Dengue Fever

dengue mosquito

Last Updated February 20th, 2019

Overview of dengue fever

Pathogenic diseases are common in those parts of the world that are infested with the disease-causing microbes. In some places, these diseases lead to epidemic outbreaks.A very common disease of the above category is “Dengue Fever”. It is more prevalent in the tropics, sub-tropics, temperate and humid regions.The epidemiological reports of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention show that at present, about 2.5 billion people (comprises about 40% of the world’s population) live in areas having high risks of dengue transmission.

The World Health Organisation has reported that nearly 390 million dengue cases are documented each year globally. The disease is life-threatening in terms of co-morbidities and mortalities.

 

What is dengue fever?

dengue feverDengue fever is a type of viral infection caused by the Flavivirus group. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary carrier of this febrile disease.

It is also called “break-bone fever” since the patients often experience acute joint and bone pain.Four main categories of dengue virus have been identified so far.

Infection caused by one of the dengue viruses makes the person immune to future infections by the same virus. But he is still susceptible to infections by the remaining three varieties of dengue virus.

 

Causes of dengue fever

The factors precipitating dengue fever can be divided into four main categories which are discussed below-

  • Agent: Dengue fever is caused by the four main viruses belonging to the Flavivirus These are DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4. All these viruses are the single-stranded RNA serotypes. Man and mosquitoes are the main carriers of these viruses. In case of mosquitoes, these viruses may be transferred from one generation to another via Transovarian transmission (transmission through eggs).
  • Vector: Bites by the female Aedes aegypti mosquito can transmit the viruses to the human hosts. Other species of the Aedes family such as Aedes albopictus, Aedes polynesiensis and Aedes niveus may also be responsible for the spread of the virus.
  • Environment: The Aedes aegypti mosquito survives best in the tropics, subtropics, humid and temperate areas. Monsoon and the presence of water bodies (man-made or natural) are ideal for the growth and propagation of these mosquitoes. Accumulated water in and around the house can act as ideal breeding spots for these mosquitoes. Their optimum temperature of survival is 16º-30º C with a relative humidity of 60-80%.
  • Host: Human beings belonging to any gender or age groups are the ideal hosts of the dengue virus. People travelling to the endemic regions are more likely to have dengue fever. Secondary infections may arise in many patients, especially the children who henceforth develop Haemorrhagic Fever along with passively acquired antibodies.

 

Mode of transmission

dengue mosquitoDengue fever is spread mainly through the bites of the flavivirus infected mosquitoes.

These mosquitoes can bite at any time of the day. The Aedes mosquito acquires the virus by biting a human host in the acute febrile phase of dengue fever.

The virus undergoes several stages of development within the body of the mosquito.

This stage is called the “extrinsic incubation period”.

During the next mosquito bite, the virus enters the bloodstream of a healthy human host (through the injected saliva of the mosquito). After an incubation period of 5-6 days (intrinsic incubation period), the symptoms slowly start manifesting themselves.

 

Symptoms of dengue fever

The symptoms of dengue fever become prominent after the incubation period of 5-6 days (3-10 days in some cases). The following symptoms are normally observed-

  • Pain behind the eye on exerting slight pressure or during eye-ball movements (retro-orbital pain)
  • Frontal headache
  • Muscle pain (Myalgia)
  • Pain in bones and joints (arthralgias)
  • Fever
  • Bluish or purplish bruises (caused due to haemorrhage)
  • Decline in white blood cell count
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Presence of blood in vomit
  • Bleeding from nose and gums
  • Gastrointestinal disorders
  • Rashes all over the body (3-4 days after the fever)
  • Drowsiness and lethargy throughout the day
  • Black stools
  • Pale and cold skin
  • Dryness inside mouth
  • Respiratory problems
  • Constant crying (in infants)
  • Dehydration
  • Bad taste in the mouth
  • Throat pain

 

Types of dengue fever

Based on the severity of the symptoms, dengue fever was initially classified by WHO as – Uncomplicated Dengue Fever and Severe Dengue Fever. The following classification was introduced later on-

  • Classical or simple dengue fever: It is the relatively uncomplicated form of dengue fever. It lasts for about 5-7 days. It is characterized by fever, general malaise, retro-orbital pain, alteration of taste, throat pain and pink rashes. It is easily recoverable.
  • Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: It is a more severe form of dengue fever. It is characterized by bluish or purplish patches under the skin. This occurs due to severe damage of the blood vessels. More severe symptoms include nose-bleeds and gum-bleeds. Presence of blood in vomit is also found in certain cases.
  • Dengue Shock Syndrome: In this case, the patient exhibits symptoms of the above two categories of dengue fever. In addition to that, these patients also develop a condition known as “shock”. In this disease, the patient’s skin feels clammy and cold, even during very high fever. Abnormal drop of pulse rate and blood pressure is also observed. Gradually the person starts losing consciousness.

 

Diagnosis

For the proper evaluation of dengue fever, the following laboratory tests are usually recommended by the doctors-

  • Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test
  • Complement Fixation Test (CFT)
  • Neutralization test (NT)
  • Tourniquet test

 

Treatment and  Prevention

dengue preventionDengue fever is caused by a virus; hence there is no specific cure or treatment of this disease.

Medications can help in alleviating the troubling symptoms associated with this disease such as fever and severe dehydration.

The patient should be given adequate fluids and electrolytes to compensate for the extreme loss of bodily fluids.

Painkillers and antipyretics will help in decreasing body ache and fever.

The usage of NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen) is a strict no-no since these can lead to the onset of dangerous symptoms such as internal bleeding.

There are no vaccines to prevent dengue fever at present. The best way to keep dengue fever at a bay is to protect yourself from mosquito bites, especially if you are in a dengue-prone zone.  Papaya leaf extract has shown effectiveness in treating dengue symptoms. Breeding of mosquitoes happens most in stagnant water and accumulated garbage. Eliminate these from your surroundings to ensure that there are dengue outbreaks. Use mosquito nets, insecticides spray, and mosquito-repellents to keep dengue-causing mosquitoes away.

A person suffering from dengue fever for several days suffers from acute dehydration and is advised to have plenty of water. Dengue fever is contributing to the increasing infant mortality rates each year. CDC reports suggest that nearly 90% of the children below 5 years of age die due to dengue fever each year. Proper diagnosis in the early stages is necessary to avoid hemorrhagic and shock symptoms.

 

Dengue fever home remedies

 

In addition to the treatment measures being adopted to reduce the dengue symptoms, you can also apply few home remedies to ensure complete treatment. Since dengue is a viral infection, it is important to build the body’s natural immunity against the pathogen and flush out the virus from the body as much as possible. The stronger is your internal defense system, the faster will you recover from the dengue fever. One of the best home remedies for dengue fever is turmeric. It contains the substance curcumin that has strong antiviral properties. In many instances, a herbal mixture of papaya leaf and neem leaf juice has proven to be an effective remedy for dengue.

According to Ayurveda, tulsi or basil leaves can also help in controlling the symptoms since these also have strong antiviral properties. Boil few leaves of basil in water and add few peppercorns in it. Strain and drink the liquid 2-3 times a day to observe speedy recovery. Other immunity-boosting foods such as orange juice or fenugreek leaves can also be safely taken to obtain relief from the symptoms.

 


TL;DR?

Dengue fever infographic

 

Facts

  • 50% of the entire global population is at the risk of acquiring this disease, with tropical and sub-tropical countries being more prone to it.
  • It is one of the leading causes of death amongst children in many developing countries.

Facts

  • In the last 5 decades, the number of dengue cases has increased 30 times, and is gradually spreading from urban to rural areas.
  • The number of dengue cases reported annually throughout the world is 390 million.

Facts

  • The earliest mention of this disease occurs in ancient Chinese medical texts between 265-400 AD, which describes this disease as being related to water and flying insects.
  • The mortality rate associated with dengue fever is 5%.

Related Conditions

Want to live a healthy lifestyle?

Subscribe to free FactDr newsletters.

REVAMP YOUR

If you're enjoying our website, we promise you'll absolutely love our new posts. Be the first one to get a copy!

Get factually correct, actionable tips delivered straight to your inbox once a week.

I want the latest scoop on :

We hate spam too. We will never share your email address with anyone. If you change your mind later, you can unsubscribe with just one click

By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the FactDr Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of FactDr subscriptions at any time.

Display this infographic on your website

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • A dengue patient should get plenty of rest and lots of fluids as a part of the diet.
  • Keep checking signs for symptoms such as vomiting and bleeding. Immediately rush the patient to the nearest clinic, if these symptoms persist.
  • If you live in a dengue-prone area, use mosquito-repellents sprays and cream, mosquito nets, and full sleeved clothes.
Don'ts
  • Medicines such as aspirin or ibuprofen shouldn’t be given to people suffering from dengue.
  • Allow water to collect and stagnate. Remove old buckets, tires, boxes etc to get rid of mosquito breeding grounds.
  • Use alternative medication for dengue, however authentic they might appear.

 

 

 

Related Conditions

Trending Topics

anal sex
Anal Sex : Tips from experts on how to be kinky yet safe Whether it irks you or stokes your fantasies, anal sex has always been an intriguing sexual act. Learn…
diverticulitis diet
Diverticulitis diet: The right way to eat if you suffer from the disease Are you suffering from diverticultis but clueless about your diet ? Read this complete plan for diverticulitis diet…
Penis pump: Pump your way out of erectile dysfunction One of the options to treat erectile dysfunction is by the use of a penis pump. It is…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can it protect you…
Maltitol: Things you must know about this artificial sweetener Sugar alcohols are produced by fruits and vegetables. Maltitol is an artificially produced sugar alcohol and is used…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
Top natural diuretics: The instant benefits you can get from nature’s water pills Since diuretic drugs are known to cause side effects, it is better to choose a natural diuretic that…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
TBHQ: A carcinogen lingering in your child’s favorite snacks TBHQ - Why you should shun the practice of eating instant noodles or microwave popcorn to get rid…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing is not only…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make you smarter and…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in your body? Your…
occupational hazards types
Occupational Hazards: How to vouch for your health at your workplace Occupational hazards affect millions worldwide. Chemical spills, faulty wires, deadly pathogen, and work-stress can happen anytime. Follow these…
Erythritol: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another marketing ploy? Erythritol is a popular choice of a healthy alternative sweetening agent in foods. But how healthy can a…
Benefits of exercise: Top reasons why you should be sweating it out more in the gym Are you leading a sedentary life and still not motivated enough to get up from your couch and…
Improve sex life
9 best tips from around the world for better sex life How can the pungent-smelling garlic pack in a punch to your libido? How could something as slimy as…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Melatonin: Fascinating facts on the hormone that brings you the Zzzs Did you know, melatonin - the chemical that puts you to sleep every night is also involved in…
How can Kegels help you overcome weak pelvic muscles & incontinence? Kegel exercises are pelvic floor strengthening exercises that can help you overcome incontinence issues that rise out of…
Latest findings on Kombucha; a teacup full of yeast and bacteria How can a tea consisting of a live culture of bacteria & fungi be healthy? With Kombucha, you…
The science behind daith piercing: Can it really cure migraine? Since the ear has several pressure points, it is believed that daith piercing activates the vagus nerve and…
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
TRX: Why is this total resistance workout the best choice for your body? TRX or total resistance exercise is a form of exercise where suspension belts are used to produce that…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media? Are you one…
about mediterranean diet
Why you should be adopting a Mediterranean style of diet today Ever wondered why the Mediterranean diet is so healthy? One simple solution to lowering risk of several deadliest…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
eating myths debunked
8 ‘healthy eating’ myths you believed until now Is a zero-carb diet really healthy for you? Are organic products worth their cost? Did you know how…
paleo keto diet
Paleo vs. Keto: Which diet plan is best suited for your body goals? Is eating like a caveman the right way to go? Can you really eat fats to burn fats…
Salt dangers
Sodium chloride: The wonders and dangers of the simple table salt Sodium chloride is a salt containing sodium and chlorine ions at a 1:1 ratio. It is edible and…
Lectin: The common link of proteins between peas and people Lectins are a type of protein that are found majorly in legumes. Most people are find it easy…
The real reason why you shouldn’t be eating ramen noodles Instant ramen noodles might be your go-to snack for your hunger pangs. But with each spoonful you are…
Hemp Seeds: The actual science behind this controversial crop Inspite of being credited as a superfood, hemp seeds are still shrouded with layers of controversies. Are these…
Guaranteed ways to lose weight fast and shed those extra pounds! Read more to find a guaranteed step-by-step method to lose weight permanently. Losing weight was never this easy!…
PiYo (Pilates + Yoga): Bringing you the best of both the worlds PiYo exercise routine was formulated for people who find it tedious and grueling exercise regimens such as extensive…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket The dragon fruit is packed with nutrients and yet low on calories and is the dream food that…
Creatine: Is this the right peak athletic-performance supplement for you? Creatine is the amino acid that boosts our energy. Did you know creatine supplements can help you reach…
erectile dysfunction treatment
Erectile Dysfunction: Effective tips to help you get back on charge Erectile dysfunction is a common male sexual dysfunction. Don't stress out. Just follow these amazing tips to get…
Coconut oil woman
Coconut Oil: How one oil dominates the kitchen and the medicine kit too Coconut oil has been a favorite in many Asian kitchens. But more than a cooking oil, coconut oil…
Lauric Acid: 8 health benefits you can derive from coconuts Appropriate use of saturated fats containing lauric acid can provide you numerous health benefits. This is the main…
Cranberry: Top reasons why you should grow this “superfruit” in your own backyard Cranberry is a favorite among foodies and health enthusiasts alike. Read more on how it can benefit your…
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know some of the…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
Female Masturbation: Tips on how to turn up the heat during a solo mission As a female, do you find yourself constantly wondering as to what is the best way to please…
Burpees: World’s most challenging fitness routine now made simple for you The majority of the fitness regimens mainly concentrate on a particular muscle group whereas Burpees is s whole…
Aromatherapy: Can this sense-stimulating therapy help you? Aromatherapy is a holistic treatment method with several benefits, and not just for humans but pets as well.…
Surgery or home-remedy; what is the right way to treat a burn The treatment of a burn injury depends on its severity. You can save a life by offering the…
cancer facts
8 hard-hitting truths no one tells you about cancer Did you know that 1.5 million new cases of cancer are reported every year? Can second-hand smoking kill…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does it harm some…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
Vitamin B12: The unknown repercussions of this nutrient deficiency Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamine; involved in the development of red blood cells in the bone marrow.…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of health benefits. Discover…
Trisodium Phosphate: How a paint thinner made its way into your breakfast Ever thought how toxic chemicals find their way into our foods? How can they harm our body? And…
waterchestnut
Water Chestnuts: The tastiest ways to include this healthy tuber in your diet Water chestnut is not a nut after all. It is a tuber (much like the potatoes) growing close…
Fibromyalgia fatigue
HCG Diet: The dangers of using this diet to lose weight HCG is a natural hormone produced by both men and women that corresponds to fertility. But how is…
What is the average penis size and why should you care? Scientifically speaking, the average size of the penis depends on numerous factors such as genes, environmental circumstances, etc.
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you didn't know about…
Keto diet healthy
Keto Diet: Did you know you could eat fats to burn fats? Keto diet - A wonder diet that lets you eat fats and lose weight too! Read on to…
collagen benefits skin
Collagen: Get age-defying skin and faster hair growth with this miracle protein Collagen – Wrinkle-free skin, stronger nails, and thicker locks – now you have more reasons to eat these…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why not try the…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many experts now have…
Anhedonia: Does the chronic inability to feel joy affect you too? How often do you feel dragged down by an invisible force? Do you feel an inexplicable emotional numbness…
Anticholinergics: The diverse range of diseases a single drug can easily treat What started as a novel treatment for Parkinson' disease has now become an all-encompassing drug. What all can…
Find the G spot: The top sex positions that guarantee an orgasm There has been a long debate as to whether the G-spot actually exists as a separate organ.  Can…
11 unbelievable health benefits of thyme you didn’t know! Thyme is a herb that has been used in alternative medicine.It is a well known seasoning in the…
Orgasms: How to perfect the art of achieving intense bursts of pleasure (every time!) Orgasms are dependent not just on the sexual activity but on your partner as well. What you must…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
sugar toxic health
Sugar: 7 new shocking truths revealed about the sweet poison Can drinking soda bring you closer to death? Is sugar slowly poisoning you and your family? You would…
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance: How common diseases become deadly Can a cold kill you? How important is to get a flu shot? Why do antibiotics fail against…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity , and much more.…
Isagenix diet
Isagenix Diet: Do you really need liquid meal replacements to lose weight? Isagenix Diet - What are liquid meal replacements and why is the world going ga-ga over them? Are…
castor oil hair
Castor oil : A vitamin-rich oil for shiny locks and healthy bowels Castor oil bestows unlimited benefits, whether you use it for your hair or skin. But did you know…
glutamine workout
Glutamine: Why is this the right choice for muscle-gain supplement? Glutamine can help you gain muscles and build higher immunity. Read more to find out how you can…
iron food shellfish
Iron-Rich Foods: Eat these foods to keep fatigue and anemia away! How to ensure a muscles as strong as iron? Eat iron rich foods ! Iron is one of…
black seed oil benefits
Black Seed Oil: What secret benefits could it bestow on your health? Black seeds or nigella seeds are tiny packets of health brimming with amazing benefits. Find out why should…
calorie counter
Calorie Counter: Count your calories before they flab Is calorie counting good? Are calories always bad for you? How do you if you are getting enough…
Cordyceps: How the Caterpillar fungus works as a proven cancer-shield Strange as it may sound, but cordyceps or "caterpillar fungus", a fungus variety native to the Himalayas may…
L-arginine: Your search for the ultimate fitness booster ends here L-arginine is an amino acid necessary for the body to perform various functions.  It is essential in producing…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
CLA: A breakthrough weight loss supplement with minimal side effects Tried every weight loss supplement in the market with no substantial gain? Why not try CLA supplements, derived…
What is the right way to take a pregnancy test? A pregnancy test is undertaken to determine if you have conceived. A home pregnancy test is the most…
Oxalates: How healthy greens can sometimes be bad news for your kidneys Oxalates are compounds present in a majority of healthy foods. However, at times an overconsumption of these could…
GERD heartburn
Heartburn: What are the exact symptoms and the best home remedies? There are easy home remedies for heartburn, which not only acts as a first aid when you experience…
The Vegan Diet: The benevolent way of eating that wins hearts (and tummies) The vegan diet involves fauna-friendly outlook towards food. Could the diet that hopes to balance everything based on…
The complete fitness guide on how to perform Tabata This fitness routine is called Tabata workouts, which is named after Dr. Izumi Tabata who developed this intensive…
Burn those years of stubborn fat-deposits with a few minutes of HIIT! HIIT or high-intensity interval training seems to be the right type of fitness training that is required where…