Excretory System Diseases

Excretory issues

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

The major diseases and disorders of the urinary system - Kidney stones, kidney failure, urethritis, uremia, anuria, polyuria, and urinary tract infection. The most common and widespread bowel diseases and disorders - Constipation, IBS, haemorrhoids, anal fissures, IBD, and Crohn’s disease.
Human urine is largely water (95%). It mainly contains urea, sodium, chlorine, creatine, and other by-products of metabolic processes. Urea is a substance that contains ammonia (toxic) and carbon dioxide. Normal urine is pale yellow in color and has a pH of about 4.6 to 8.
Your body will fill up with the waste fluid that is not excreted by the urinary system. Your hands and legs will start swelling up due to the accumulation of toxins. Heartbeat, breathing, movement, blood pressure, and more – all are going to be lethally impacted if there is an increased concentration of urea toxin in the body.
When the stool is not expelled out of the body, it backs up to the intestines and causes damage and tears along the inner linings of the gut. This is called bowel perforation. Since the stool is highly acidic, contains toxins, and harmful bacteria – if it lingers in the system for too long it can cause poisoning of the blood.

Overview of excretory system diseases

The excretory system is one of the major functional units of the human body, responsible for the elimination of solid and liquid wastes from the body. Dysfunctions of the excretory system may lead to the retention of the toxic wastes that may give rise to numerous complexities within the body. Excretory system diseases can be broadly categorized into two types- urinary disorders and bowel problems.

A recent survey conducted by the American Urological Association reveals that about 12% of men and 7% of women normally suffer from kidney stones worldwide. This is indicative of some serious urinary disorders. Again, epidemiological studies by the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons suggest that nearly 5% of the general population suffers from bowel incontinence problems, which is clearly indicative of rectal disorders.

 

What are the excretory system diseases?

Excretory issuesExcretory system diseases refer to the array of diseases that cause improper functioning of the excretory system.

Urinary diseases encompass both kidney dysfunctions and urinary tract infections. These are mostly mediated by microbial pathogens.

Bowel problems are caused by dysfunctions of the sphincter muscles. Both types of excretory system diseases may be precipitated by autoimmune disorders that are often present from birth.

The urinary and bowel diseases will be detailed in separate sections.

 

Urinary diseases

These comprise kidney diseases and urinary tract infections. The kidney diseases refer to the malfunctioning of the kidneys due to infections, cysts or certain structural abnormalities.

Kidney stones are solidified masses of salts and minerals that are normally present in urine. These usually form as crystals due to the excess build-up of minerals such as calcium, oxalates, phosphates or uric acid. Smaller kidney stones may not cause many complications and may pass easily through urine.  The larger stones may cause bleeding and painful urination. Kidney stones are of four types-

  • Calcium stones (calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate)
  • Uric acid stones (uric acid and calcium)
  • Struvite stones (kidney infections)
  • Cystine stones (excess amino acid)

The main causes of the formation of kidney stones are-

  • Excess build-up of calcium (hypercalciuria), oxalate (Hyperoxaluria) or uric acid (Hyperuricosuria)
  • Diseases like Renal Tubular Acidosis, Gout or Cystic Kidney disease
  • An occurrence of Medullary Sponge Kidney
  • Clogged urinary tract by the accumulated wastes
  • Familial history of kidney diseases
  • Cysts or scars in kidneys
  • Low intake of fluids
  • Diabetes Type 2

Excretory system kidneysKidney cysts are the fluid-filled outgrowths on the walls of the kidneys, that appear singly or in clusters. About 25% of the people above the age of 40 develop simple kidney cysts.

What are the different types of kidney cysts?

Kidney cysts are broadly classified as-

  • Simple cyst: They originate from the renal parenchyma and vary in size between 2-10 cm.
  • Complex cyst: These are hyperdense cysts with thickened walls, nodular outgrowths, and increased calcifications. They may lead to cancer.

Some other varieties of kidney cysts are as follows-

Polycystic kidney disease: Here hundreds of cysts are present in one or both kidneys. They are of two types-

  • Autosomal dominant: In such cases, if one parent has the mutated gene then there is 50% of that mutated gene being transferred to each offspring.
  • Autosomal recessive: Here, two unaffected individuals who each carry one copy of the mutated gene have a 25% chances of passing on the disease to one offspring.

Parapelvic cysts: They generally originate from the renal sinus.

Acquired cysts: These are formed by external conditions such as chronic hemodialysis or presence of an Indwelling Catheter (IDC).

Urinary tract infections encompass the group of symptoms caused by microbial infections of the urinary tract. They are mainly caused by-

  • Bacterial infections ( E.coli)
  • Clogging of the urinary tract due to the build-up of wastes, the presence of stones or cysts
  • An enlarged prostate gland in men
  • Using Indwelling Catheter for several weeks or months
  • Having sex with a partner having urinary infections
  • Past surgeries of the urinary tract
  • Glomerular diseases or Polycystic kidney diseases
  • Unhygienic urinary habits
  • Excess intake of sodium or purine in regular diet
  • Dehydration

What are the symptoms of urinary tract infections?

The main symptoms of urinary tract infections are as follows-

 

Bowel diseases

Excretory system bowelsBowel diseases present as abnormal bowel movements due to bowel dysfunctions.

In many cases, certain parts of the gastrointestinal tract such as- the beginning of the large intestine and the end portion of the small intestine are inflamed.

These may often arise due to certain autoimmune disorders and are called inflammatory bowel diseases.

These are of two types-

 

Crohn’s disease: It affects the end portion of the small intestine (ileum) at the junction of the small intestine and the colon. In the extreme cases, reddish or greyish patches may appear along the entire thickness of the wall of the bowel. This is known as granulomatous inflammation. Crohn’s disease is of the following types-

  • Gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease
  • Crohn’s granulomatous colitis
  • Ileitis
  • Ileocolitis
  • Jejunoileitis

Ulcerative colitis: It is characterized by inflammatory patches in the colon and the rectum. It is of the following types-

  • Pan-ulcerative colitis
  • Left-sided colitis
  • Ulcerative proctitis
  • Proctosigmoiditis

Both the diseases are characterized by bowel incontinence. Two main conditions arise in such cases-

  • Diarrhea: It is characterized by semi-liquid or watery stools and abdominal cramps during defecation.
  • Constipation: It is characterized by hardened stools and occasional bleeding during defecation.

 

Diagnosis

The following diagnostic tests are carried out for urinary diseases-

  • Ultrasonography
  • Voiding cystourethrogram
  • MRI and CT scan
  • Cystoscopy
  • Urodynamics
  • Radionuclide scan

The following diagnostic tests are recommended for bowel diseases-

  • Abdominal X-ray
  • Defecography
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Colonography

 

Treatment & Prevention

Treatment of excretory system disorders depends on the exact disorder of the system (kidney stones or urethritis) and on the severity of the symptoms.  Following the general treatment methods applied to treat such conditions:

  • Kidneys: Use of antibiotics in case there is a bacterial infection. Often changes in diet and management of cholesterol and blood pressure help in managing the symptoms of kidney diseases. In the case of kidney stones, either medicine is given to dissolve the stone or shock wave therapy is administered to break the stone into smaller fragments.
  • Bladder: In the case of infections, appropriate antibiotics are administered. If bladder cancer has been detected, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or intravesical therapy might be required.
  • Bowel disorders: The treatment of bowel disorders include administering NSAIDs, immune system suppressors, and antibiotic medications. Adding psyllium husk to the diet can help in reducing both diarrheal and constipation symptoms. The treatment of Crohn’s disease entails steroid drugs along with vitamin D and calcium supplements. OTC painkillers such as Advil can be taken to reduce abdominal pain. In case of severe bowel obstruction, surgery might be required to remove the bowel. Surgery might also be required in case there is a perforation, abscess, infection, or fistula formation in the colon.

Prevention of excretory system disorders can be done by:

  • Consuming the daily recommended dosage of fiber.
  • Staying away from potential triggers that could cause gastric disorders (if you have celiac disease, refrain from gluten consumption. Similarly, lactose intolerant individuals should steer clear from dairy).
  • Avoid consuming oily and spicy foods. Also, stop bingeing on unhealthy processed foods such as junk and sugary treats.
  • Keep your gut bacteria healthy by consuming probiotics (yogurt and kefir).
  • Exercise regularly. Don’t have a sedentary lifestyle.
  • Drink ample amount of water.
  • Don’t have the habit of holding in urine or feces.
  • Maintain proper hygiene while using restrooms.
  • Avoid using washrooms which are not clean and sanitized.
  • Keep a check on your calcium intake. Avoid over-consumption of calcium.
  • Drinking cranberry juice (unsweetened) helps in preventing urinary tract infections.
  • Wear cotton undergarments which are well-fitting.
  • Urinate before and after sexual intercourse.
  • Practice safe sex.

 

Facts

  • The excretory system is not limited to the anus, rectum, kidneys, bladder etc. In fact, skin, lungs, and liver are also counted as a part of the excretory system.
  • An average person urinates about 3000 times in a year.

Facts

  • The human intestine is about 8.5 m long, roughly 27 feet.
  • A healthy urinary bladder can hold 24 ounces of liquid. That is equivalent to 2 soda cans.

Facts

  • Diseases related to the kidney and urinary tract claim almost 830,000 lives annually, which is 1.4% of all deaths.
  • On an average, the blood flows to kidneys roughly 300 times, for filtration and excretion of waste products.
  • People with ischemic heart diseases and hypertensive tendencies tend to have kidney-related issues.

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The major diseases and disorders of the urinary system - Kidney stones, kidney failure, urethritis, uremia, anuria, polyuria, and urinary tract infection. The most common and widespread bowel diseases and disorders - Constipation, IBS, haemorrhoids, anal fissures, IBD, and Crohn’s disease.
Human urine is largely water (95%). It mainly contains urea, sodium, chlorine, creatine, and other by-products of metabolic processes. Urea is a substance that contains ammonia (toxic) and carbon dioxide. Normal urine is pale yellow in color and has a pH of about 4.6 to 8.
Your body will fill up with the waste fluid that is not excreted by the urinary system. Your hands and legs will start swelling up due to the accumulation of toxins. Heartbeat, breathing, movement, blood pressure, and more – all are going to be lethally impacted if there is an increased concentration of urea toxin in the body.
When the stool is not expelled out of the body, it backs up to the intestines and causes damage and tears along the inner linings of the gut. This is called bowel perforation. Since the stool is highly acidic, contains toxins, and harmful bacteria – if it lingers in the system for too long it can cause poisoning of the blood.

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Drinking plenty of water is the foremost thing to do. This ensures that toxins are regularly flushed out of the body and your body’s cells are receiving proper circulation of nutrients.
  • Exercise regularly. Firstly, it stimulates sweating that pushes toxins out of the body through the skin. Secondly, it promotes deep breathing which expels toxins out of the lungs.
  • Make sure that the food that you consumed isn’t laced with toxic products such as pesticides.
Don'ts
  • Expose your body to environmental toxins such as pollutants, fumes, and harsh chemicals.
  • Indulge in substance abuse. Alcohol, smoking, and illicit drugs tend to directly impact the smooth functioning of excretory system organs.
  • Use unhygienic restrooms. Also, refrain from controlling the urge to urinate or defecate.

 

 

 

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Ovulation – facts to know about ovulation Learn how and when ovulation occurs, demystify common misconceptions, identify symptoms, methods of detection and right period for…
lose weight fast
12 easy and instant steps to successful weight loss Do you want to lose weight without losing your mind? Does weight loss always mean saying goodbye to…
50 common health conditions
What are the top 50 deadly and widespread diseases? A complete list of the top 50 most common and deadly diseases that plague humanity. Which disease is…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Plexus Slim: Is this pink slimming drink the ultimate one-stop fat burner? How effective is Plexus Slim in helping people lose weight? What are its ingredients? Can it be safely…
Tamarind: The top health benefits of this staple Asian ingredient Did you know this sweet and sour pulpy fruit does more than just add a tangy flavor to…
Vagus nerve: 7 health benefits of stimulating the “gut-brain” connection As a matter of fact, there are two vagus nerves namely the left and the right but is…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
apolipoprotein a1 test
Apolipoprotein -A1 (APO-A1) Test Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) constitutes 70% of protein content in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and helps in lipid metabolism.
carrageenan seaweed
Carrageenan: How a simple seaweed extract could better your gut health & immunity Eat more ice cream to prevent cold and flu? –With carrageenan you get one simple seaweed extract that…
Jackfruit: Slice your way into higher immunity, better digestion, & more… Native to the South East Asia, the jackfruit is a fruit brimming with thousands of health benefits. Discover…
Experts reveal the safest ways to perform an enema at home The idea of pushing some up your rectal area might make you queasy but an enema could actually…
Piaget stages: Do they accurately describe the way the human brain develops?  A common assumption was that children are less competent thinkers as compared to adults, but this was refuted…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
colposcopy
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a simple, quick and non- invasive diagnostic tool to look closely inside the vulva, vagina, and…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
fructosamine test
Fructosamine Test A fructosamine test measures blood sugar glucose content. Fructosamine level can indicate blood sugar level in past 2-3…
leptospira Igm test
Leptospira-IgM Test A Leptospira-IgM test is a blood test which is carried out to detect anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis is…
nature health benefits
Green Healing: The amazing health benefits of being in nature You have no idea what sitting in a closed room does to your body and mind.Can a stroll…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the world by the…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you in digesting food?…
dandelion weight loss
Caralluma Fimbriata: How to eat this cactus to lose weight Caralluma fimbriata is a miracle cactus that can be safely consumed by most for losing weight and boosting…
Coffee Enema: Turn your favorite morning beverage into a powerful colon cleanser The wonders of coffee are not just limited to waking you up every morning. You can now use…
Atkins diet weight loss
Atkins Diet: The right steps to carb control that can help you lose those pounds fast The Atkins diet is a high fat, low-carb diet with proven weight loss benefits that is flexible enough…
Barium-enema
Barium Enema Barium enema is also known as colon x-ray. Here, the patient is asked to consume small amount of…
phenytoin test
Phenytoin test Phenytoin is a drug that is administered mainly to epilepsy patients. The phenytoin blood test measures the level…
chloride test
Chloride Test A chloride test of the blood checks the level of chloride in body, an important factor governing the…
complement c4 test
Anemia Profile Anemia Profile test (Basic) is a blood screening test that measures the levels of important components of the…
shiitake mushrooms healthy
What are Shiitake Mushrooms and why should you eat them? Shiitake Mushrooms are well known for their smoky and robust taste. However, did you know they are replete…
Optavia diet
The features of an Optavia diet The Optavia diet endorses pre-packaged meals and snacks called "fuelings" that are tasty, low in calorie, and incorporates…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
How to correctly perform nasal irrigation using a Neti Pot? Neti pot has been a part of Ayurveda since centuries. This ancient tool is extremely effective in treating…
The Cabbage Soup Diet: The healthiest way to instant weight loss Cabbage soup diet rapid weight loss diet for those who want to shed those extra pounds in less…
reflexology massage
Top reasons why you should go for a reflexology massage today Reflexology involves the application of pressure to your feet and hands to encourage self-healing. Could this be beneficial…
myelogram
Myelography Myelography is an important diagnostic tool that is used to investigate and identify abnormalities in the spine and…
Rubella IgM test
Rubella IgM Test The Rubella IgM test is a blood test that is performed to diagnose the presence of the rubella…
sodium blood test
Blood Sodium Test A blood sodium test measures the amount of sodium (an important electrolyte) in your body. It is also…
Coconut sugar: What is it and is it healthier than table sugar? In the long list of things that the wonderful coconut gives us, coconut sugar is another remarkable addition.…
Mood swings
The real reasons for your mood swings and how to overcome them Are you prone to heated moods frequently? Do you also feel bouts of depressive feeling creeping up on…
Quinine: How gin and tonic came to be known as a potent health elixir The discovery of quinine-containing tree bark is sometimes considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century.
These are the top foods to increase your hemoglobin count It is important to add iron-rich foods into your diet in order to increase hemoglobin. Deficiency of hemoglobin could…
Balneotherapy jacuzzi
5 things you didn’t know about balneotherapy and how you can do it at home Sauna baths have been popular since a long time. But how much more beneficial can balneotherapy be as…
GGt test
GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
C-Reactive Protein Test A CRP or c-reactive protein blood test is an important diagnostic tool used to determine the risk of…
ANTIPHOSPHOLIPIDANTIBODY(APL)_IgG
Antiphospholipid (APL) antibody-IgG The Antiphospholipid Antibody testing is a blood test used to determine an autoimmune disorder called Antiphospholipid syndrome linked…
valproic acid test
Valproic Acid Test Valproic acid test is performed to generally check for psychiatric and even neurological conditions such as bipolar disease…
vdrl test syphilis
VDRL Test The VDRL test is a blood test that is used to diagnose sexually transmitted or venereal diseases, primarily…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential for a healthy…
hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking is good for…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know some of the…