Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer pain

Last Updated August 16th, 2019

Malignant tumors on the pancreas can be deadly. The most shocking thing about pancreatic cancer is that in most cases the symptoms are not evident until the cancer reaches an advanced stage. Another fact about pancreatic cancer is that it is probably the only type of cancer for which the 5-year-survival rate hasn’t improved. In fact, it has the lowest survival rate among all the other cancer types. The mortality rate of pancreatic cancer is as high as 95%.
The facts about pancreatic cancer reveal one very important thing. It is probably the deadliest cancer known to humans. It is a silent killer, aka, most people are unaware that they suffer from cancer until the last stage. The most common symptom is abdominal pain, which is not a very clear and definitive sign. In most cases, it is misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed.
Pancreatic cancer is probably the deadliest cancer to occur in the human body. The 5-year-survival rate is a disappointing 5%. That means 95% of people with pancreatic cancer succumb to the disease. The striking fact that makes pancreatic cancer lethal is that it remains undetected during the initial stages (where it can be treated). Only at the advanced stages is it usually diagnosed. Most symptoms and early signs of pancreatic cancer are often confused with usual gastric disorders - diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and heartburn.
Though smoking and drinking increase the risk of pancreatic cancer manifold, there might be other factors too that can push you in the pancreatic cancer high risk zone. Obesity is one such significant factor. Not only does it increase your risk of getting cancer, but it also increases the risk of death by pancreatic cancer. Exposure to toxic chemicals, existing pancreatic diseases (including diabetes),and even family history of pancreatic cancer can put you at high risk.

Overview of Pancreatic Cancer

The pancreas is one of the most essential organs of the body which is responsible for the production of enzyme-containing juice (pancreatic juice) that help in the breakdown of food matter prior to digestion. It is also responsible for the production of essential hormones. Any abnormalities in the functioning of the pancreas may be associated with “pancreatic cancer”, a disease that is affecting the lives of millions. According to estimates by American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer will affect nearly 55,440 people this year. It accounts for 3% of all cancers (in the United States) and demands attention from health organizations all over the globe.

 

What is Pancreatic Cancer?

Pancreatic CancerPancreatic cancer is the medical condition in which abnormal cell growth occurs in the pancreas leading to the formation of solidified mass (tumors).

These tumors are confined to the site of origin in the initial stage but rapidly proliferate to the other organs of the body as well.

Pancreatic cancer can affect any of the two types of pancreatic cells viz – exocrine cells (comprising exocrine glands and ducts) and endocrine cells (forming the islet of Langerhans). Any kind of pancreatic disease if left undiagnosed in the early stages can spread to other vital organs and give rise to numerous clinical complications.

 

What causes pancreatic cancer?

Pancreatic Cancer locationThe etiological factors behind pancreatic diseases are listed below-

  • Tobacco: Excess tobacco consumption via active or passive smoking increases risks of pancreatic cancer. Tobacco intake accounts for 20-30% of all cancers in the pancreas.
  • Obesity: Overweight people are 20% more susceptible to pancreas cancers.
  • Toxicity: Exposure to certain toxic chemicals (in case of factory and blast furnace workers) can induce malignancy in the pancreas.
  • Age: Natural degeneration of pancreatic cells may occur with age, causing pancreatic dysfunctions.
  • Gender: Men are more prone to pancreatic cancer conditions than women due to excess tobacco consumption and a few other factors.
  • Ethnicity: Possibility of pancreas cancer is slightly higher in African Americans than Asians or native Americans.
  • Heredity: A familial history of pancreatic cancer predisposes the future generations to the disease mainly due to mutations in the PRSS1 gene.
  • Existing diseases: Few existing and chronic diseases such as pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, and Type 2 Diabetes can increase risks of pancreatic cancer.
  • Diet: A regular diet rich in processed red meats and deficient in fruits, vegetable, and dietary fibres may contribute to pancreatic cancer.
  • Substance abuse: Excessive consumption of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine or narcotics falls in this category.
  • Physical activities: Limited physical activity can be a major contributing factor.

 

What are the warning signs and symptoms?

Pancreatic cancer symptoms may be mistaken for symptoms of other diseases in the initial stages, but in the advanced stages, few obvious symptoms are noticed-

  • Yellowish discoloration of the skin and white portion of the eye (jaundice symptoms)
  • Clay-colored stool
  • Brownish discoloration of the urine along with a strong odor
  • Nausea, vomiting and weight loss (observed in 35-45% of  patients)
  • General body weakness and fatigue
  • Abdominal pain and cramps that slowly radiate to the back and shoulders (observed in 75-90% patients)
  • The occurrence of blood clots causing swelling and reddish discoloration (Venous Thromboembolism)
  • Diarrhea and cramps immediately after eating (indicators of pancreatic insufficiency)
  • Enlargement of gallbladder or liver (due to bile duct obstruction causing bile accumulation)
  • Formation of uneven fatty tissue layer under the skin (due to the release of fat-digesting enzymes)
  • Indigestion and heartburn

 

Different types of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is broadly classified into the following categories-

Exocrine pancreatic cancer: It affects the cells present in exocrine glands and ducts. About 95% of this type of cancer belongs to the pancreatic adenocarcinoma category that develops in the pancreatic ducts. Another subtype is ampullary cancer that occurs at the point of meeting of the bile duct and pancreatic duct ( ampulla of Vater). Few other rare forms of exocrine cancers include-

  • Acinar cell carcinoma: It is manifested as prominent skin rashes and joint pain.
  • Papillary mucinous neoplasm: Here the tumors grow as finger-like projections in the pancreatic ducts and discharges high quantity of mucous that may cause duct enlargement.
  • Mucinous cystic neoplasm: These are characterized by enlarged cysts filled with thick mucus.
  • Pancreatoblastoma: This is closely associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and is observed in children.

Endocrine pancreatic cancer: They account for less than 5% of all pancreatic cancer and occur mostly in the islet cells. They may belong to any of the following categories-

  • Gastrinomas: They originate from cells making gastrin.
  • Insulinomas: They are caused by cells producing insulin.
  • Glucagonomas: They originate from cells producing glucagon.
  • Somatostatinomas: They originate from cells producing somatostatin.
  • VIPomas: They come from cells making Vasoactive Intestinal Peptitde (VIP).
  • PPomas: They come from cells making Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP).

 

Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer invades the body through the following stages-

  • Stage I: Tumour is present only within the pancreas.
  • Stage II: Tumor penetrates the adjoining tissues but not blood vessels.
  • Stage III: The tumor invades the neighboring blood vessels.
  • Stage IV: Tumours spread to remote organs such as lungs and liver.

 

What are the recommended diagnostic tests?

Pancreatic Cancer painAccurate diagnosis of pancreatic cancers is essential in order to facilitate proper treatment. The following diagnostic tests are usually recommended for pancreatic cancers-

  • CT scan of the pancreas: It helps to examine abnormal cell growth in the pancreas. It also helps to detect the spread of cancerous tumors to other organs.
  • MRI scan: It comprises of MR cholangiopancreatography (MCP) to examine pancreatic and bile ducts and MR angiography (MRA) for examining the blood vessels.
  • Ultrasound: It comprises of abdominal ultrasound (to analyze abdominal dysfunctions) and Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) for more accurate examination of the pancreas.

 

Treatment and prevention

Treatment 

Surgery

  • Surgery for the tumor in the pancreatic head –This procedure is called pancreaticoduodenectomy. Here the Whipple procedure is done. In this procedure, the surgeon will remove a part of the small intestine, gallbladder and the head of the pancreas. At the time, a part of the stomach and the surrounding lymph nodes are removed as well.
  • Surgery for a tumor in the pancreatic body and tail – This surgery is called distal pancreatectomy. Here the surgeon will remove the left side of the pancreas and the spleen.
  • Surgery to remove the pancreas – This surgical method is called total pancreatectomy. Here the entire pancreas is removed.
  • Surgery for tumor affecting the nearby blood vessels – This treatment method is done for selective patients. Here, the blood vessels near the tumor in the pancreas are reconstructed and attached back in their place. This surgery is done for those patients who have an advanced stage of pancreatic cancer.

Radiation therapy – Here high power beams target the area of the cancer cells and destroy them. Thereby treating pancreatic cancer.

Chemotherapy – Cancer-killing drugs are given orally or intravenously to help treat pancreatic cancer.

Support (palliative) care – This method of treatment is advised as soon as the cancer is detected. Here, a team of specialists will assist the patients in how to go about their lives and provide an extra support for the cancer patient. This treatment method along with other aggressive treatment methods can make the patient feel better and aid in the recovery process.

 

Prevention

  • Do not smoke, as smoking can seriously damage the pancreas.
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle; doing so can lower the risks of developing this condition.
  • Consume clean and healthy foods. This will ensure a healthy digestion and put a lesser strain on the pancreas.
  • Maintain a healthy weight, doing so does not put excessive strain on the pancreas that could lead to cancerous stages.

 


TL;DR?

Pancreatic cancer infographic

Facts

  • Pancreatic cancer is known as a silent disease. As the signs and symptoms of the cancer are generally not noticed until cancer has reached its advanced stage.
  • In the past 40 years, the survival rates for all types of cancers have increased except for pancreatic cancer and renal cancer.

Facts

  • More than 37,000 deaths by pancreatic cancer were reported in the USA in 2012.
  • The lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer in men is 1 in 63 and in women it is 1 in 65.

Facts

  • The 5-year survival rate of pancreatic cancer is 3-6% which is the lowest among all cancers.
  • 70% of cases of pancreatic cancer report abdominal pain as the major symptom. Other symptoms of pancreatic cancer are very vague and difficult to diagnose.

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Malignant tumors on the pancreas can be deadly. The most shocking thing about pancreatic cancer is that in most cases the symptoms are not evident until the cancer reaches an advanced stage. Another fact about pancreatic cancer is that it is probably the only type of cancer for which the 5-year-survival rate hasn’t improved. In fact, it has the lowest survival rate among all the other cancer types. The mortality rate of pancreatic cancer is as high as 95%.
The facts about pancreatic cancer reveal one very important thing. It is probably the deadliest cancer known to humans. It is a silent killer, aka, most people are unaware that they suffer from cancer until the last stage. The most common symptom is abdominal pain, which is not a very clear and definitive sign. In most cases, it is misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed.
Pancreatic cancer is probably the deadliest cancer to occur in the human body. The 5-year-survival rate is a disappointing 5%. That means 95% of people with pancreatic cancer succumb to the disease. The striking fact that makes pancreatic cancer lethal is that it remains undetected during the initial stages (where it can be treated). Only at the advanced stages is it usually diagnosed. Most symptoms and early signs of pancreatic cancer are often confused with usual gastric disorders - diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and heartburn.
Though smoking and drinking increase the risk of pancreatic cancer manifold, there might be other factors too that can push you in the pancreatic cancer high risk zone. Obesity is one such significant factor. Not only does it increase your risk of getting cancer, but it also increases the risk of death by pancreatic cancer. Exposure to toxic chemicals, existing pancreatic diseases (including diabetes),and even family history of pancreatic cancer can put you at high risk.

Display this infographic on your website

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Join a support group, to help you cope with the condition and the treatment process.
  • Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle; do so can help in making the treatment process more manageable.
  • Exercise regularly, doing so can help in the regaining muscle strength along with improving overall fitness
Don'ts
  • Consume oily and sweet food during breakfast; they tend to increase the fat levels in your body.
  • Consume processed and refined foods.
  • Have big and heavy meals; break them down into smaller meals. This will help the digestive system break down complex food without straining the pancreas.

 

 

 

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GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
Vagus nerve: 7 health benefits of stimulating the “gut-brain” connection As a matter of fact, there are two vagus nerves namely the left and the right but is…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
blood ketone test
Blood Ketone (D3HB) Test The Blood Ketone Test is used to measure and monitor the levels of ketone in the blood which…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking for fun and…
lose pregnancy weight
5 most effective ways you can lose those pregnancy pounds! Are you looking for ways to get back into shape? Scared of crash diets? Don't let your post-pregnancy…
low carb diet meal
Low carb diet : Go high on fats and low on carbs for a leaner body! Did you know that sugar is the new fat? Going low on carbs and high on fats &…
Amaranth: Why is this native Peruvian grain called the “crop of the future”? Full of healthy high proteins and gluten-free, the grain, Amaranth, the tasty and ancient pseudo cereal from Peru,…
biotin for hair
Biotin: One-stop-shop for shiny hair and an active body! What is common to bananas, eggs, sweet potatoes, and liver? These are delicious and rich in biotin ;…
dandelion health benefits
Dandelion: Little parachutes of health and wellness for your whole body Dandelions are not just bright looking blossoms that cheer your mind. These are powerpacked with essential nutrients that…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
liver cleanse detox
14 go-to foods that are best for a complete natural liver detox Liver cleanse can be achieved by just choosing or avoiding certain types of food. Liver itself is a detoxifying…
Vitamin b12
Vitamin B12 Test Vitamin b12 is an essential nutrient required for healthy functioning of the nervous system and also development of…
Crossfit with rope
CrossFit: Now get the perfectly sculpted body with this explosive gym routine CrossFit is a fitness regimen that makes use of high-intensity exercises in a shorter period to achieve muscle…
bilirubin-test-result
Bilirubin Test Bilirubin is a substance produced in the body as a result of red blood cell breakdown. A bilirubin…
Anti-CCP Test – Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Anti-ccp or ACCP test is a blood test that is primarily employed to diagnose the onset of rheumatoid…
ANTIPHOSPHOLIPIDANTIBODY(APL)_IgG
Antiphospholipid (APL) antibody-IgG The Antiphospholipid Antibody testing is a blood test used to determine an autoimmune disorder called Antiphospholipid syndrome linked…
Strep throat pain
Anti-Streptolysin-O Test The ASO or Anti-Streptolysin-O is a blood test designed to check for the presence of streptococcus bacterial infection…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
HSV-IgM test
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-IgM Test The HSV-IgM class antibody is produced by the body a few days after an initial HSV infection and…
APL IgM Test
Antiphospholipid Antibody(APL)-IgM test The antiphospholipid antibodies are a specific protein produced by the body and directed against the phospholipids. It is…
smelling-salts-benefits
The actual science behind smelling salts and how it helps in injury recovery Most smelling salts are a mixture of ammonium carbonate and some perfumes which are sniffed by an individual…
BULIMIA NERVOSA vomiting
Can you get addicted to food? Learn everything about food addiction What is food addiction? How can people get addicted to eating? Is it an unhealthy eating habit or…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
lifestyle diseases
The Big 5 lifestyle diseases: How your everyday living might be killing you You'd be shocked to know how unhealthy and potentially fatal your everyday routine could be. Has the modern…
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance: How common diseases become deadly Can a cold kill you? How important is to get a flu shot? Why do antibiotics fail against…