Beriberi

BERIBERI spots

Last Updated August 23rd, 2019

Thiamine or vitamin B1 deficiency is a global health concern. This essential nutrient plays a critical role in initiating metabolic processes and energy supply to the body. Did you know that every major organ system of your body – cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine, etc will come to a standstill if you lacked this vitamin? Since the human body needs this crucial vitamin (but is unable to synthesize it naturally), one must pay special heed to vitamin B1 intake. Beriberi is nothing but thiamine deficiency.
Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin. This means it is easily soluble in water and gets flushed out of the body via sweat and urine. As per WHO, low and middle-income countries show a higher tendency of thiamine deficiency owing a staple diet of white polished rice. Thiamine is required at the cellular level to ensure that every muscle and tissue of your body is getting the required energy to function properly. The heart, one of the vital organs of the human body, is a muscular organ and it needs proper supply of energy and oxygen to remain healthy and pumping.
People with thiamine deficiency, aka, beriberi often suffer from a weak heart owing to this very reason. Additionally, the nerves of the body are also poorly supplied with oxygen which leads to peripheral neuropathy. As the muscles of the body gradually begin to crumble, even basic functions such as breathing become difficult. In the absence of proper oxygen supply, the heart may stop functioning and this results in cardiac failure.
Beriberi or thiamine deficiency cannot be treated just by adding healthy foods in diet. Dietary supplements of vitamin B1 are required here. But these need to be supplemented with foods rich in vitamin B1 such as - whole grains (avoid eating refined flour and white rice), meat/fish/poultry/eggs, milk and cheese, green leafy vegetables, beets, potatoes, legumes (soy, nuts, seeds), and orange juice.
In rare cases, the inability to absorb thiamine from foods can be passed on from parents to the off-spring. This is known as genetic beriberi. Since the body is unable to absorb vitamin B1 from the foods, patients of genetic beriberi are treated with the help of thiamine supplements - given in the form of pills or injections.
The best (and the only way) to prevent beriberi is by having adequate vitamin B1 intake. Since it is a water soluble vitamin and can get easily flushed out of the body (urine and sweat), it is important to eat vitamin B1-rich foods on a regular basis. The best natural sources of thiamine are - meats, nuts and seeds, seafood, whole grains, and dairy products. These days a majority of bread and breakfast cereals sold commercially are fortified with thiamine.

Overview

Vitamins are essential nutrients that our bodies need in order to remain healthy and function normally. Vitamins are necessary for metabolism, growth, and maintenance of tissues. We obtain these essential nutrients through naturally occurring sources by way of our diet but sometimes we may need supplements to make up for any deficiencies in the diet. Either way, it is important to ensure that your body receives the vitamins it needs because when it does not, it can suffer and develop the disease. Beriberi is an example of a disease caused by nutritional deficiency, and this article will explain how exactly it arises, how it affects the body and how it can be prevented or treated.

What Is Beriberi?

BERIBERI spotsBeriberi is a disease that is caused by the deficiency of vitamin B1 in the body. This vitamin is also known as thiamine. The biologically active form of thiamine is a substance known as thiamine pyrophosphate.

Along with other B-complex vitamins, thiamine helps your body conduct metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and protein. This metabolism enables the cells to obtain the energy that they need for their survival and essential functions. A critical shortage of vitamin B1 in the diet can affect the cardiovascular and nervous systems. This can be fatal. However, it is possible to successfully treat the condition. Beriberi can also arise as a consequence of chronic alcoholism.

Who Is At Risk Of Developing Beriberi?

Thiamine can be obtained from naturally occurring sources including both animal and plant sources. For example, foods such as pork, beef, fish, eggs, dairy, potatoes, nuts and legumes contain thiamine. Brown rice contains thiamine but when it is polished, it loses most of its natural vitamin content. Hence, beriberi tends to occur more often among populations where white rice constitutes a dietary staple. However, this is not the only possible cause for the disease.

Since thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, it is absorbed in the small intestine during the process of digestion. Any condition that interferes with this processor generally impairs the process of absorption, can potentially give rise to beriberi.

There are 3 broad scenarios in which thiamine deficiency may arise:

  • A lack of thiamine in the diet.
  • Alternatively, the person may be consuming foods that deplete or are detrimental to thiamine. Undergoing procedures such as dialysis can also deplete thiamine content in the body.
  • The body may be unable to absorb the thiamine it needs, although the diet may provide the right quantities of the vitamin.
  • Yet another possibility is that under certain conditions, such as pregnancy or during lactation, the body needs higher quantities of thiamine. When the diet is not adjusted to cater to this need, the person may develop a deficiency.

BERIBERI vitamin foodsA fuller list of specific causes appears in the list below:

  • Dietary insufficiency.
  • Excessive intake of foods, like tea and coffee, that contain anti-thiamine factor.
  • Intake of foods containing sulfite.
  • The condition can also be caused by genetic factors.
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol.
  • Those suffering from Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder, are at risk of developing beriberi.
  • Patients undergoing dialysis are also at risk.
  • Patients who have undergone a gastric bypass surgery.
  • Those receiving intravenous fluids that contain high quantities of glucose.
  • Those suffering from hyperthyroidism.
  • Having eating disorders such as anorexia can lead to severe nutritional deficiencies such as beriberi.
  • Starvation.
  • Refeeding syndrome.
  • Celiac disease.
  • Folate deficiency.
  • Severe liver disease.
  • Patients with chronic diarrhoea.
  • Pregnant and lactating women.
  • Infants who are fed with a formula that does not provide adequate amounts of thiamine. Similarly, an infant that feeds on breast milk can also develop a deficiency of thiamine if the mother herself is deficient.

Symptoms

Initially, lack of vitamin B1 in the body gives rise to symptoms resembling anorexia. As the condition worsens, thiamine deficiency eventually gives rise to beriberi. Often, the onset of the disease is insidious. In other words, it proceeds gradually although this masks the fact that it can have very grave consequences for the health. Alternatively, in some cases, onset can be sudden and life-threatening.

Some typical symptoms are:

  • A headache.
  • Fatigue.
  • Nausea.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Increase in heart rate.
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Irritability.
  • Abdominal discomfort.
  • Peripheral neuropathy. The patient may experience tingling or abnormal sensations in the limbs.
  • Peripheral edema or swelling, usually in the lower legs.
  • Vomiting.
  • Inability to control the movement of the eyes.
  • Double vision.
  • Poor reflexes.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Paralysis.

What Are The Different Forms Of Beriberi?

There are two main modes of disease progression, namely, the dry and wet forms of beriberi. These are discussed below in brief.

  • Wet Beriberi: This has an adverse impact on cardiovascular function. The blood vessels dilate, causing swelling and forcing the heart to beat faster. Eventually, this can lead to heart failure.
  • Dry Beriberi: In such instances, the neurological function becomes impaired. As a result, the patient experiences pain and abnormal sensations such as tingling, often in the peripheral regions. He or she may start to experience difficulties in speaking and the reflexes tend to weaken. Damage to the nerves could be permanent and irreversible if not attended to in time.

Some patients also show a mixed form of the disease, exhibiting signs of both types.

  • Yet another form of beriberi is known as the Infantile type. As we have seen above, if the nursing mother herself is deficient in thiamine, this will deprive the infant of the essential compound. As a result, the baby may develop symptoms such as difficulty in breathing, diarrhea, vomiting, swelling and bluish discoloration of the skin. Eventually, the infant may die of heart failure.

What Are The Possible Complications?

BERIBERI nailsThiamine deficiency can cause the patient to develop critical conditions known as Korsakoff syndrome and Wernicke encephalopathy. Doctors believe that once the patient has progressed to this stage, it is difficult to make a full recovery even with sound treatment. Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome both involve severe damage to certain sections of the brain. The former results in damage to the thymus and hypothalamus, both of which are critical in regulating essential faculties such as muscle coordination and homeostasis. Patients with Korsakoff syndrome may suffer hallucinations and lose the ability to form new memories and access existing ones as a result of damage to the area of the brain concerned with memory.

In severe cases or where prompt treatment is not available, the patient could die within a few days of onset of symptoms.

How Is Beriberi Diagnosed And Treated?

In order to address the disease and treat it, it is first necessary to make a diagnosis of the underlying cause or causes. If these can be resolved, then the beriberi can also be addressed. As initial symptoms might be non-specific, the condition may not be easy to identify. The process of diagnosis may involve the following steps:

  • Physical examination.
  • Medical history, paying particular attention to diet, lifestyle, and habits such as alcoholism.
  • Blood tests.
  • Neurological tests to assess nervous function.

If you have been diagnosed with beriberi and the cause is a lack of vitamin B1 in your diet, you will mostly like be prescribed dietary supplements. Your doctor will advise you as to the dose most appropriate for you. If, however, the underlying cause is a condition other than dietary insufficiency, treatment will aim to address that first in order to also resolve beriberi.

The main aim of treating beriberi is to increase the thiamine levels in the patient’s body. This includes thiamine medicines either taken as oral supplements or injected into the patient’s body. The patient’s blood and urine are monitored regularly in order to access whether or not the treatment method is effective or not.  While the treatment of beriberi is relatively simple, if left untreated, beriberi could be fatal.  Death usually occurs due to cardiac failure or neurological malfunction. The most effective method of preventing beriberi is consuming a diet rich in vitamin B1 and refraining from substance abuse of alcohol. Breastfeeding mothers should take special care in maintaining proper levels of thiamine in their systems.

Facts

  • The word beriberi has been derived from Sinhalese language meaning “ I can’t, I can’t” – which reflects the gradual crippling of the patient due to the disease.
  • The prevalence of beriberi is high in the south-east Asian countries and could be linked to high consumption of white rice.

Facts

  • There are two types of beriberi – dry and wet. Dry beriberi affected the central nervous system whereas wet affects the cardiovascular system.
  • Cerebral beriberi, which is mainly caused by chronic alcoholism, is also known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Facts

  • Vitamin B encompasses Vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (cobalamin).

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Test Your Knowledge

Welcome to your Nutrient Deficiency Quiz

What type of sun rays help synthesize vitamin D?
Which disorder is characterized by inability to speak in certain social situations?
Beriberi is caused by the lack of this micronutrient-
Can stuttering be genetic?
Which of these vitamins are needed for calcium absorption by the body?
What is scoliosis?
People with darker skin are more prone to vitamin D deficiency.
If you have thiamine deficiency, which of these should you avoid consuming with your thiamine rich diet?
Which of the following is a speech disorder that affects the pronunciation of letters like s, z, r?
Consumption of mushrooms exposed to UVB rays help with low vitamin D levels.

Take the full quiz
Thiamine or vitamin B1 deficiency is a global health concern. This essential nutrient plays a critical role in initiating metabolic processes and energy supply to the body. Did you know that every major organ system of your body – cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine, etc will come to a standstill if you lacked this vitamin? Since the human body needs this crucial vitamin (but is unable to synthesize it naturally), one must pay special heed to vitamin B1 intake. Beriberi is nothing but thiamine deficiency.
Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin. This means it is easily soluble in water and gets flushed out of the body via sweat and urine. As per WHO, low and middle-income countries show a higher tendency of thiamine deficiency owing a staple diet of white polished rice. Thiamine is required at the cellular level to ensure that every muscle and tissue of your body is getting the required energy to function properly. The heart, one of the vital organs of the human body, is a muscular organ and it needs proper supply of energy and oxygen to remain healthy and pumping.
People with thiamine deficiency, aka, beriberi often suffer from a weak heart owing to this very reason. Additionally, the nerves of the body are also poorly supplied with oxygen which leads to peripheral neuropathy. As the muscles of the body gradually begin to crumble, even basic functions such as breathing become difficult. In the absence of proper oxygen supply, the heart may stop functioning and this results in cardiac failure.
Beriberi or thiamine deficiency cannot be treated just by adding healthy foods in diet. Dietary supplements of vitamin B1 are required here. But these need to be supplemented with foods rich in vitamin B1 such as - whole grains (avoid eating refined flour and white rice), meat/fish/poultry/eggs, milk and cheese, green leafy vegetables, beets, potatoes, legumes (soy, nuts, seeds), and orange juice.
In rare cases, the inability to absorb thiamine from foods can be passed on from parents to the off-spring. This is known as genetic beriberi. Since the body is unable to absorb vitamin B1 from the foods, patients of genetic beriberi are treated with the help of thiamine supplements - given in the form of pills or injections.
The best (and the only way) to prevent beriberi is by having adequate vitamin B1 intake. Since it is a water soluble vitamin and can get easily flushed out of the body (urine and sweat), it is important to eat vitamin B1-rich foods on a regular basis. The best natural sources of thiamine are - meats, nuts and seeds, seafood, whole grains, and dairy products. These days a majority of bread and breakfast cereals sold commercially are fortified with thiamine.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Have adequate amount of vitamin B1 in your diet. It is most commonly found in beef, liver, oats, oranges, and pork.
  • Get your thiamine levels checked in you suffer from thyroid disorders.
  • Consult your doctor regarding your thiamine consumption if you are undergoing dialysis.
Don'ts
  • Indulge in alcohol abuse. Too much alcohol consumption decreases your body’s ability to absorb thiamine.
  • Eat refined/polished grains. The bran part of the grains is a rich source of vitamin B1.
  • Consume vitamin B1 containing foods in highly processed forms.

 

 

 

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How accurate is the hair follicle drug test? Hair follicle drug test is one of the best ways to identify drug use in professional circles. But…
Bubble Tea: Bubbling with nutrition or a hidden sugar mine? The tapioca pearls present in the tea looks like bubbles and hence the name bubble tea became popular.…
Ferritin blood test
Ferritin Test Ferritin test is a blood test that provides vital information on the level of RBCs and iron in…
quercetin content
Quercetin: The ultimate anti-inflammatory plant compound Quercetin is the primary compound present in onions, cranberries, broccoli, etc. Quercetin is credited with having high anti-inflammatory…
about mediterranean diet
Why you should be adopting a Mediterranean style of diet today Ever wondered why the Mediterranean diet is so healthy? One simple solution to lowering risk of several deadliest…
stress adverse effects
Fight, flight, or freeze: 8 ways stress can ruin your body Did you know that stress is in-built in our systems? It helped our ancestors respond to danger. How…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
Drinking water benefits
8 reasons why you should grab a bottle of water now! Did you know you don't have to be thirsty for hours to be dehydrated?You could be dehydrated right…
xylitol gum
Xylitol : Is this the right sugar substitute for you? Discovered during World War 2 owing to sugar shortage, xylitol has become a common name in pharamaceutical industry.…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
Vitamin B12: The unknown repercussions of this nutrient deficiency Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamine; involved in the development of red blood cells in the bone marrow.…
Horny Goat Weed: Can it improve libido in human beings too? This plant got its name as Horny Goat Weed when one of the goats feeding on the plant…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the three important functions…
Amniocentesis test
Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is a diagnostic procedure for pregnant women to assess and detect the presence of any chromosomal or…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
geriatric health aging
Geriatric health: Do you still think age is just a number? Aging is an inevitable part of life. But don't let these common geriatric ailments affect you and your…
stevia side effects
Stevia: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another risky additive? Stevia is a plant native to South America.  It has been used as a natural sugar substitute and…
Iodine Deficiency: Risks and complications and how to avoid them Iodine is an important constituent of seafood. It is an essential prenatal mineral too. But what happens when…
18 amazing uses of Baking Soda you didn’t know! Baking soda, a simple compound known as sodium bicarbonate, is not only helpful making fluffy cakes but also…
Oil Pulling: The instant benefits of this ancient Ayurvedic cleansing technique Oil pulling is a great way of making use of easily available cooking oils to achieve high oral…
General adaptation syndrome: Understanding stress, one step at a time The struggle of the body to produce hormones during a stressful situation is the main theme of general…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid when you experience…
lipid-profile
Lipid Profile Lipid profile is a blood test that provides complete information on how much cholesterol is present in the…
EMA antibodies
Endomysial Antibodies (EMA) Test EMA test is an investigative blood examination to locate the presence of certain antibodies, called Endomysial antibodies or…
beta hcg test
Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
Turner syndrome and infertility
Infertility profile (women) The infertility profile tests in women are conducted to form a complete picture of the hormonal balance and…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
low carb diet meal
Low carb diet : Go high on fats and low on carbs for a leaner body! Did you know that sugar is the new fat? Going low on carbs and high on fats &…
beta alanine energy powder
Beta-alanine: A powerhouse of proteins to charge up your workout How can a simple amino acid be a crucial health supplement for champion athletes? Find out how you…