Pellagra


Last Updated April 29th, 2019

What is pellagra?

Pellagra is defined as a nutritional disorder which is caused by a vitamin B3 deficiency.  Pellagra leads to different systemic diseases ranging from the skin, stomach, and the nervous system.  

Pellagra syndrome is characterized by Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, which leads to Death. Patients suffering from pellagra have symptoms of brown discoloration of the skin, especially in sun-exposed areas.  Advanced stages of pellagra cause increased pigmentation, which usually leads to thin varnish-like eruptive scales.  

Apart from skin changes, abdominal involvement may lead to intractable diarrhea, stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth), and glossitis (ulcerations within the mouth), while pellagrous encephalopathy causes memory loss, depression, delirium, or disorientation.  

Pellagra if untreated can lead to stupor and death. The name pellagra comes from the Italian word pelle (skin) and agra (rough), which is rough skin, referring to the skin problems in pellagra.

The discovery of pellagra

The diagnosis of pellagra was solved by Dr. Joseph Goldberger.  Dr. Goldberger was given the responsibility by the US Public Health Service to deal with pellagra.  After inspecting Southern orphanages, mental hospitals and prisons, Dr. Goldberger made the pivotal observation that the malnourished inmates of those institutions often developed pellagra while the better-fed staff did not develop pellagra.

It was concluded by Dr. Goldberger that pellagra did not arise from germs, as was commonly believed, but rather from a nutritional deficiency and to prove this, Dr. Goldberger, his assistants and even his wife engaged in experiments called as filth parties.  They injected themselves with blood or ingested the scabs, feces and body fluids of patients and none developed pellagra. He fed Mississippi prison inmates with a poor diet that he believed caused pellagra and within months, many developed the disease.  He then added meat, fresh vegetables, and milk to their diet and reversed all of the signs and symptoms of pellagra.

He never identified the dietary principle that had this extraordinary effect. Dr. Goldberger died in 1929 due to kidney cancer and eight years later, the factor was found to be niacin, which was made in 1937 at the University of Wisconsin.  Vitamin B3 is found in large quantities in food products such as fish, poultry, red meat, and green leafy vegetables.

Types of pellagra

Pellagra is diagnosed at a later stage of severe niacin deficiency.  Niacin, which is also called vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin.  Pellagra is differentiated into primary and secondary.

  • Primary pellagra results from inadequate nicotinic acid (niacin) and/or tryptophan in the diet.  The body generally converts niacin into an amide, which is required for appropriate cellular function and metabolism.  These compounds are known as vital coenzymes. Since cellular functions in multiple organs and tissues are affected by niacin deficiency, the clinical expressions of pellagra are diverse.
  • Secondary pellagra can be diagnosed when a sufficient amount of niacin is present in the diet, but other diseases alter adequate niacin absorption and/or processing.  Some of the examples include prolonged diarrhea, chronic alcoholism, chronic dialysis treatment, chronic colitis, particularly ulcerative colitis or regional enteritis, cirrhosis of the liver, tuberculosis of the GI tract, malignant carcinoid tumor, and Hartnup syndrome.

Factors affecting the incidence of pellagra

Frequency:  Pellagra occurs mainly in developing nations in which corn and corn products are the major food sources.  Pellagra is common among ethnic populations since their diets are deficient in niacin and/or tryptophan.

Age:  Pellagra is typically a disease that affects adults.  Adolescents and young children who follow pellagragenic diet can develop pellagra.  Pellagra very rarely affects the infants.

What are the different stages?

Early findings:  In the first stage, acute pellagra resembles a sunburn.  The skin becomes red, blebs or blisters develop and leave loss of surface areas which resemble a severe sunburn.  The eruption usually begins as acute dermatitis accompanied by edema and then change to erythema (redness of the skin) on the upper surface of the hands, with pruritus and burning.  Initial bright erythema may change to cinnamon brown in color. Blisters evolve after several days from the onset of erythema.

The blisters may combine into bullae and then break. In other patients, dry brown scales and blackish crusts, resulting from hemorrhage, form after 2 to 4 weeks.  The skin area which is exposed to sunlight and heat or if there is friction or pressure applied, it causes redness and superficial scaling.

Late findings:  During the second stage, the skin becomes hard, rough, cracked, and brittle.  Patients have thickened skin that is dry, scaly, and hyperkeratotic with a parchment-like appearance and a yellowish brown hue.  The skin is darkly pigmented and during extreme cases of deficiency, the skin becomes harder, drier, more cracked, and covered with scales.  Blisters are present when pellagra recurs at the same site and they contain lymphocytes, segmented leukocytes, and histiocytes and occasionally, pustules, crusts, and deep fissures are present.

Pellagra can affect…

Pellagra can affect any part of the body surface, but it more frequently appears in certain areas and the usual sites are the dorsal surfaces of the hands, face, neck, arms, and feet.

Hands:  The backs of the hands are the most common sites for the lesions, which accounts for 77% to 97% of cases.  Lesions spread to the arm representing a glove. The outer surface of the skin of the fingers thicken and the folds vanish.  Painful fissures develop on the palms and digits.

Face:  Skin rash spreads along with the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and the skin appears to be pigmented with a pattern of butterfly eruption and also looks similar to lupus erythematosus in appearance.  A characteristic well-marginated eruption appears on the front of the neck and is called a Casal necklace as compared with scales elsewhere. Scales that are formed on the face become fat and in some cases becomes pustular.  Lesions spread from the sides to the rest of the nose, forehead, cheeks, chin, lips, and rarely to the eyelids and ears.

Neck:  The Casal necklace spreads in a broader way and surrounds the entire neck.  The upper border of the Casal necklace extends anteriorly whereas the lower border of the Casal necklace begins under the vertebral column.  The Casal necklace extends up to the level of the sternum and even the nipples. On the back, the affected border may extend up to the scapulae.

Feet:  Lesions usually do not extend proximally to the malleoli, which are included and may be covered with hyperkeratotic erythema.  The heels remain free of lesions. The front and back portions of the feet gets involved to form a boot pattern. On the palms and soles, skin appears yellowish, dry, rough, and scaly.  In children, erythematous lesions appear on the palms and soles.

Other areas such as shoulders, forearms, elbows, and knees are also affected.

Nails:  Nails are soft, crumbly, and dull.

Eyes:  Keratoconjunctivitis and keratomalacia may occur.

The mucosal surface of the GI tract:  In one-third of patients affects by pellagra, the lips, tongue, and oral mucous membranes are involved.  The tongue first becomes hypertrophic (increases in volume), with furs, ulcers, and erosions, and later the tongue becomes atrophic.  

Other clinical findings include cheilosis (painful inflammation and cracking of the corners of the mouth), angular stomatitis (a condition that causes red, swollen patches in the corners of the mouth), and thrush (a fungal infection caused by the species called as Candida on the skin or mucous membranes).  Bleeding from the gingiva occurs without hemorrhages.  The lips are inflamed, rough, achy, and shiny.

Gastrointestinal tract:  The main symptoms include poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, stomach discomfort, abdominal pain, and increased salivation, which affects around 50% of the patients affected by pellagra.  Glossitis is a medical condition which affects the mouth causing soreness of the mouth as well as dysphagia. Diarrhea occurs due to the involvement of the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract where the stools are watery, but can sometimes become bloody and mucoid.

Neuropsychiatric manifestations:  Neuropsychiatric manifestations include a headache, irritability, poor concentration, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations, stupor, apathy, psychomotor unrest, photophobia, tremor, ataxia, spastic paresis, fatigue, and depression.  

These symptoms may advance to encephalopathy and may cause confusion, psychosis, or memory loss. As the pellagra disease advances, patients tend to have symptoms of disorientation and confusion and finally, patients become stuporous and comatose and die.

Diagnosis

The typical symptoms and signs of pellagra indicate the diagnosis and subsequently, diagnosis is confirmed with blood counts, hypoproteinemia, higher levels of serum calcium, liver function test results, and serum porphyrin levels.  Low urinary levels of N- methylnicotinamide and pyridone suggest niacin deficiency and hence the diagnosis of pellagra can be confirmed.

What is the prognosis?

The morbidity of pellagra depends on the organs that get involved during the disease process.  Dermatitis caused by pellagra generally is painful with burning during the severe stages.  Systemic conditions such as malaise, weakness, and lassitude can affect the daily lifestyle. Stomach involvement such as malabsorption and diarrhea leads to failure to thrive.  Neurologic conditions which are caused due to the disease condition such as anxiety, depression, delusions, and hallucinations may affect the patient very heavily. The prognosis for pellagra is excellent when the disease is diagnosed and treated appropriately.

Treatment of pellagra

Oral therapy which includes nicotinamide or niacin is very useful in eradicating and reversing the symptoms of pellagra.  Since malnourishment and lack of protein diet cause the disease, it is very important to administer these nutrients for complete recovery.  Patients affected with pellagra, unfortunately, do not have the ability to carry out the daily chores and will require bed rest and consume a liquid or a soft solid diet to combat dysphagia.  It is very important to ensure that the patient has a balanced diet that is rich in protein and niacin. Topical emollients help in reducing the discomfort of dermatitis and help towards the road to recovery.

Diet 

The diet of a patient affected by pellagra needs to include a protein-rich diet with adequate calories.  A combination of food products such as adding meats, milk, peanuts, leafy green vegetables, grains, and brewer’s dry yeast is a  source of niacin and help in preventing as well as treating pellagra.  Since the patients suffer from dysphagia caused by glossitis, a liquid or a semisolid diet is advisable. Milk, meat, and eggs provide an protein-rich diet and the required amount of proteins essential for absorbing the nutrients.

Prevention 

Primary prevention is as follows:

  • Consuming a diet, which is rich in niacin and/or tryptophan should be considered and some of the examples of include eggs, bran, nutritional yeast, peanuts, meat, poultry, fish, red meat, cereals, legumes, and seeds.
  • The recommended amount of niacin required daily for infants is 5 mg to 6 mg.  For children 9 mg to 13 mg. For adults 13 mg to 20 mg. 17 mg for pregnant women and for breastfeeding women 20 mg.

Secondary prevention is as follows:

  • Patients affected by pellagra should prevent exposing the skin to sunning-the active phase of pellagra disease.
  • Patients should follow the advised dietary regimen given to them by their doctor.
  • Following a similar diet as recommended during the patient’s recovery will prevent the recurrence of pellagra.

Facts

  • Gaspar Casal in the year 1735 described pellagra for its dermatologic effect.
  • Pellagra was first known as Asturian leprosy in Italy.

Facts

  • It was first reported in the United States in the year 1902.
  • It has caused more deaths than any other nutrition-related disease in United States.

Facts

  • Pellagra in the modern days is only confined to underdeveloped nations such as Angola, Zimbabwe, Nepal, etc.

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

LIFE

HEALTH

WELLNESS

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

Test Your Knowledge

Welcome to your Nutrient Deficiency Quiz

What type of sun rays help synthesize vitamin D?
Which disorder is characterized by inability to speak in certain social situations?
Beriberi is caused by the lack of this micronutrient-
Can stuttering be genetic?
Which of these vitamins are needed for calcium absorption by the body?
What is scoliosis?
People with darker skin are more prone to vitamin D deficiency.
If you have thiamine deficiency, which of these should you avoid consuming with your thiamine rich diet?
Which of the following is a speech disorder that affects the pronunciation of letters like s, z, r?
Consumption of mushrooms exposed to UVB rays help with low vitamin D levels.

Take the full quiz

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Consume a diet rich in niacin and/or tryptophan.
  • Include protein rich foods
  • Use sunscreen while going outdoors.
  • Apply moisturizer to affected skin at least once a day.
  • Stay hydrated.
Don'ts
  • Consume foods that lack nutrition.
  • Expose your skin to sun.
  • Increase corn-based foods in the diet.
  • Drink alcohol.
  • Depend on unapproved drugs for treatment

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

Ferritin blood test
Ferritin Test Ferritin test is a blood test that provides vital information on the level of RBCs and iron in…
RHEUMATOID_FACTOR_(RF)
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Rheumatoid factor or RF is a blood test used to diagnose painful joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis…
random blood sugar test
Random Blood Sugar Test The random blood sugar or RBS test is prescribed mainly to check the level of sugar or glucose…
anti-thyroglobulin antibody
Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody test Anti-thyrogloubin antibody test measures the level of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cells and are hence indicative…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a particular liver enzyme…
lipid-profile
Lipid Profile Lipid profile is a blood test that provides complete information on how much cholesterol is present in the…
rubella IgG test
Rubella IgG Test The rubella IgG test is a blood test that checks for the rubella virus IgG antibodies present in…
Vitamin K2: 8 reasons why you need this bone-building & cancer-fighting nutrient Vitamin K2 is claimed to be essential for your bone health, for reducing the risk of cancer, and…
beautiful smiling woman enjoying high fiber energy bar with roughage
The importance of roughage in diet Eat these high fiber foods to increase your dietary roughage. Quick tips to boost daily roughage consumption. Check…
Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are non-invasive breathing tests employed for diagnosing and monitoring lung diseases such as bronchitis
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each spoonful you are…
POSTPRANDIAL-BLOOD-SUGAR
Post-Prandial Blood Sugar Postprandial blood sugar test is an important diabetes diagnosing tool. This simple blood test measure the level of…
hlab27 test
HLA-B27 test The HLA-B27 is a blood test that is used to determine the level of a particular protein called…
cardiolipin antibody igm
Cardiolipin Antibody (ACL) –IgM Test This particular test measures the level of IgM type antibodies in the blood by using the ELISHA test…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
serum zinc test
Serum Zinc Test The serum zinc test is a blood test performed to assess the zinc level in the blood (serum)…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
antinuclear antibody test
Antinuclear Antibody Test – (ANA) Antinuclear antibody or ANA test is a blood test that measures the level of ANA antibodies that are…
DHEAS test
DHEA Sulfate (DHEAS) Test DHEAS or DHEA Sulfate test is prescribed if an individual shows symptoms of abnormal adrenal actvity such as…
abdominal-CT-scan- image
Abdominal CT scan Abdominal CT scan is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides a clear picture of the state of internal…
diabetes symptoms in women
FBS Test – Fasting Blood Sugar FBS or fasting blood sugar test is a blood test that is used to determine the level of…
IGE test
IgE test – Immunoglobulin E IgE or immunoglobulin E test is a test that measures the level of IgE in the blood and…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
hsv igg test
Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV)-IgG Test Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV)-IgG is used to detect the presence of the herpes virus so that the…
thyroglobulin test
Thyroglobulin (TG) Test Thyroglobulin test helps in measuring and monitoring the concentration of thyroglobulin. This test can be used as a…
serum electrolyte test
Serum Electrolyte If there is an electrolyte imbalance in the body, a serum electrolyte test will help to find out…
Patient under observation
What can you do if you are COVID-19 positive: Practical coping tips If you tested positive for COVID-19, follow these steps if you are under home or hospital quarantine to…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
bilirubin-test-result
Bilirubin Test Bilirubin is a substance produced in the body as a result of red blood cell breakdown. A bilirubin…
tonometry
Tonometry Tonometry uses a device called tonometer to measure the pressure inside the eye. This pressure is depends upon…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin. Find easy and…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
Stye : The best natural home remedies to ease the pain Styes developing inside the eyelid tend to be more painful whereas external styes are less painful and ooze…
Free T3 test
Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) Test The free triiodothyronine or FT3 test is an important blood test that is used to detect the level…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help you combat the…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of RBCs, WBCs, etc…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
dengue-test
Dengue NS1 test Dengue NS1 is a blood test used to determine the onset of dengue fever. Dengue fever is transmitted…
Helicobacter pylori IGA
Helicobacter Pylori – IgA Test The H.pylori IgA test is a blood test used to identify the level of IgA antigen in the…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
TPAB test
Treponema Pallidum Antibody(TPAB) test Treponema pallidum bacteria a gram-negative bacteria that has helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, responsible for STDs such as syphilis.
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in the bloodstream in…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the three important functions…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does our poop turn…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
urinary microalbumin test
Urinary Microalbumin Test The urine microalbumin test is a urine test that measures the level of microalbumin or protein in the…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
Goji berry: A traditional Chinese berry that packs the best of antioxidants Goji berry is an ancient berry that is considered to be power-packed with nutrients and antioxidants. Which means…
Cystoscopy Cystoscopy is intended to look at the abnormalities in the ureters, bladder, and urethra, to assist surgeries performed…
HELICOBACTER_PYLORI---IgG
Helicobacter Pylori – IgG Test Helicobacter pylori IgG test is a blood, saliva, and urine test performed to determine if the patien is…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
free thyroxine ft4
Free thyroxine test (FT4) The FT4 or free thyroxine test is used to detect the level of free thyroxine of FT4 thyroid…
How do neutrophils protect you from fatal bacterial attacks? During an infection, certain enzymes alert the mature neutrophils.  Neutrophils then travel through the bloodstream to the affected…
Chromium Picolinate: An essential mineral supplement for faster weight loss Did you know that about 1.6 million deaths were directly linked to diabetes globally? How is it linked…
Poop chart: Top things you didn’t you your poop could reveal about you Bristol poop chart was designed during the 1990s in order to help doctors identify various types of poops…
Anti-CCP Test – Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Anti-ccp or ACCP test is a blood test that is primarily employed to diagnose the onset of rheumatoid…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body is infected by…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test measures and monitors the levels of folic acid in the blood. This test is also…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
Silicon Dioxide: How can a component of sand be essential to your wellbeing? Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the nature. Find out how silicon dioxide can prove…
Sciatica pain relief: Get rid of the pain with these easy daily tips Researchers have claimed that not only heat but icing the area too helps relieve sciatica pain. Find out…
These are the top foods to increase your hemoglobin count It is important to add iron-rich foods into your diet in order to increase hemoglobin. Deficiency of hemoglobin could…
hYdroxycut pills
Hydroxycut: How safe are these so-called weight loss supplements? Hydroxycut is a blend of several different ingredients formulated to promote weight loss; powered by a key weight…
Vagus nerve: 7 health benefits of stimulating the “gut-brain” connection As a matter of fact, there are two vagus nerves namely the left and the right but is…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
Vitamin b12
Vitamin B12 Test Vitamin b12 is an essential nutrient required for healthy functioning of the nervous system and also development of…
Rubella IgM test
Rubella IgM Test The Rubella IgM test is a blood test that is performed to diagnose the presence of the rubella…
HSV-IgM test
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-IgM Test The HSV-IgM class antibody is produced by the body a few days after an initial HSV infection and…
erythropoetin test
Erythropoietin (EPO) Test Erythropoietin stimulates the production of RBCs in bone marrow. An erythropoietin test is done to diagnose blood disorders…
anti ds dna test
Anti Ds-DNA antibody Test The  Anti Ds-DNA antibody test is used to diagnose the disease called lupus or more aptly the SLE(Systematic…
Moringa drink
Moringa: This could be the most nutrient-dense food known to us! Moringa is a lush green tree brimming with over 90 essential nutrients required for a healthy mind and…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of health benefits. Discover…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself is a detoxifying…
smelling-salts-benefits
The actual science behind smelling salts and how it helps in injury recovery Most smelling salts are a mixture of ammonium carbonate and some perfumes which are sniffed by an individual…
Panera bread steak arugula
Panera Bread: The truth behind this “healthy” restaurant chain What to order and what to avoid when dining at Panera Bread ? Know more about this popular…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
Mood swings
The real reasons for your mood swings and how to overcome them Are you prone to heated moods frequently? Do you also feel bouts of depressive feeling creeping up on…
Ear pain model
Easy and safe tips for ear wax removal you can do at home Cerumen impaction generally occurs when an external object like cotton swabs are used to remove the ear wax.…
ANTI-MICROSOMAL-ANTIBODY-(AMA)
Anti-Microsomal Antibody AMA Test AMA or anti-microsomal antibody test is a blood test that measures the activity of AMA in the body…
dhea adrenal
Androstenedione Test Androstenedione is produced by the adrenal gland, the test of the levels of Androstenedione helps in the evaluation…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket Dragon fruit is packed with nutrients but low on calories. It is the dream food that can help…
Bronchoscopy procedure
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure where in a scope is inserted into the lung pathway to observe any growth…
LFT-test
Liver Function Test – LFT LFT or Liver Function Test is a blood test used to determine the levels of hepatic enzymes which…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 igm
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgM The Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgM test detects IgM class of antibodies in the blood.The presence of beta-2…
AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS liver
Hepatitis Profile A hepatitis profile or a hepatitis panel is a blood test that checks for markers of hepatitis infection…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
Jack in the box fast food
Jack In the Box : The perils of surging fast food culture in the USA Jack in the Box - How a culture of fast-food can clog your arteries, weaken your heart, fatten…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
How accurate is the hair follicle drug test? Hair follicle drug test is one of the best ways to identify drug use in professional circles. But…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
arterial-blood-gas
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Arterial blood gas analysis is a diagnostic procedure used to determine the volume of oxygen and carbon dioxide…
glucose-tolerance
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test – GTT Glucose tolerance test (or Oral GTT) is used to detect the onset of diabetes or prediabetes conditions. It…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your survival. However, these…
xylitol gum
Xylitol : Is this the right sugar substitute for you? Discovered during World War 2 owing to sugar shortage, xylitol has become a common name in pharamaceutical industry.…
What to eat, what not to eat in the South Beach Diet? The South Beach Diet is one among the most popular weight loss programs that have been the talk…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
EMA antibodies
Endomysial Antibodies (EMA) Test EMA test is an investigative blood examination to locate the presence of certain antibodies, called Endomysial antibodies or…
lipase test
Lipase Test A lipase test is a blood test performed to quantitatively measure the level of the enzyme lipase in…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
oral hygiene tips
6 shocking consequences of bad oral hygiene (and how to avoid them) Did you know bad breath is not just turning off, but also harms your body in ways you…
Pumpkin Seeds: Why pumpkins are more than just for pies! Pumpkins have been long associated with Halloween carvings and delicious pies. But did you know that pumpkin seeds…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
ketoacidosis diabetes
HB1Ac Test HB1Ac test is an important blood test that is used to measure the levels of glycated hemoglobin in…
beta hcg test
Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
hepatitis B envelope antigen
Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen (HBeAg) The HBeAg or hepatitis B envelope antigen test is a screening test used to diagnose the onset of…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test involves detecting and measuring the presence of the IgG class of beta…
cystatin C
Cystatin C Test Cystatin C is a specific single-chain protein that is found in body fluids and is a biomarker for…
blood ketone test
Blood Ketone (D3HB) Test The Blood Ketone Test measures and monitors the levels of ketone in the blood which is usually performed…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
Squid-ink-spaghetti
Squid Ink: A unique food coloring and flavoring agent Want to add a unique black color to your pasta, noodles and ice-creams? How can you use squid…
about mediterranean diet
Why you should be adopting a Mediterranean style of diet today Ever wondered why the Mediterranean diet is so healthy? One simple solution to lowering risk of several deadliest…
Agave nectar: The bitter truth about this sweetener revealed Agave nectar is considered to be sweeter than the normal table sugar and even contains higher amounts of…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Experts reveal the safest ways to perform an enema at home The idea of pushing some up your rectal area might make you queasy but an enema could actually…
Sputum test Sputum test is a commonly used diagnostic tool that is used to examine the presence of pathogens in…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…
Hysteroscopy_procedure
Hysteroscopy Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive tool to help specialists view the uterus to diagnose and even treat several…
Diabetes blood test
Diabetic Profile The diabetic profile is a set of tests used for testing and monitoring the various kinds of Diabetes…
macadamia nuts in food
Proven health benefits and nutrition of macadamia nuts Know all about scientific, amazing health benefits of macadamia nuts, its nutrition, recipes, how to consume, price and…
macadamia nuts in food
Proven health benefits and nutrition of macadamia nuts Know all about scientific, amazing health benefits of macadamia nuts, its nutrition, recipes, how to consume, price and…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
kefir bottle
Kefir: Top reasons why this probiotic drink should be consumed by you Yet another remarkable fermented food, kefir is a much healthier version of yogurt. These chewy white grains can…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
Did you know drinking alkaline water could be the healthier choice for you? Ever wondered how safe is your drinking water in terms of pH? Recent studies have revealed that Alkaline…
How to correctly perform nasal irrigation using a Neti Pot? Neti pot has been a part of Ayurveda since centuries. This ancient tool is extremely effective in treating…
Oxidative Stress: Understanding the most lethal phenomenon happening in your body right now Free radicals cause damage to the body, which is known as oxidation.  The amount of oxidation caused by…
Hydroquinone: Is it the best topical treatment for hyperpigmentation? Darkening of the skin due to high melanin levels is called hyperpigmentation.  Hydroquinone interferes with melanin production thus treating…
11 unbelievable health benefits of thyme you didn’t know! Thyme is a herb that has been used in alternative medicine.It is a well known seasoning in the…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody (tTG) Test Transglutaminase is an enzyme present in our body and is involved in protein metabolism. A tTg test is…
anoscopy
Anoscopy Anoscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure where a small device known as anoscope will be inserted in the…
immunoglobulin M
Immunoglobulin M Test Immunoglobulin M is the largest and the first produced antibody which helps in the prevention or fighting of…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
Beware of these common foods that cause high bodily inflammation! Maybe its the long list of inflammatory foods in your diet that is making you frequently sick. Find…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption of these could…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
Coffee Enema: Turn your favorite morning beverage into a powerful colon cleanser The wonders of coffee are not just limited to waking you up every morning. You can now use…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
quinoa salad
Quinoa : A prodigious superfood you need to include in your diet today! Quinoa - what is so special about this native South American grain that has taken the world by…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
avocado benefits
Avocado: 15 reasons why this fruit should be a staple in your diet Did you know that the word avocado literally means "testicles". Don't get grossed out as this power-packed fruit…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
Coconut sugar: What is it and is it healthier than table sugar? In the long list of things that the wonderful coconut gives us, coconut sugar is another remarkable addition.…
The right way to prepare Alfalfa sprouts at home Alfalfa or lusan ghas is not just a nutritious animal fodder. This flavonoid-rich herb has some amazing health…
Pescatarian Diet 101: What are the inherent health advantages of this diet? People opt to become a pescatarian in order to enrich their bodies with the essential health benefits that…
How to scrub away stress and fatigue with an Epsom salt bath? Epsom salt is a popular home remedy for many skin ailments. Though there is a lack of scientific…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
lp-pla2
LP-PLA2 Test The LP-PLA2 test is a test which is carried out to assess the levels of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2…
complement c4 test
Anemia Profile Anemia Profile test (Basic) is a blood screening test that measures the levels of important components of the…
shoudler exercises
Keep your shoulders pain-free with these shoulder exercises Shoulder exercises are important in order to prevent chronic back and neck pain. Learn more about how you…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…