Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis knee

Last Updated February 20th, 2019

Overview of osteoarthritis

Degeneration of bones, cartilages, and joints occurs at the onset of old age and has detrimental effects on the overall health of a person. In most cases, these people suffer from chronic arthritis conditions. According to statistics produced by the Arthritis Foundation, the United States, nearly 350 million people suffer from arthritic conditions all over the world. There are about 140 different types of arthritis. The most common form of arthritis which is observed mostly in elderly females is “Osteoarthritis”. It is one of the leading causes of disability in low and middle-income countries. According to epidemiological studies by the World Health Organization, nearly 9.6% men and 18% women above the age of 60 suffer from osteoarthritic conditions.

 

Definition of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis jointOsteoarthritis is defined as the erosive degeneration of the joints, cartilages, soft tissues and bony outgrowths of the knee, ankle and other joints of the body due to age. In this condition, the topmost layer of the cartilage tissues wears away.

This impedes the gliding movements of the joints and causes reduced protection of the joints against mechanical shock (since these cartilages act as a buffer against external injuries).

In due course of time, portions of the affected joints and bones break off and float in the fluid between the joints (synovial fluid) causing severe pain and inflammation. Bone deformities are observed at a much later stage which causes restricted movements and immobility in a few cases.

 

Pathological condition

Three prominent conditions are observed in case of osteoarthritis-

  • Outward growth of the bones present at the edge of the joints occurs causing protrusions which are called osteophytes.
  • Swelling and inflammation of joints occur due to the generation of excess synovial fluid. This condition is often termed as “water in the knee” or “effusion”.
  • Abnormal thickening of capsules and ligaments occurs.

 

Causes of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis painThere are multiple etiological factors behind osteoarthritis. These are described below-

  • Natural disintegration and weakening of body muscles and joints occur with age (above 40) which can lead to joint damage
  • Increased pressure on the knee due to obesity and overweight conditions
  • Injury of the joints due to mechanical blow or rigorous physical activities
  • Injured meniscus, tendons or ligaments due to accidental twisting and bending
  • Ancestral history of osteoarthritis (due to HLA-DRB1 gene or mutation of collagen II gene)
  • Existing joint diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis or septic arthritis
  • Lifting of heavy weights on a regular basis due to occupational requirements
  • Autoimmune disorders leading to degeneration of the synovial tissues (primary contributor- Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 22 gene)
  • Food materials like artificial fats, processed meat, refined carbohydrates, alcohol that evoke inflammation
  • Poor body postures

 

Symptoms of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is normally manifested as acute joint pain and inflammation. The general signs and symptoms are as follows-

  • Stiffness and pain in the joint especially in the morning
  • Inflammation and swelling of knee and ankle joints
  • Joint pain during slight movements of hand and legs
  • Temporary immobility (permanent immobility may also occur due to ankylosed or fused joints)
  • Cracking and crunching sounds during normal joint movements
  • Weakness and fatigue of muscles (may lead to muscular dystrophy)
  • Pain radiating to neighboring regions (lower extremities)
  • Redness in neighboring joint area
  • Extreme tenderness and touch sensitivity of joints
  • Throbbing pain in the joint and muscles after some activity
  • Bone and joint deformities (at an advanced stage)
  • Disturbed sleep due to increased joint pain at night
  • Difficulty maintaining normal body postures
  • Difficulty performing mundane activities such as walking, running, climbing stairs
  • Body aches and fever
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Visible bulges (due to bone spurs)

 

Types of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is classified into the following categories according to the origin and intensity of the disease-

Primary: It is also called idiopathic osteoarthritis and has the following subtypes-

Localized: It is observed in the following regions-

  • Osteoarthritis kneeHands: It is also called nodal arthritis and involves three or more joints. It is mostly interphalangeal in nature.
  • Hip: It may be concentric, eccentric or diffuse in nature. It may also be of superolateral, superomedial, medial or inferoposterior types.
  • Knee: It occurs at the end or adjoining portion of the femur bone. It may be medial tibiofemoral, lateral tibiofemoral or patellofemoral.
  • Spine: Osteoarthritis in the spine is manifested as apophyseal, intervertebral or spondylosis
  • Foot: Arthritis in foot affects mainly the first metatarsophalangeal joint, midfoot and hindfoot.

Generalized: It is observed mainly in the hands and knees. It affects the peripheral joints, central joints, and mixed joints. In hands, it affects mainly the Heberden nodes and Bouchard nodes.

Erosive: It is caused by extreme erosion of the cartilages.

Secondary: It is caused due to the following factors:

  • Bone dysplasia (due to structural or congenital disorders)
  • Surgical removal of the meniscus of the knee (meniscectomy)
  • Endocrinal disorders such as Diabetes mellitus, Diseases of the thyroid gland, Cushing syndrome.
  • Metabolic disorders such as Hemochromatosis, Gaucher disease or Wilson’s disease
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Neuropathic arthropathy or Charcot joints ( bone deformities due to degeneration of weight-bearing joints)

 

Clinical complications

Apart from the symptoms discussed above, osteoarthritis may give rise to the following clinical complications-

  • Osteoarthritis with crystals: This condition is also called calcification or It is characterized by the deposition of calcium crystals in the cartilage.
  • Popliteal cysts: It is also called Baker’s cyst and is caused due to a production of excess synovial fluid.

 

Diagnosis

The following diagnostic tests are performed to determine the exact cause of osteoarthritis-

  • X-rays (to determine the presence of joint damage or cartilage decay)
  • MRI scan ( to examine joint injury if any)
  • Synovial fluid analysis (to detect crystals in the joint)

 

Treatment and prevention

Treatment 

Medication 

  • Acetaminophen – These medications can help in relieving mild to moderate pain.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) –These include over-the-counter drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen sodium can help in relieving pain.
  • Duloxetine – Anti-depressants are known to reduce the levels of chronic pain.

Therapy 

  • Physical therapy – This may help in improving the movement range and reduction of pain in the affected joints.
  • Occupational therapy – This treatment method, aids the patient in how to go about their day-to-day activities by managing their pain. Adjusting their lifestyle in such a way that there is little pain felt.
  • Tai chi and yoga – These gentle exercises and stretched help in restoring movement, range and reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis.

Surgery 

  • Cortisone injections – Corticosteroid injections are provided to reduce the pain that is caused due to the friction of bones.
  • Lubrication injections – Injections of hyaluronic acid are provided to help in reducing the pain and giving a cushioning to the joints that have been affected by osteoarthritis.
  • Realigning bones – This surgical method is called osteotomy, where the surgeon makes a slit above or below the affected join and adds or removes a wedge of bone, thereby moving the bone away from the worn-out area.
  • Joint replacement – Here, the surgeon removes the worn-out bone and replaces it with a metal or plastic part, thereby restoring movement and reducing pain. This surgical method is called arthroplasty.

Prevention 

  • Managing occupational risks can help prevent osteoarthritis. Doing so tends to put less pressure on your joints.
  • Consume clean and healthy food such as fruits and vegetables omega-3 fatty acids etc.
  • Exercise regularly, low-impact exercised can help in improving joint health.
  • Do not consume excessive alcohol, doing so reduces the protein present in the cartilage in joints, causing pain.
  • Do not consume tobacco or tobacco-based products, as smoking reduces the production of cells in the cartilage.
  • Get sufficient amounts of vitamin D, as this helps in the absorption of calcium in the body.
  • Make sure to add vitamin C to your diet, doing so ensures that the antioxidants present in vitamin C help in developing the cartilage.

Facts

  • Osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of arthritis affecting more than 30 million Americans.
  • OA is a leading cause of disability among people who are above the age of 60 years.

Facts

  • Osteoarthritis is said to affect 13.9% adults above the age of 25 years and 33.6% adults above the age of 65 years.
  • According to the WHO, 130 million people will be affected by OA by 2050, 40 million of whom will be severely disabled.

Facts

  • Women above the age of 50 years are at a higher risk of developing osteoarthritis.
  • 14 million people have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in the United States.

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Exercise regularly, this helps in managing your weight and reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis.
  • Go for physiotherapy regularly, this helps in making sure that your joints retain mobility and reducing pain.
  • Use the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compress and Elevate) treatment therapy; this is good for the joints.
Don'ts
  • Consume alcohol, doing so can nullify the effects of the medications that you might be taking and cause further medical issue.
  • Indulge in smoking, since consuming nicotine can increase pain.
  • Indulge in extreme sports, as it can increase your pain.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

ASTtest-liver
AST- Aspartate Aminotransferase Test AST test is a blood test that is used to measure the level of a particular liver enzyme…
Vitamin K2: 8 reasons why you need this bone-building & cancer-fighting nutrient Vitamin K2 is claimed to be essential for your bone health, for reducing the risk of cancer, and…
anti-thyroglobulin antibody
Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody test Anti-thyrogloubin antibody test measures the level of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cells and are hence indicative…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test is used to measure and monitor the levels of folic acid in the blood. The…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
abdominal-CT-scan- image
Abdominal CT scan Abdominal CT scan is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides a clear picture of the state of internal…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin. Find easy and…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body is infected by…
rubella IgG test
Rubella IgG Test The rubella IgG test is a blood test that checks for the rubella virus IgG antibodies present in…
hlab27 test
HLA-B27 test The HLA-B27 is a blood test that is used to determine the level of a particular protein called…
BRAT Diet: What is the right way to follow this diarrhea-relieving diet? BRAT diet, a simple diet consisting of just bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, can help you combat the…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
Stye : The best natural home remedies to ease the pain Styes developing inside the eyelid tend to be more painful whereas external styes are less painful and ooze…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are non-invasive breathing tests employed for diagnosing and monitoring lung diseases such as bronchitis
IGE test
IgE test – Immunoglobulin E IgE or immunoglobulin E test is a test that measures the level of IgE in the blood and…
Silicon Dioxide: How can a component of sand be essential to your wellbeing? Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the nature. Find out how silicon dioxide can prove…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each spoonful you are…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
Chromium Picolinate: An essential mineral supplement for faster weight loss Did you know that about 1.6 million deaths were directly linked to diabetes globally? How is it linked…
Poop chart: Top things you didn’t you your poop could reveal about you Bristol poop chart was designed during the 1990s in order to help doctors identify various types of poops…
HELICOBACTER_PYLORI---IgG
Helicobacter Pylori – IgG Test Helicobacter pylori IgG test is a blood, saliva, and urine test performed to determine if the patien is…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
serum electrolyte test
Serum Electrolyte If there is an electrolyte imbalance in the body, a serum electrolyte test will help to find out…
Chlorella: Therapeutic powers of the billion-year-old algae now within your reach Chlorella - A billion year old nutrient-rich algae that can potentially ward off cancers and high cholesterol; the…
Bloodtestalbumin
Albumin Test Albumin test or blood serum test is a liver function test that measures the amount of the protein…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does our poop turn…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself is a detoxifying…
Ferritin blood test
Ferritin Test Ferritin test is a blood test that provides vital information on the level of RBCs and iron in…
How do neutrophils protect you from fatal bacterial attacks? During an infection, certain enzymes alert the mature neutrophils.  Neutrophils then travel through the bloodstream to the affected…
Bubble Tea: Bubbling with nutrition or a hidden sugar mine? The tapioca pearls present in the tea looks like bubbles and hence the name bubble tea became popular.…
RHEUMATOID_FACTOR_(RF)
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Rheumatoid factor or RF is a blood test used to diagnose painful joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis…
Free T3 test
Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) Test The free triiodothyronine or FT3 test is an important blood test that is used to detect the level…
serum zinc test
Serum Zinc Test The serum zinc test is a blood test performed to assess the zinc level in the blood (serum)…
TPAB test
Treponema Pallidum Antibody(TPAB) test Treponema pallidum bacteria a gram-negative bacteria that has helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, responsible for STDs such as syphilis.
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
CBC blood test
CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test CBC (Hemogram 6-part diff) blood test refers to the test that measures the number of RBCs, WBCs, etc…
POSTPRANDIAL-BLOOD-SUGAR
Post-Prandial Blood Sugar Postprandial blood sugar test is an important diabetes diagnosing tool. This simple blood test measure the level of…
beta 2 glycoprotein 1 IgG
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test involves detecting and measuring the presence of the IgG class of beta…
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in the bloodstream in…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
lipid-profile
Lipid Profile Lipid profile is a blood test that provides complete information on how much cholesterol is present in the…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
Cystoscopy Cystoscopy is intended to look at the abnormalities in the ureters, bladder, and urethra, to assist surgeries performed…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
Helicobacter pylori IGA
Helicobacter Pylori – IgA Test The H.pylori IgA test is a blood test used to identify the level of IgA antigen in the…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
bilirubin-test-result
Bilirubin Test Bilirubin is a substance produced in the body as a result of red blood cell breakdown. A bilirubin…
random blood sugar test
Random Blood Sugar Test The random blood sugar or RBS test is a blood test prescribed mainly to check the level of…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail because this ayurveduic…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an inexplicable emotional numbness…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
EEG
Electroencephalogram – EEG EEG or electroencephalogram is a diagnostic tool used to access the functioning of neurons and brain activity to…
Moringa drink
Moringa: This could be the most nutrient-dense food known to us! Moringa is a lush green tree brimming with over 90 essential nutrients required for a healthy mind and…
Bromelain: 11 reasons why you should start adding pineapple to your pizza! If you didn't love pineapples already, here are some of the top health benefits that bromelain can bring…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the three important functions…
Top natural diuretics: The instant benefits you can get from nature’s water pills Since diuretic drugs are known to cause side effects, it is better to choose a natural diuretic that…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
bananas exercise
10 health reasons why you should go “bananas” over bananas! Bananas:The world's most popular fruit comes with a host of unbelievable health benefits. Find out how you can…
Carb Cycling: Weighing the pros vs the cons of this diet routine Completely discarding carbs from your life will do you more harm than good. Read more about carb cycling,…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
Bronchoscopy procedure
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure where in a scope is inserted into the lung pathway to observe any growth…
EMA antibodies
Endomysial Antibodies (EMA) Test EMA test is an investigative blood examination to locate the presence of certain antibodies, called Endomysial antibodies or…
anti-chlamydia antibody tets
Anti-Chlamydia Antibody -IgG Test Anti-Chlamydia Antibody - IgG test is performed by collection of urine or genital fluids as sample for testing…
free thyroxine ft4
Free thyroxine test (FT4) The FT4 or free thyroxine test is a blood test used to detect the level of free thyroixine…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are you too a…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
Panera bread steak arugula
Panera Bread: The truth behind this “healthy” restaurant chain What to order and what to avoid when dining at Panera Bread ? Know more about this popular…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
boost brain health
The ultimate tips on how to boost your brain health Would you like to be smarter? Want a sharp memory but bored of doing sudoku? Try salsa or…
glutamine workout
Glutamine: Why is this the right choice for muscle-gain supplement? Glutamine can help you gain muscles and build higher immunity. Read more to find out how you can…
gout diet purines
Gout Diet : Get relief from painful joints by eating these foods Are you a victim of this painful condition? Are medications providing only short relief? Find a list of…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the potatoes) growing close…
Erythritol: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another marketing ploy? Erythritol is a popular choice of a healthy alternative sweetening agent in foods. But how healthy can a…
Colloidal silver benefits
Colloidal silver: An essential dietary supplement or yet another pharmaceutical hoax? Colloidal silver is hailed as an effective home remedy for infections. Many believe it can treat HIV and…
Internal bleeding brain
Beware: Ignoring these tell-tale signs of stroke could cost a life The signs and symptoms of a stroke differ depending on which part of the brain has been affected.…
blood elements analysis
Blood Element Analysis Test A blood element analysis is a blood test performed to measure the level of toxic elements such as…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
fructosamine test
Fructosamine Test A fructosamine test is a blood test that measures blood sugar glucose content. Fructosamine level can indicate blood…
erythropoetin test
Erythropoietin (EPO) Test Erythropoetin stimulates the production of RBCs in bone marrow thus an erythropoetin test is done to diagnose blood…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
oral hygiene tips
6 shocking consequences of bad oral hygiene (and how to avoid them) Did you know bad breath is not just turning off, but also harms your body in ways you…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid when you experience…
arterial-blood-gas
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Arterial blood gas analysis is a diagnostic procedure used to determine the volume of oxygen and carbon dioxide…
BoneMarrow-Biopsy
Bone Marrow Biopsy Bone marrow biopsy is a diagnostic procedure where a small amount of bone marrow is extracted from hip…
beta hcg test
Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
cardioliin antibody iga
Cardiolipin Antibody (ACL) – IgA test Cardiolipins are a type of phospholipid that are constituents of the platelets and the cell membranes.The IgA test…
apolipoprotein a1 test
Apolipoprotein -A1 (APO-A1) Test Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) is an essential protein that constitutes 70% of protein content in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and…
cardiolipin antibody igm
Cardiolipin Antibody (ACL) –IgM Test The types of cardiolipin antibodies are the IgG, IgA and IgM types and this particular test measures the…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
nature health benefits
Green Healing: The amazing health benefits of being in nature You have no idea what sitting in a closed room does to your body and mind.Can a stroll…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…