Thrombophilia

Thrombophilia injury

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Overview of Thrombophilia

On a daily basis, a blood clot is a common phenomenon occurring even when a person has minor cuts or injuries. Therefore in many cases, unusual blood clotting is considered as a regular occurrence and ignored. Normally blood clotting occurs after an injury to protect the damaged tissues from infection. But there are other acute forms of blood clotting (both internal and external) which can pose a major threat to the vital organs. Thrombophilia is one such condition marked by abnormalities in blood coagulation. It is detected in 50% of the people who had a history of thrombosis.

A recent statistics provided by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis shows that each year there are 10 million cases of Venous thromboembolism (an acute case of blood clot in veins) in the world that lead to deaths in many cases. The health organizations are working on educating the mass about the severity and consequences of abnormal blood coagulation in the body.

 

What is Thrombophilia?

Thrombophilia blood clotThrombophilia is an abnormality in blood coagulation which may lead to clots in blood vessels. It may even give rise to serious conditions like deep vein thrombosis. A blood clot is defined as the conversion of liquid blood released at the site of injury into a viscous form that clusters around the spot. This is basically a defense mechanism (immune response) of the body to protect the damaged tissues and cells from future infections. But in many cases, such as in Thrombophilia, blood clot occurs inside the body, particularly in veins and arteries which obstructs the circulation of blood to several vital organs like heart, kidney, and lungs. In such cases, proper diagnosis should be carried out to save the patient from a major disaster.

 

What causes Thrombophilia?

Thrombophilia mainly occurs due to certain genetic factors. It may be acquired as well in some cases. In the rest of the cases, the disease is idiopathic, that is of unknown cause. The general causes of abnormal blood clots are as follows-

  • An injury (bump) of severe nature
  • Hormonal drugs (birth control pills)
  • Increased estrogen during pre-natal and post-natal stages
  • Bone fracture
  • Obesity
  • Stroke or paralytic conditions that cause immobility
  • Varicose veins (due to backflow of blood)
  • Cardiac disorders
  • A damaged inner lining of veins (due to intrusions such as a central venous catheter)
  • Nephrotic syndromes which cause renal failure
  • Malignancy and associated chemotherapy
  • Arthritic conditions such as rheumatoid disease and spondylitis

 

What are the main clinical features of Thrombophilia?

Thrombophilia_DVTThrombophilia is characterized by a number of clinical features.

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): Blood clots in the veins supplying to the legs.
  • Pulmonary Embolism (PE): Arterial blockage in the lungs.
  • Venous Thromboembolism (VTE): Blood clot in the main veins.
  • Venous Thrombosis: Occurs in the veins of the liver (portal and hepatic brain thrombosis), brain, mesenteric vein, kidney (renal vein thrombosis) and the veins of the arms.
  • Arterial Thrombosis (AT): Can lead to heart attacks and strokes.
  • Recurrent miscarriage: Due to pre-natal complications like pre-eclampsia, abruption placentae, stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction.
  • Purpura fulminans: Due to Protein C deficiency.
  • Skin necrosis: Due to Protein S deficiency.

 

What are the warning signs of Thrombophilia?

Thrombophilia is accompanied by a number of signs and symptoms that are evident in blood clot patients in general. Identification of these signs is essential for the proper diagnosis of the disease. Some of the main symptoms are as follows-

  • Limbs: Blood clot in limbs can generate pain due to cramps, inflammation and extreme sensitivity to touch.
  • Abdomen: Nausea, vomiting, digestive disorders and extreme pain may occur due to the blood clot in the abdomen.
  • Heart: Arterial blood clots obstruct normal blood flow to the heart and are manifested as tightness and pain around the chest, irregular heartbeats, perspiration, and breathlessness.
  • Lungs: Blood clots in lungs cause chest discomfort and cough (often accompanied by blood), giddiness, breathing problems and pale skin.
  • Brain: Patients with blood clots in veins experience convulsions, extreme fatigue, and audio-visual disorders.

 

What are some of the types of Thrombophilia?

Thrombophilia injuryBased on the etiology, Thrombophilia is mainly of two types-

  • Congenital: This type of Thrombophilia arises from the hyperactivity of the different coagulation factors. The main coagulation factors involved in this case are- Prothrombin G20210A and Factor V Leiden. The former arises from a mutation in prothrombin and the latter from a mutation in the F5 gene. People having protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency or familial dysfibrinogenemia have greater risks of the disease. The blood groups other than Type O have 2-4 fold chances of developing blood clots.
  • Acquired: Certain acquired conditions increase the risks of Thrombosis. Some of these are Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Nephrotic syndrome, and obesity.

Based on the region of occurrence, blood clots in Thrombophilia can be classified into two types:

  • Arterial clots: Clots in arteries can lead to a transient ischemic attack, peripheral blockage and gangrene (dead tissues due to obstructed blood flow) and myocardial infarction (necrosis of heart muscles).
  • Intravenous clots: Blood clots found in the deeper regions of the veins cause Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). It affects mainly the limbs, abdomen, and brain.

 

Diagnosis, treatment, & prevention

The following laboratory examinations are recommended to check for Thrombophilia-

  • Complete blood count
  • Prothrombin time
  • Partial thromboplastin time
  • Thrombodynamics test
  • Thrombin time and reptilase time
  • Fibrinogen Tests
  • Basal homocysteine levels

Thrombophilia is a genetic disease and there is no such cure for it. Anticoagulants and blood-thinners can regulate the conditions temporarily, but the disease cannot be eliminated completely. There are no preventive measures against such conditions too. Nevertheless, few measures can help decrease the severity of the symptoms such as :

  • Taking long flights or journey where the individual doesn’t have much scope for movement.
  • Use of compression stockings, in case of prolonged bed-rest.
  • Before taking medications for birth control, always consult your doctor.
  • Refrain from smoking and other forms of tobacco consumption.
  • Control your weight which will help in decreasing the strain on the legs.

There are no specific vulnerable groups for blood clot-related diseases. Children and adults can be equally affected. But a specialist should be consulted before using blood thinners (oral or intravenous) to prevent blood clots because these can have adverse impacts like excessive bleeding (due to the presence of overactive anticoagulants in the bloodstream). An improper diagnosis or medication can worsen blood clot conditions and damage the body’s immune system permanently.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Any clot formed in the brain or liver should be taken as a warning sign for thrombophilia.
  • While this condition cannot be cured completely, medications such as blood thinners can help in managing the symptoms.
  • Birth control pills tend to increase your body’s blot clotting capacity. Refer to your doctor first when starting to take the pill, if you have chances of developing thrombophilia (FVL factor).
  • Be extra-cautious in situations where bleeding can happen such as shaving, playing contact sports, flossing, or using sharp tools.
Don'ts
  • Take long road trips or flights a stretch ifchIf you have been diagnosed with thrombophilia. It is important to keep moving your legs during such situations and drinking lots of water.
  • Let yourself gain weight. If you are obese, try to cut down on your weight since being over-weight will increase the pressure on the legs leading to more clotting.

 

 

 

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Muscle relaxers: Think twice before popping prescription drugs for muscle pain The market is brimming with OTC muscle relaxers. But these come with a host side-effects. Find out the…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…
free testosterone test
Free testosterone Free Testosterone Test measures and monitors the level of the free testosterone in the blood. Less than 4%…
Find all the instant ways to get rid of blackheads Blackheads - Not only are they aesthetically unappealing but if left untreated these can cause bacterial overgrowth on…
Crossfit with rope
CrossFit: Now get the perfectly sculpted body with this explosive gym routine CrossFit is a fitness regimen that makes use of high-intensity exercises in a shorter period to achieve muscle…
Is it possible to achieve full body detox with Master Cleanse? Master cleanse is a diet consisting of a lemonade based beverage, a salt water drink and a herbal…
Astaxanthin: Why experts believe it could be 550x more potent than vitamin E! What is astaxanthin and why is this new supplement on the block touted as the most powerful antioxidant…
smelling-salts-benefits
The actual science behind smelling salts and how it helps in injury recovery Most smelling salts are a mixture of ammonium carbonate and some perfumes which are sniffed by an individual…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the potatoes) growing close…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
woman with abdominal pain holding ovulation calendar
Ovulation – facts to know about ovulation Learn how and when ovulation occurs, demystify common misconceptions, identify symptoms, methods of detection and right period for…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test measures and monitors the levels of folic acid in the blood. This test is also…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
Miracle extract from the root of maca: 10 ways it can help you! Maca root has been used for years in herbal medicine. Today scientific research is unearthing fresh evidence in…
Lauric Acid: 8 health benefits you can derive from coconuts Appropriate use of saturated fats containing lauric acid can provide you numerous health benefits. This is the main…
kshar sutra
Kshar sutra treatment for piles, fissures and fistula Read to know the benefits and side effects of kshar sutra to treat anal piles, fissures, and fistula…
Tamarind: The top health benefits of this staple Asian ingredient Did you know this sweet and sour pulpy fruit does more than just add a tangy flavor to…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
Ear pain model
Easy and safe tips for ear wax removal you can do at home Cerumen impaction generally occurs when an external object like cotton swabs are used to remove the ear wax.…
Propolis: Yet another amazing gift by the bees to the humans Bee propolis is yet another generous gift by the bees bestowed on the human race. They utilize substances…
blood elements analysis
Blood Element Analysis Test A blood element analysis is a blood test performed to measure the level of toxic elements such as…
How to scrub away stress and fatigue with an Epsom salt bath? Epsom salt is a popular home remedy for many skin ailments. Though there is a lack of scientific…
leptospira Igm test
Leptospira-IgM Test A Leptospira-IgM test is a blood test which is carried out to detect anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis is…
Hymenoplasty
Hymenoplasty Read on to find out all about hymenoplasty, the procedure, post-surgery care, the risks, and the benefits.
chloride test
Chloride Test A chloride test of the blood checks the level of chloride in body, an important factor governing the…
Rheumatoid Arthritis xray
Arthritis Profile Arthritis profile is a panel of primarily blood tests used to detect the presence of arthritis or check…
Turner syndrome and infertility
Infertility profile (women) The infertility profile tests in women are conducted to form a complete picture of the hormonal balance and…

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