Menstruation

mensturation woman

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

Overview of menstruation

Hormonal changes occur within the female body from the beginning of puberty. It leads to associated physiological and psychological changes as well as few complications within the female body. One significant phenomenon that is observed in females (after 10 years of age) is “menstruation”.  Before proceeding to a detailed discussion on the topic, it has the to be made clear that menstruation is not some kind of disease. It is an absolutely natural and healthy phenomenon which takes place within the female body due to certain biological factors. The absence of menstruation even after a certain age (15 years) is an indication of some major health problem and calls for immediate medical attention. At present, many women belonging to undeveloped countries suffer from menstrual disorders due to lack of proper hygiene and health conditions, inadequate knowledge and the social stigma attached to menstruation.

 

What is menstruation?

Mensturation padsMenstruation or menstrual cycle is defined as the monthly loss of blood through the vagina due to the breakdown of the uterine wall lining due to the absence of fertilized ovum within the uterus.

It is characterized by the loss of tissues and blood from the inner lining of the womb. The menstrual blood flows from the uterus to the mouth of the cervix and then gets discharged through the vagina.

The onset of menstruation in young females is known as “menarche” and this cycle continues on a monthly basis and stops only after menopause (cessation of menstruation after a certain age) or during pregnancy.

The amount of blood lost via menstruation is about 25 mL per day and continues for 4-5 days per month. Interval between consecutive menstrual cycles is about 21-35 days. Each menstruation cycle basically prepares the body for pregnancy every month. A normal and healthy menstrual cycle is an indication that the body parts are functioning normally and the hormonal activities are normal.

 

What are the phases of menstruation?

The menstruation cycle is divided into few phases, each of which is marked by hormonal fluctuations and other physiological changes. The different stages of physiological changes during menstruation are described below-

Ovarian cycle: It lasts for 28 days and is stopped only during pregnancy (temporarily) and during menopause (permanently). It consists of three distinct phases-

  • Follicular phase: It occupies the first half of the ovarian cycle (~14 days) and is marked by the presence of mature follicles. Increased secretion of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and oestrogen occurs in this phase.
  • Ovulation: It is characterized by rupture of the wall of the Graffian follicle and a significant increase in the secretion of the Luteinizing hormones (LH). This phase is clubbed with the follicular phase in most cases.
  • Luteal phase: It occupies the second half of the ovarian cycle. The existing follicular cells undergo transformation and eventually form the corpus luteum. If the released ovum is not fertilized and does not plant itself on the wall of the uterus, the corpus luteum degrades within 14 days. All activities in this phase are regulated by the LH hormones.

Mensturation uterusUterine cycle: It is marked by major hormonal changes and lasts for 28 days on an average. It is further subdivided into three distinct phases –

  • Menstrual phase: It is characterized by reduced levels of oestrogen and progesterone (during degeneration of the Corpus Luteum). Secretion of uterine prostaglandin occurs in this phase which leads to vasoconstriction of endometrial vessels (causes degeneration of endometrium) and constriction of the uterine myometrium (discharges the menstrual flow). The uterine lining and endometrial debris are released via blood through the vagina. This phase lasts for 5-7 days (coincides with the end of luteal phase and beginning of follicular phase).
  • Proliferative phase: It starts at the end of the follicular phase. Gradual repairing of the endometrium occurs (mediated by oestrogen). It extends from the end of menstruation to the beginning of ovulation. Increased secretion of LH hormones is triggered by the increased oestrogen level.
  • Secretory or progestational phase: In this stage, the endometrial wall is ready for implantation of a fertilized ovum. The blood supply is increased to a certain extent and a large amount of oestrogen and progesterone is secreted by the Corpus Luteum, and glycogen is secreted by the endometrial glands. When fertilization does not occur, the Corpus Luteum degrades and the follicular and menstrual phases start again.

 

Symptoms of menstruation

The symptoms of menstruation include the array of symptoms in the pre-menstrual, menstrual and post-menstrual phases. These are described below-

  • Sudden rush of blood through the vagina at any time of the day (flow increases during heavy activities)
  • Presence of blood in the urine (not to be confused with hematuria)
  • Presence of clots in the expelled blood
  • Pain in the lower abdomen which starts before menstruation and continues during the entire menstrual period.
  • Abdominal cramps or menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) which may occur due to the presence of uterine fibroids (endometriosis)
  • Pain and cramps in legs
  • Sleep disturbance (occurs 3-6 days before menstruation)
  • Headache (might reach the proportion of migraines)
  • Nausea and fatigue
  • General feeling of weakness
  • Change in weight (gain or loss)
  • Eruptions on skin (acne)
  • Disturbed mental state
  • Gastrointestinal disorders
  • Increased tenderness of breasts
  • Reduced sexual urges (during menstruation period)
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Loss of appetite
  • Increased perspiration
  • Seizures (58% of cases during pre-menstrual phase and 9% cases during menstruation period) in epileptic women
  • Worsened allergies and asthmatic conditions (in the premenstrual phase)
  • Abnormal drying up of skin (eczema)

 

Types of problems related to menstruation

There are several complications associated with menstruation which are indicators of some major health or hormonal problems within a woman’s body. These are discussed below-

Amenorrhea: It is medically defined as the absence of menstruation even during the relevant time of the month or after a certain age. It is characterized by the following symptoms-

  • Headache (an acute migraine in few cases)
  • Galactorrhea (production of milk by the breasts even when the woman is not pregnant or breast-feeding a baby)
  • Temporary or permanent vision impairment (due to the presence of pituitary gland tumour)
  • Abnormal weight gain or loss
  • Acne and pimples on the face
  • Extremely dried up vagina
  • Excessive hair growth (hirsutism)
  • Noticeable changes in voice
  • Changes in breast size and shape
  • Cyclic pain with the absence of bleeding

Amenorrhea is of two types –

Primary Amenorrhea: It is characterized by the absence of menstruation even by the age of 16. It is mainly caused by some major defects of the reproductive system and/or pituitary gland.

Secondary Amenorrhea: In this condition, menstruation begins at the proper age but later on stops for more than 3 cycles or 6 months. The main causes of secondary amenorrhea are as follows-

  • Abnormal weight loss
  • Eating disorders
  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy
  • Disturbed mental state such as stress, anxiety, and depression
  • Obesity
  • Polycystic ovary conditions (causes hormonal imbalance)
  • Endocrine disorders such as thyroid diseases and diseases of the pituitary gland (a tumour)
  • Excessive and rigorous physical exercise
  • Menopause
  • Excessive use of birth control pills and contraceptives
  • Presence of scars or ulcers in the uterus

Menorrhagia: Menorrhagia is exactly the opposite condition of Amenorrhea. It is characterized by abnormally heavy bleeding. It is very common in pre-menopausal women. Excessive blood loss in each menstruation period causes weakness and cramps.

mensturation womanDysmenorrhea: Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for menstrual periods with cramps and extreme pain. These cramps are caused by secretion of excessive uterine prostaglandin. In elderly women, certain other conditions like Endometriosis (presence of uterine fibroids) can also cause abdominal cramps.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Premenstrual syndrome refers to the series of behavioral, physiological and hormonal changes within a woman’s body before the beginning of the menstrual bleeding. It is characterized by weight changes, mood swings and muscle cramps.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): It is characterized mainly by abnormal psychological changes and is observed in 3-8% menstruating women. The main symptoms are disturbed mental state, extreme irritability, frequent mood swings, depression, anxiety and nervousness, panic attacks, extreme fatigue and lack of interest in daily activities. Few physical symptoms such as tenderness of breasts, abdominal bloating, headaches, muscle and joint pain are also present.

Anovulatory androgen excess (AAE): This condition is observed in 4-10% of women. It is medically defined as the presence of excess male hormones (testosterone) during the menstruation phase that is manifested as excess facial hair, oily skin with acne, oily hair, abnormalities in regular egg release, hair loss, increases insulin resistance, Diabetes, fertility problems, depression, and obesity.

 

Causes of menstruation disorders

The menstruation related complications discussed in the above section are triggered by certain physiological, psychological or environmental factors. All these causes are discussed below in details-

  • Pregnancy: It causes a delayed or missed period (Secondary Amenorrhea). A few conditions associated with pregnancy such as improper abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and trophoblastic diseases can also contribute to abnormalities in menstruation at some later point of time.
  • Breastfeeding: Restoration of normal menstruation conditions might be delayed to a certain extent after completion of the breast-feeding period.
  • Eating disorders: Anorexia nervosa, Binge eating disorder, and bulimia can cuased missed or irregular periods.
  • Rigorous physical exercise: It can interfere with the menstruation process, especially if physical exercises are carried out during the time of menstruation.
  • Weight changes: Abnormal weight loss and obesity are equally responsible for impairments in the menstrual cycle.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (POCS): It can cause hormonal imbalance which may lead to irregular periods.
  • Ovarian failure: Premature ovarian failure (before the age of 40) occurs in many women causing significant loss of ovarian hormone secretion that leads to an irregular menstrual cycle.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (PID): In these conditions, acute inflammation of the reproductive organs occur causing abnormalities in menstrual bleeding.
  • Endometriosis: It is characterized by the presence of uterine fibroids and endometrial polyps, which is manifested as heavy menstrual bleeding, cramps, pain, and bleeding between consecutive menstruation periods.
  • Blood coagulation failure: Certain existing diseases like Leukaemia, Prothrombin deficiency, Thrombocytopenia and Hypersplenism cause loss of blood coagulation and thereby result in excessive menstrual bleeding.
  • Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism or pituitary gland tumours can cause heavy bleeding (Menorrhagia) or bleeding between menstrual periods (Intermenstrual bleeding).
  • Cirrhosis: It is often accompanied by Hypoprothrombinaemia and impede the oestrogen metabolism capacity of the liver.
  • Malignancies: Different malignancy conditions such as endometrial and cervical carcinoma or ovarian carcinoma can be leading causes of the disturbed menstrual cycle.
  • Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders such as Turner syndrome, accompanied by gonadal anomalies can account for menstrual disorders.
  • Medications: Certain hormonal drugs used for contraception such as Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill (COCP) or Progesteron-only Contraceptive Pill (POCP) or Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) can interfere with healthy menstruation process. Few cytotoxic and psychotropic drugs like risperidone also belong to this category. 

 

Diagnosis of menstrual problems

Menstrual problems need to be diagnosed in the early stages, failure to do which can cause problems in pregnancy and can give rise to associated clinical complications. The following diagnostic tests are normally recommended-

  • Progestin withdrawal
  • Prolactin level determination
  • Blood tests (to determine levels of testosterone and estradiol hormones)
  • Thyroid function studies (to rule out menstrual problems due to Hypothyroidism)
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) test
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH) test
  • Pelvic ultrasound or hysterosonogram
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the head to detect the presence of pituitary tumours that might lead to menstrual abnormalities 

 

Treatment and Prevention of menstrual disorders

Treatment of menstrual-related disorders often includes:

  • Oral contraceptive pills
  • Cyclic progestin supplements
  • Nutritional/ dietary therapy to correct the underlying cause of the menstrual disorders.
  • In case the reason for irregular menses is a structural defect such as fibroids or polyps, surgery might be prescribed.
  • In extreme cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) might be performed.

Menstrual problems can be prevented by following these guidelines:

  • Consuming a healthy diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • The diet should be low in sugar, cholesterol, and added preservatives.
  • Regular physical activities and getting adequate sleep is important.
  • Use hygienic sanitary products. Avoid using super-absorbent tampons.
  • Limit alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine consumption.

 

 

Dos and Don'ts

Dos
  • Eat a healthy diet that will keep your energy levels up during the cycles.
  • Drink adequate amount of water to avoid getting dehydrated.
  • Maintain complete hygiene while using and changing your sanitary pads/tampons/menstrual cup. Change it every 4-8 hours before it gets completely soaked.
Don'ts
  • Consume a diet high in sugar and salt. Limit the consumption of processed foods.
  • Combine intense physical workout with a low-calorie diet.
  • Wear soiled underpants for a longer time as it could become a breeding ground for microbes.

 

 

 

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GGT – Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Test GGT or gammaglutamyl transferase test is a liver function test that is used to detect the extent of…
thyroid_scan
Thyroid Scan Thyroid scan is a diagnostic procedure that aims to view the thyroid gland and detect any growths or…
Oil of Oregano: The one-stop essential oil you’ve been looking for Are you plagued by a weak immune system? High body inflammation accompanied by pain and infections? Why not…
ketoacidosis diabetes
HB1Ac Test HB1Ac test is an important blood test that is used to measure the levels of glycated hemoglobin in…
Lady performing coagulation profile test
Coagulation Tests Check the most important coagulation tests, its types, procedure, and results to know your risk of excessive bleeding…
How seitan proved to be a blessing in disguise for vegans worldwide Can only meat-eaters enjoy delicious juicy steaks and burgers? With seitan, the best meat substitute available today,even vegans…
antihepatitis core antigent
Anti-Hepatitis B Core Antigen (AHBc) Total Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (AHBC ) is a blood examination and the only serological marker of infectious blood…
Eustachian Tube : Functions and top home remedies to prevent its infection Pressure equalization, mucus drainage and protecting the middle ear from bacteria and viruses are the three important functions…
Love tea, hate tannins? Rooibos tea is just what you need The market is brimming with a multitude of herbal teas. But what makes rooibos tea (or red bush)…
lp-pla2
LP-PLA2 Test The LP-PLA2 test is a test which is carried out to assess the levels of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2…
cystatin C
Cystatin C Test Cystatin C is a specific single-chain protein that is found in body fluids and is a biomarker for…
CEA_test
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test CEA or carcinoembryonic test detects the presence of CEA antigen in your blood mainly & determines the effectiveness…
Did you know drinking alkaline water could be the healthier choice for you? Ever wondered how safe is your drinking water in terms of pH? Recent studies have revealed that Alkaline…
Optavia diet
The features of an Optavia diet The Optavia diet endorses pre-packaged meals and snacks called "fuelings" that are tasty, low in calorie, and incorporates…
Vitamin b12
Vitamin B12 Test Vitamin b12 is an essential nutrient required for healthy functioning of the nervous system and also development of…
leptospira Igm test
Leptospira-IgM Test A Leptospira-IgM test is a blood test which is carried out to detect anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis is…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders? Do you want…
Goji berry: A traditional Chinese berry that packs the best of antioxidants Goji berry is an ancient berry that is considered to be power-packed with nutrients and antioxidants. Which means…
free psa test
Free PSA Test The free PSA test is used to detect the level or percentage of free PSA in the body…
Coconut sugar: What is it and is it healthier than table sugar? In the long list of things that the wonderful coconut gives us, coconut sugar is another remarkable addition.…
Experts reveal the safest ways to perform an enema at home The idea of pushing some up your rectal area might make you queasy but an enema could actually…
Lauric Acid: 8 health benefits you can derive from coconuts Appropriate use of saturated fats containing lauric acid can provide you numerous health benefits. This is the main…
Is bronchitis contagious? And how to prevent this infection? It is acute bronchitis that is contagious which means you can contract it from another person or you…
Cordyceps: How the Caterpillar fungus works as a proven cancer-shield Strange as it may sound, but cordyceps or "caterpillar fungus", a fungus variety native to the Himalayas may…
apolipoprotein a1 test
Apolipoprotein -A1 (APO-A1) Test Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) constitutes 70% of protein content in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and helps in lipid metabolism.
SIBO Diet: The important dos and don’ts of this gut-healing diet A SIBO diet is a diet that works by eliminating certain sugars from your diet and adding fibers…
Moringa drink
Moringa: This could be the most nutrient-dense food known to us! Moringa is a lush green tree brimming with over 90 essential nutrients required for a healthy mind and…
CERULOPLASMIN- triple marker
Triple Marker Test A triple marker test is an important prenatal test that is performed to detect the presence of chromosomal…
L-theanine attention
L-Theanine: Better sleep, higher focus, and many other benefits Did you know that L-theanine found in green tea can make you sleep better and be focused at…
Coffee Enema: Turn your favorite morning beverage into a powerful colon cleanser The wonders of coffee are not just limited to waking you up every morning. You can now use…
Sharpen your brain with these top brain-friendly foods! Did you know your diet could decide how razor sharp your memory is? Or that what you eat…
cytomegalovirus iGG
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- IgG Test The cytomegalovirus IgG is the immunoglobulin protein produced by our immune system when the body is infected by…
stevia side effects
Stevia: A healthy sugar substitute or yet another risky additive? Stevia is a plant native to South America.  It has been used as a natural sugar substitute and…
PROLACTIN-(PRL)
Prolactin Test (PRL) Prolactin or PRL is a lactogenic hormone produced to induce milk production in lactating mothers. PRL test measures…
6 arguments in favour of glucosamine and where can you find it Studies have shown that glucosamine works by preventing the breakdown of cartilage of the joints. This is usually…
Spinach: The ultimate way to boost health with this green superfood! Spinach is a green superfood that ranks high in both taste and nutrition. Read more to discover how…
Ca 19.9 test
CA19.9 Test CA 19.9 is a cancer antigen that exists on the surface of cancer-causing cells. The levels of CA…
Top 6 remedies to treat a razor burn at home Symptoms of razor burn include bumps on the skin, redness, and irritation of the skin. Find easy and…
hYdroxycut pills
Hydroxycut: How safe are these so-called weight loss supplements? Hydroxycut is a blend of several different ingredients formulated to promote weight loss; powered by a key weight…
top 10 deadliest diseases
What are the top 10 deadliest diseases and what is causing them? What are the largest killers of human lives across the globe? Which diseases are the most fatal ones?…
kefir bottle
Kefir: Top reasons why this probiotic drink should be consumed by you Yet another remarkable fermented food, kefir is a much healthier version of yogurt. These chewy white grains can…
Kava: Is it the healthy substitute for alcohol you have been waiting for? Native to the beautiful South Pacific islands, Kava is a famous beverage rooted in the local culture. It…
Fibromyalgia fatigue
HCG Diet: The dangers of using this diet to lose weight HCG is a natural hormone produced by both men and women that corresponds to fertility. But how is…
EMG electromyography
EMG- Electromyography EMG detects the presence, location, and extent of diseases that damage the nerves such motor neuron disease. Electromyography…
glutamine workout
Glutamine: Why is this the right choice for muscle-gain supplement? Glutamine can help you gain muscles and build higher immunity. Read more to find out how you can…
HSV-IgM test
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-IgM Test The HSV-IgM class antibody is produced by the body a few days after an initial HSV infection and…
These are the top foods to increase your hemoglobin count It is important to add iron-rich foods into your diet in order to increase hemoglobin. Deficiency of hemoglobin could…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of cold beer add…
blood elements analysis
Vitamin Profile Your doctor will recommend you undergo the vitamin profile test if you are showing signs of either vitamin…
Turner syndrome and infertility
Infertility profile (women) The infertility profile tests in women are conducted to form a complete picture of the hormonal balance and…
tonometry
Tonometry Tonometry uses a device called tonometer to measure the pressure inside the eye. This pressure is depends upon…
complement c4 test
Complement 4 (C4) Test The Complement 4 or C4 test measures the level of the protein in the bloodstream, and is primarily…
ureteroscopy
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is the diagnostic procedure which is used for the detection of the kidney stones in addition to…
shakeology woman
Meal replacement or protein drink? Learn all about Shakeology and its claims Shakeology from Beachbody claims to be the most suitable shake that can aid in weight loss, regulate blood…
Bronchoscopy procedure
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure where in a scope is inserted into the lung pathway to observe any growth…
Keto diet healthy
Keto Diet: Did you know you could eat fats to burn fats? Keto diet - A wonder diet that lets you eat fats and lose weight too! Read on to…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does our poop turn…
Echocardiogram
Echocardiography – ECHO Echocardiography (commonly known as ECHO) is an imaging modality (similar to ultrasonography) used to visualize the interior of…
creatinine
Creatinine Test The level of creatinine in the blood is a significant indicator of the health of your kidneys. This…
Jack in the box fast food
Jack In the Box : The perils of surging fast food culture in the USA Jack in the Box - How a culture of fast-food can clog your arteries, weaken your heart, fatten…
beta hcg test
Beta hCG Test A Beta hCG test measures the level of human gonadotropin hormones present in the blood that is primarliy…
Proteinuria and blood pressure
Hypertension Profile Hypertension profile is a panel of blood tests done to analyse the cause of hypertension or high blood…
Crossfit with rope
CrossFit: Now get the perfectly sculpted body with this explosive gym routine CrossFit is a fitness regimen that makes use of high-intensity exercises in a shorter period to achieve muscle…
GM Diet: The fastest way to lose weight or yet another hoax diet? General Motors started this trend of extreme dieting for 7 straight days to ensure its employees were able…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your survival. However, these…
free thyroxine ft4
Free thyroxine test (FT4) The FT4 or free thyroxine test is used to detect the level of free thyroxine of FT4 thyroid…
How to correctly perform nasal irrigation using a Neti Pot? Neti pot has been a part of Ayurveda since centuries. This ancient tool is extremely effective in treating…
Top reasons why you need to pay attention to your vitamin B6 intake Vitamin B6- An essential water-soluble vitamin. Its deficiency leads to physical changes such as sores & glossy tongue…
Dragon Fruit – Blessing from Nature’s Basket Dragon fruit is packed with nutrients but low on calories. It is the dream food that can help…
blood ketone test
Blood Ketone (D3HB) Test The Blood Ketone Test measures and monitors the levels of ketone in the blood which is usually performed…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes with a plethora…
aspartame or sugar
Aspartame – Hidden truths about this storm in a teacup Aspartame, the artificial sweetener, has gone under the scanner on several occasions for allegedly doing more harm than…
understanding addiction
Addiction explained: An obsession that could cost you your life Is addiction a behavioral disorder? Or is it a chronic disease? How does addiction cause chemical and structural…
amylase test
Amylase Test Amylase test is done by checking the level of this protein in the blood sample and also in…
kidney stones
Kidney stones Kidney stones are solid substances made up of crystals. They can be of various sizes. Treatment depend on…
cytomegalovirus igm test
Cytomegalo Virus (CMV) – IgM Test The CMV antibodies include both IgM and IgG antibodies which are the immune system's response to a CMV…
folate test
Folate test The Folate test measures and monitors the levels of folic acid in the blood. This test is also…
Okra: How can this nutrient-dense vegetable help you fight diabetes? Okra is a food which is rich in nutrients and minerals which are extremely essential for a healthy…
Juice Plus: Can you really replace actual fruits with pills?  Juice Plus supplements intend to fill nutritional gaps present in our daily diet. But how successful have they…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling sad? Have you…
Cardiolipin Antibody (ACL) –IgG Test The cardiolipin antibody IgG are responsible for the abnormal formation of clots in veins and arteries or phlebitis…
lipoprotein A
Lipoprotein (A) Test Lipoprotein (A) test is used to measure and monitor the levels of LDL(Low-Density Lipoprotein) in the bloodstream in…
Diabetes blood test
Diabetic Profile The diabetic profile is a set of tests used for testing and monitoring the various kinds of Diabetes…
Anti-Inflammatory foods: 18 foods to a disease-free you Anti-inflammatory foods are the foods which are known to reduce the inflammation as well as the pain from…

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