feel an uncontrollable compulsion to respond in certain ways. In children this can manifest in the form of tantrums, screaming or other forms of socially disruptive behavior, making it hard for them to gain approval from peers and adults.

Sensory processing disorders also tend to be present alongside other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Asperger syndrome, autism, learning disabilities and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Diagnosing Sensory Processing Disorder

Sensory processing disorder is not formally recognized as a distinct clinical condition. Nor is this condition well understood. As a result, patients and their families may find it difficult to understand their problems and obtain a helpful diagnosis. Additionally, difficulties with processing sensory input may appear as part of the spectrum of autistic disorders. Often, these symptoms overlap to a great extent with those of other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In fact, both disorders are often present side by side in a single individual, complicating the process of diagnosis. Occupational therapists trained in recognizing and treating sensory integration dysfunction can provide the necessary understanding and help.

Treatment

  • The basic treatment method is to teach children how to go about daily tasks in a fun way. Doctors set challenges in a way that the child would find it to be a game. This treatment method is known as sensory integration.
  • Another treatment method is when parents tend to share the same interests and indulge in activities with their children. Doing the same activities that the children do to understand them more.
  • The second phase of this treatment is when the child is made to share the same world as their parent, to help them understand as to how things are done. This treatment method is known as developmental, individual difference Relationship-based (DIR) model.

Prevention – Since the actual cause of this disorder is unknown, there are no sure shot ways to prevent it.

Facts

  • 1 in 20 children and adults worldwide may have sensory processing disorder (SPD)
  • It is a neurological disorder.
  • SPD can be mistaken for ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), but most of those who have SPD tend to have ADHD as well.

Facts

  • Heredity is said to be one of the causes of SPD thought the actual cause is still unknown.
  • Though sensory processing disorder is not autism, many of those who have been diagnosed with autism have sensory processing issues.

Facts

  • There are 16 senses in the human body, in addition to the 5 common ones that we are aware of (sight, smell, touch, and taste). These pertain to pressure, itch, pain, direction, temperature etc.

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Provide them with a healthy and wholesome diet; they need all the nutrition that they can get.
  • Learn the child, try and understand what they like and do not.
  • Ensure that you are patient with the child.  This helps in making them feel loved and understood.

Don'ts
  • Try diets that are not wholesome, these diets tend to eliminate foods that are essential for the individual and provide them with the necessary nutrients.
  • Ask questions if you know that the patient will be unable to answer it. This is important as it could affect the patient’s confidence level.
  • Lose your temper; this is of utmost importance, as the patient needs to know as to what they did wrong and how they can correct their mistakes.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

anal sex
Anal Sex : Tips from experts on how to be kinky yet safe Whether it irks you or stokes your fantasies, anal sex has always been an intriguing sexual act. Learn…
Clitoris: Why is it called the gateway to toe-curling female orgasms? The word clitoris comes from the Greek word kleitoris or “little hill.”  Many compare the female clitoris to…
Female Masturbation: Tips on how to turn up the heat during a solo mission As a female, do you find yourself constantly wondering as to what is the best way to please…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
Find the G spot: The top sex positions that guarantee an orgasm There has been a long debate as to whether the G-spot actually exists as a separate organ.  Can…
Penis pump: Pump your way out of erectile dysfunction One of the options to treat erectile dysfunction is by the use of a penis pump. It is…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
Chromium Picolinate: An essential mineral supplement for faster weight loss Did you know that about 1.6 million deaths were directly linked to diabetes globally? How is it linked…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin. Find easy and…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
Muscle relaxers: Think twice before popping prescription drugs for muscle pain The market is brimming with OTC muscle relaxers. But these come with a host side-effects. Find out the…
What is the average penis size and why should you care? Scientifically speaking, the average size of the penis depends on numerous factors such as genes, environmental circumstances, etc.
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
Tamarind: The top health benefits of this staple Asian ingredient Did you know this sweet and sour pulpy fruit does more than just add a tangy flavor to…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the potatoes) growing close…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
Orgasms: How to perfect the art of achieving intense bursts of pleasure (every time!) Orgasms are dependent not just on the sexual activity but on your partner as well. What you must…
Pumpkin Seeds: Why pumpkins are more than just for pies! Pumpkins have been long associated with Halloween carvings and delicious pies. But did you know that pumpkin seeds…
DASH Diet: What to eat in a “Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension”? If you or your loved one is suffering from chronic hypertension (high blood pressure), dash towards a DASH…
Epley maneuver: Why is this the best protection from the symptoms of vertigo? Epley maneuver is an exercise that can treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).  It was…
Chondroitin spine health
9 amazing ways chondroitin can help you bounce back to health Chondroitin is naturally found in meat, especially in the connective tissues of animals. Chondroitin works by reducing the…
about mediterranean diet
Why you should be adopting a Mediterranean style of diet today Ever wondered why the Mediterranean diet is so healthy? One simple solution to lowering risk of several deadliest…
How do neutrophils protect you from fatal bacterial attacks? During an infection, certain enzymes alert the mature neutrophils.  Neutrophils then travel through the bloodstream to the affected…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
eating myths debunked
8 ‘healthy eating’ myths you believed until now Is a zero-carb diet really healthy for you? Are organic products worth their cost? Did you know how…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
Coconut sugar: What is it and is it healthier than table sugar? In the long list of things that the wonderful coconut gives us, coconut sugar is another remarkable addition.…
How can Kegels help you overcome weak pelvic muscles & incontinence? Kegel exercises are pelvic floor strengthening exercises that can help you overcome incontinence issues that rise out of…
Echocardiogram
Echocardiography – ECHO Echocardiography (commonly known as ECHO) is an imaging modality (similar to ultrasonography) used to visualize the interior of…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know some of the…
boost immunity tips
Step up your defence: 15 proven tips on how to boost your immunity Want to naturally build up a stronger immunity? Tired of frequent colds and runny nose?You will never believe…
Spirulina: Battle diabetes and cholesterol with this blue-green algae Spirulina, a species of salt water algae, has now become a billion dollar industry. How you can use…
Improve sex life
9 best tips from around the world for better sex life How can the pungent-smelling garlic pack in a punch to your libido? How could something as slimy as…
chia seeds weight loss
Chia seeds: How to consume this staple Aztec food to get a leaner body Chia seeds: What is the actual reason for its sudden popularity? Why are celebrities swearing by its amazing…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help you combat the…
Chest X-Ray A chest x-ray is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to visualize the structures inside your chest. It…
nature health benefits
Green Healing: The amazing health benefits of being in nature You have no idea what sitting in a closed room does to your body and mind.Can a stroll…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
paleo keto diet
Paleo vs. Keto: Which diet plan is best suited for your body goals? Is eating like a caveman the right way to go? Can you really eat fats to burn fats…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Oxidative Stress: Understanding the most lethal phenomenon happening in your body right now Free radicals cause damage to the body, which is known as oxidation.  The amount of oxidation caused by…
General adaptation syndrome: Understanding stress, one step at a time The struggle of the body to produce hormones during a stressful situation is the main theme of general…
Top natural diuretics: The instant benefits you can get from nature’s water pills Since diuretic drugs are known to cause side effects, it is better to choose a natural diuretic that…
These are the top foods to increase your hemoglobin count It is important to add iron-rich foods into your diet in order to increase hemoglobin. Deficiency of hemoglobin could…
aspartame or sugar
Aspartame – Hidden truths about this storm in a teacup Aspartame, the artificial sweetener, has gone under the scanner on several occasions for allegedly doing more harm than…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your survival. However, these…
dandelion health benefits
Dandelion: Little parachutes of health and wellness for your whole body Dandelions are not just bright looking blossoms that cheer your mind. These are powerpacked with essential nutrients that…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an inexplicable emotional numbness…
Goji berry: A traditional Chinese berry that packs the best of antioxidants Goji berry is an ancient berry that is considered to be power-packed with nutrients and antioxidants. Which means…
ANTI-MICROSOMAL-ANTIBODY-(AMA)
Anti-Microsomal Antibody AMA Test AMA or anti-microsomal antibody test is a blood test that measures the activity of AMA in the body…
Screening_BETATHALASSEMIA
Beta-Thalassemia Screening Beta-thalassemia screening procedures involve both prenatal and post natal diagnostic methods to determine if a baby has beta-thalassemia…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
MANUKA HONEY child
Manuka Honey: What is it and why should you choose this over regular honey? Manuka honey is a specific type of honey produced by honey bees that collect nectar from the flowers…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
Cordyceps: How the Caterpillar fungus works as a proven cancer-shield Strange as it may sound, but cordyceps or "caterpillar fungus", a fungus variety native to the Himalayas may…
Rick Simpson’s Oil: The truths and controversies of this cannabis product Rick Simpson's Oil is an extract from the much-controversial plant, Cannabis. What is the actual truth behind the…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
sodium chloride
Halotherapy: How inhaling salt can work wonders for your body Halotherapy is quickly gaining popularity amongst those with respiratory diseases. It has shown promise in its treatment.
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
tips for perfect sleep
Stop hitting the snooze button: 8 proven steps to perfect sleep Are you tired of not getting enough sleep? All your efforts for a sound sleep going in vain?…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…
cold flu sinus treatment
How to beat the common cold, flu, and sinus infection instantly? Can you guess some of the easiest tricks to treat cold and sinus infections? How are these different…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
MCT oil athletes
MCT Oil : The kind of fats you should be eating MCT oil or Medium Chain Triglycerides is the new buzzword in the fitness industry. What makes this oil…
erectile dysfunction treatment
Erectile Dysfunction: Effective tips to help you get back on charge Erectile dysfunction is a common male sexual dysfunction. Don't stress out. Just follow these amazing tips to get…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
Psyllium Husk: More than just an effective natural laxative Psyllium husk, or isabgol, is a popular natural laxative . But did you in addition to regulating bowels,…
What is the right way to take a pregnancy test? A pregnancy test is undertaken to determine if you have conceived. A home pregnancy test is the most…
Surgery or home-remedy; what is the right way to treat a burn The treatment of a burn injury depends on its severity. You can save a life by offering the…
glucose-tolerance
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test – GTT Glucose tolerance test (or Oral GTT) is used to detect the onset of diabetes or prediabetes conditions. It…
testosterone-blood-test
Testosterone test Testosterone is the primary sex hormone in males; produced in the testes and adrenal glands. The testosterone test…
quinoa salad
Quinoa : A prodigious superfood you need to include in your diet today! Quinoa - what is so special about this native South American grain that has taken the world by…
Fluoride: An indispensible mineral or a potential toxin ? Fluoride, the main ingredient of toothpaste, has shown a great potential as a cleanser. However, how much fluoride…
Drinking water benefits
8 reasons why you should grab a bottle of water now! Did you know you don't have to be thirsty for hours to be dehydrated?You could be dehydrated right…
xylitol gum
Xylitol : Is this the right sugar substitute for you? Discovered during World War 2 owing to sugar shortage, xylitol has become a common name in pharamaceutical industry.…
black seed oil benefits
Black Seed Oil: What secret benefits could it bestow on your health? Black seeds or nigella seeds are tiny packets of health brimming with amazing benefits. Find out why should…
Exercises or diet? Find out the healthiest way to gain weight Tired of being called skinny all the time? Looking for healthy ways to beef up? Why not try…
Mood swings
The real reasons for your mood swings and how to overcome them Are you prone to heated moods frequently? Do you also feel bouts of depressive feeling creeping up on…
Vagus nerve: 7 health benefits of stimulating the “gut-brain” connection As a matter of fact, there are two vagus nerves namely the left and the right but is…
V for Vagina: How well do you know this extraordinary part of the female anatomy? Vagina - a simple part of the human anatomy that has often created a feeling of either digust…
Endoscopy Endoscopy is a procedure where an illuminated probe with a camera attached to it is inserted inside the…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…