Iron-Rich Foods: Eat these foods to keep fatigue and anemia away!

iron food shellfish

Why do we need iron in our diet?

Iron is a mineral found in cells of the body.  Iron is an essential mineral because it is needed to make hemoglobin and myoglobin, which are oxygen-carrying proteins.  Hemoglobin is a substance in the red blood cells, which carry oxygen from the lungs to different parts of the body and myoglobin is found in muscles.  It is an essential nutrient because the body cannot produce it.

The recommended daily intake (RDI) is 18 mg.  Iron is essential for metabolism, muscles, and normal body functions.  A deficiency can occur if the intake of iron is too low to replace the amount we lose every day.  Deficiency in iron can lead to anemia and subsequently cause symptoms of weakness.  Menstruating women need to consume more quantities of iron during menstruation or else they are at high risk of deficiency.  Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency globally mainly among children and pregnant women. 

Iron deficiency is the only nutrient deficiency that is widely prevalent in developed countries, according to the World Health Organization.  Iron has a low bioavailability, which means that the small intestine does not readily absorb large amounts of iron.

This decreases the iron availability for use and increases the likelihood of deficiency.  A lot of common foods are high in iron such as chocolate, pumpkin seeds, fortified cereals, and red meat.

Facts on iron

  • The preferred intake considered to be safe may vary with different ages. Pregnant women are required to intake high quantities of iron.
  • Iron helps with pregnancy and improves the energy level as well as promoting better performance of athletes. Iron deficiency is generally very common in female sports personalities.
  • Clams that are canned, white beans, cereals, etc are considered to be rich in dietary iron.
  • Increased intake of iron can increase the risk of liver cancer and diabetes.

Health Benefits of iron

Iron helps to maintain many vital functions in the body, including general energy and focus, gastrointestinal processes, the immune system, and the regulation of body temperature.  A deficiency in iron can cause a medical condition called iron deficiency anemia.  Iron deficiency anemia is a medical condition, which is known to cause symptoms of weakness, rapid heart rate, paleness of the skin, as well as difficulty breathing.

Pregnancy

iron food brocolliIron consumption is very important during pregnancy.  Blood volume and red blood cell production increase rapidly during pregnancy, which is needed to supply the growing fetus with oxygen and nutrients.  Due to these reasons, the demand for iron also increases.  The body naturally maximizes iron absorption during pregnancy.

Insufficient iron intake and other factors may affect the absorption of iron and can lead to iron deficiency.  There are many health-related problems, which can arise due to this.  Reduced intake of iron during pregnancy may exacerbate the risk of premature birth & reduced birth weight This may also affect the iron stores and can also cause cognitive or behavioral development issues in newborn.

Since iron also promotes the immune system, pregnant women with low iron may be more prone to infections.  However, research has recommended the possibility of additional iron to all pregnant women, even those with normal iron levels.  Studies have shown that pregnant women should take 30 mg to 60 mg of iron supplements on every day regardless of their iron levels.

Boosts Energy

Energy is the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity.  Iron plays a major role in providing energy to the body and brain.  Body muscles and brain receive oxygen when iron carries them through the blood, which is considered to be important for both mental and physical performance.  There is reduced energy efficiency when the iron levels are minimal in the diet, which may also result in lack of focus, increased irritability, and reduced stamina, which affects the daily routine of life.

Promotes Better Muscle Function

Muscle health is dependent on iron.  Iron is available in the muscle tissues in the form of myoglobin and helps provide the supply of oxygen required for contraction of muscles.  When there is a deficiency in iron, muscles lose their tone and elasticity.  Muscle weakness can generally indicate a medical condition called anemia.

Increases Brain Function

iron food spinachNormal brain function is very much essential for the normal functioning of our daily life.  Appropriate development of the brain is achieved with the use of iron.  Since oxygen supply in the blood is aided by iron and the brain uses approximately 20% of the blood oxygen, it is directly related to brain health and its various functions.  

Proper flow of blood in the brain can stimulate cognitive activity and help create new neural pathways to prevent cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer disease.  Due to these reasons, iron intake and its subsequent brain oxygenation are very essential.

Restless Leg Syndrome

Restless legs syndrome is also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, which is a common condition of the nervous system that causes an overwhelming irresistible urge to move the legs.  Restless leg syndrome is generally caused due to the lower levels of iron in the body.  This condition is connected to muscle spasms, which can be one of the symptoms of iron deficiency. A healthy iron-rich diet and supplements are required to treat this condition.

Regulates Body Temperature

Body temperature is a measure of the body’s ability to generate and get rid of heat.  Iron is an important component for regulating body temperature.  It is very interesting to note that iron has the ability to regulate itself as per the absorption capacity of the body.  Keeping the body temperature stable helps enzymatic and metabolic functions to occur in their most optimal and efficient environment and temperatures.

Treats Anemia

Anemia is a medical condition that develops when the blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin.  As we know that iron helps in the manufacturing of hemoglobin, which in turn helps in the treatment of a severe disorder called iron deficiency anemia.  Most of the health benefits of iron come as a result of preventing iron deficiency anemia.  Iron deficiency anemia affects millions of people around the world and is the most common nutritional deficiency on the planet.

Chronic Diseases

Chronic diseases are long-lasting conditions that usually can be controlled but not cured.  Iron helps in the treatment of chronic disorders like renal failure, anemia, and other chronic diseases of the intestinal and excretory system, which are not related to blood necessarily.  Iron plays a key part in many necessary processes throughout the body’s systems, and not just the circulatory system.

Neurotransmitter Synthesis

iron food shellfishNeurotransmitters are made in the cell body of the neuron and then transported down the axon to the axon terminal.  Molecules of neurotransmitters are stored in small packages called vesicles.  Synthesis of numerous essential neurotransmitters namely dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are involved with the use of iron.  Neurotransmitters are known to play a major role in various activities involving neurons and the human brain.

Treats Predialysis Anemia

Anemia is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).  Anemia is known to be the cause of many of the symptoms related to abnormal kidney function.  Studies have shown that supplementing iron for these patients having chronic kidney disease can help in reduction of predialysis anemia.  However, this is done only under medical supervision, as it can be very complicated and dangerous.

Eliminates Fatigue

Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.  Health benefits of iron also include the elimination of unexplained or chronic fatigue, which may occur in both men and women due to the lack of iron content in the blood.  Iron deficiency is a natural cause of fatigue since iron is an important component of hemoglobin.

Boosts Immunity

Red blood cells are necessary for providing oxygen to the body and brain.  It helps in treating damaged tissues, organs, and cells.  Without iron, there would be no hemoglobin and without hemoglobin, there would be no oxygen.  The healing process needs this essential nutrient to occur.  Strength to the immune system is very essential and iron is the most important component used to improve the strength of the immune system.

Treats Insomnia

iron food tofuInsomnia is a sleep disorder, which is characterized by difficulty falling and/or staying asleep.  People with insomnia have one or more of the following symptoms such as difficulty falling asleep, waking up often during the night, and having trouble going back to sleep.  Alteration in blood pressure can be a cause of sleep disorder.  A normal red blood cell count can help the reduction of blood pressure fluctuations and iron plays a major role in maintaining normal red blood cell count.  In this way, iron is useful in treating insomnia and it improves the sleeping habits of people by regulating the circadian rhythms. 

Improves Concentration

Concentration is the action or power of focusing.  Iron is well known to provide the amount of energy the brain requires to function.  Adequate brain function can help improve concentration and boost cognitive performance.  Studies have shown that an increased flow of blood to the brain results in improved concentration.

Iron-rich foods

Animal foods are high in iron content namely red meat and offal (such as liver). Chicken, duck, pork, turkey, and fish also contain iron.  Iron is also found in many plant-based foods such as green vegetables namely spinach, silverbeet, and broccoli.

Iron is found in lentils and beans, nuts and seeds, grains such as whole wheat, brown rice, and fortified breakfast cereals.  Iron is present in dried fruit.  The iron in animal-based foods is easier to absorb as compared to the iron in plant-based foods.  Let us discuss the top iron-rich foods below:

Shellfish:  All shellfish is high in iron, but clams, oysters and mussels are particularly rich sources.  A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of clams may contain up to 28 mg of iron, which is 155% of the recommended daily intake. 

There are variable amounts of iron content in clams.  The iron in shellfish is called heme iron, which the body absorbs more easily than the non-heme iron found in plants.  A serving of clams also provides 26 grams of protein, 37% of the recommended daily intake for vitamin C and a whopping 1,648% of the recommended daily intake for vitamin B12.

Spinach:  Spinach provides many health benefits.  3.5 ounces (100 grams) of cooked spinach contains 3.6 mg of iron, which is 20% of the recommended daily intake.  This iron in non-heme iron, which is not absorbed very well.  Spinach is also rich in antioxidants called carotenoids, which may reduce the risk of cancer, decrease inflammation and protect the eyes from disease.

Organ Meats:  Organ meats are considered to be extremely nutritious.  Popular types of organ meats include liver, kidneys, brain, and heart.  A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of beef liver contains 6.5 mg of iron, which is 36% of the recommended daily intake.  B vitamins, copper and selenium are some of the components that are rich in organ meats.  The liver is especially high in vitamin A, providing 634% of the recommended daily intake per serving.  Organ meats are a rich source of choline, an important nutrient for brain and liver health.

Legumes:  Legumes are highly rich with nutrients.  Common varieties of legumes include soybeans, lentils, chickpeas, etc.  One cup (198 grams) of cooked lentils contains 6.6 mg of iron, which is 37% of the recommended daily intake.  Legumes are considered to be rich sources of magnesium as well as potassium.  Legumes are known to reduce inflammation in people who are suffering from diabetes.  In order to maximize iron absorption, we need to consume legumes with foods high in vitamin C, such as tomatoes, greens, or citrus fruits.

Red MeatA 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of ground beef contains 2.7 mg of iron, which is 15% of the recommended daily intake.  This type of meat is considered to be rich in proteins, selenium, zinc, as well as B vitamins.  Researchers have found that iron deficiency may be less likely in people who eat meat, poultry, and fish on a regular basis.

Pumpkin SeedsPumpkin seeds are a tasty and portable snack.  A 1-ounce (28-gram) serving of pumpkin seeds contains 4.2 mg of iron, which is 23% of the recommended daily intake.  Vitamin K, zinc, and manganese are abundant in these seeds.  Also, 1-ounce (28-gram) serving contains 37% of the recommended daily intake for magnesium, which helps reduce the risk of insulin resistance, diabetes, and depression.

QuinoaQuinoa is a popular grain, which is also known as a pseudocereal.  One cup (185 grams) of cooked quinoa provides 2.8 mg of iron, which is 15% of the recommended daily intake.  Quinoa is also high in protein compared to other grains and also are rich in folate, magnesium, copper, manganese and many other nutrients.  Quinoa also acts as an antioxidant as compared to other grains.

Turkey:  Turkey meat is considered to be very healthy and delicious, which is also a good source of iron.  A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) portion of dark turkey meat has 2.3 mg of iron, which is 13% of the recommended daily intake.   Turkey also contains an impressive 29 grams of protein per serving and several B vitamins and minerals, including 30% of the recommended daily intake for zinc and 58% of the recommended daily intake for selenium.

Broccoli:  Broccoli is highly nutritious.  A 1-cup (156-gram) serving of cooked broccoli contains 1 mg of iron, which is 6% of the recommended daily intake.  A serving of broccoli also contains 168% of the recommended daily intake for vitamin C, which helps the body absorb the iron better.

Tofu:  Tofu is a soy-based food, which is popular among vegetarians.  A half-cup (126-gram) serving provides 3.6 mg of iron, which is 19% of the recommended daily intake.  Tofu is rich in calcium, selenium, and magnesium.  In addition, tofu provides 20 grams of protein per serving.  Tofu contains a unique compound called isoflavones, which have been linked to improved insulin sensitivity.

Dark Chocolate:  Dark chocolate is amazingly delicious and nutritious and very commonly used.  A 1-ounce (28-gram) serving contains 3.3 mg of iron, which is 19% of the recommended daily intake.  It also contains 25% and 16% of the recommended daily intake for copper and magnesium respectively.  Studies found that cocoa powder and dark chocolate have more antioxidant activity.  Compounds called flavanols are responsible for chocolate’s benefits, and the flavanol content of dark chocolate is much higher than that of milk chocolate.

What is the right iron intake for you?

The appropriate intake for elemental iron may depend on a person’s age and sex.   The recommended dosage is divided into four main categories namely the infants, children, males, and females.  The following information provides an overall picture with regard to the number of iron people should consume:

Infants:

  • 0 to 6 months: 27 mg.
  • 7 to 12 months: 11 mg.

Children:

  • 1 to 3 years: 7 mg.
  • 4 to 8 years: 10 mg.

Men:

  • 9 to 13 years: 8 mg.
  • 14 to 18 years: 11 mg.
  • 19 years and older: 8 mg.

Women:

  • 9 to 13 years: 8 mg.
  • 14 to 18 years: 15 mg.
  • 19 to 50 years: 18 mg.
  • 51 years and older: 8 mg.
  • During pregnancy: 27 mg.

Iron is an important mineral, which is very essential for the normal functioning of the body.  It is called an essential mineral since it cannot be produced by the body and needs to be supplemented either by diet or other supplements.  Appropriate consumption of iron can give numerous health benefits.  Whereas deficiency can lead to a medical condition called iron deficiency anemia and can lead to several diseases.  It is advised to intake an appropriate level of iron after consulting a medical professional.

 

 

 

Trending Topics

hidden benefits walking
9 benefits of walking we bet you didn’t know! Did you know walking can be the miracle pill for eternal youth? Everyone knows walking…
eating disorder anorexia
Eating Disorders: Lifestyle choice or a psychological condition? Is eating disorder just a harmless bad habit? Or does it represent grim psychological disorders?…
understanding addiction
Addiction explained: An obsession that could cost you your life Is addiction a behavioral disorder? Or is it a chronic disease? How does addiction cause…
50 common health conditions
What are the top 50 deadly and widespread diseases? A complete list of the top 50 most common and deadly diseases that plague humanity.…
low carb foods spinach
Low carb vegetables: A complete list of what to pick from during a keto diet Is your plate of veggies making you fat? Are all vegetables created equal? Research reveals…
social media adddiction
Your health in the age of Social Media: Why is digital detox a necessity? Did you know that more than 400 million people are dangerously addicted to social media?…
fitness routine fun
10 fantastic ways to make your fitness routine more fun! Are you too bored to exercise? Do you avoid gym cause it's too monotonous? Looking…
boost immunity tips
Step up your defence: 15 proven tips on how to boost your immunity Want to naturally build up a stronger immunity? Tired of frequent colds and runny nose?You…
sleep deprivation
Don’t let your sleep deficit grow into memory loss or heart attack Why is sleep important for us? How could sleep deprivation harm you? We bet you…
canola oil cooking
Canola oil: How safe is it to consume this popular cooking oil? Extracted from rapeseeds, Canola oil derives its name from Canadian Oil. Did you know that…
Jicama: A fiber-rich tuber for your weight loss goals Pronouced as HEE-kah-ma, Jicama is the "new kid on the block" that has taken the…
stress depressed anxiety
Are you depressed or just stressed? Know when to see a doctor Why are some people more anxious than others? Is being depressed the same as feeling…
yoga health benefits
How to practice yoga for astounding health benefits Can a 5000-year-old system be the ultimate body healer? Did you know yoga can make…
acne removal tips
Anatomy of acne: 7 instant steps to kiss those zits goodbye Blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples-call them what you may. Acne is never good news.Did you know…
waking up tired
10 reasons why you might be waking up tired Do you feel you are not getting enough sleep? Sleep-deprived and frustrated? Read on discover…
dandelion health benefits
Dandelion: Little parachutes of health and wellness for your whole body Dandelions are not just bright looking blossoms that cheer your mind. These are powerpacked with…
IIFYM diet shopping
If it fits your macros (IIFYM) : A contemporary macro diet regime A diet that lets you eat everything- sounds unbelievable, right? Well, with IIFYM now you…
Kratom drug banned
Kratom: Why is this distant cousin of coffee banned in numerous countries? The name Kratom has often stirred controversies ; this psychoactive drug is both the cure…
maltodextrin sugar
Maltodextrin: What are the hidden health benefits of this food additive? Maltodextrin is one of the few food additives that has been relatively deemed safe. Many…
stress adverse effects
Fight, flight, or freeze: 8 ways stress can ruin your body Did you know that stress is in-built in our systems? It helped our ancestors respond…
oral hygiene tips
6 shocking consequences of bad oral hygiene (and how to avoid them) Did you know bad breath is not just turning off, but also harms your body…
back pain relief
Don’t choose pain: 10 truths about your back ache (and how to get relief) Back pain is one of the most common ailments in the world. Almost 80% of…
Isagenix diet
Isagenix Diet: Do you really need liquid meal replacements to lose weight? Isagenix Diet - What are liquid meal replacements and why is the world going ga-ga…
Ketosis bad breath
Ketosis: A potentially dangerous side effect of the popular keto diet? Ketosis occurs when you have too low carb intake. Though it means rapid fat loss,…
Moringa drink
Moringa: This could be the most nutrient-dense food known to us! Moringa is a lush green tree brimming with over 90 essential nutrients required for a…
eating myths debunked
8 ‘healthy eating’ myths you believed until now Is a zero-carb diet really healthy for you? Are organic products worth their cost? Did…
Panera bread steak arugula
Panera Bread: The truth behind this “healthy” restaurant chain What to order and what to avoid when dining at Panera Bread ? Know more…
Jack in the box fast food
Jack In the Box : The perils of surging fast food culture in the USA Jack in the Box - How a culture of fast-food can clog your arteries, weaken…
Fluoride: An indispensible mineral or a potential toxin ? Fluoride, the main ingredient of toothpaste, has shown a great potential as a cleanser. However,…
improve digestion weight loss
Power up your gut: 8 proven steps on how to improve your digestion Did you know you have a colony of bacteria in your gut that help you…
ashwagandha brain
Ashwagandha: The best-kept secret of Ayurveda now revealed! Ashwagandha literally means "smell of horse". Don't get bogged down by that one tiny detail…
chia seeds weight loss
Chia seeds: How to consume this staple Aztec food to get a leaner body Chia seeds: What is the actual reason for its sudden popularity? Why are celebrities swearing…
Garlic health benefits cloves
Garlic: Nature’s white pill as an effective home remedy What are the secrets hidden in these tiny white pills? Find out the immense health…
passion fruit juice
Passion fruit: How one exotic fruit can help you fight infections and cancer! Passion fruit: Why does this exotic fruit have such an enticing name? And how can…
hidden causes obesity
8 hidden causes of obesity you probably didn’t know! Did you know that around 2 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese? Are…
liver detox facts
7 liver detox facts and why ignoring these could kill you! Are you taking care of this organ that handles over 500 different vital functions in…
Whole30 diet fad
Whole30 Diet – Why eliminating certain foods just doesn’t cut it Whole30 Diet: Is this the ‘whole’-y grail of a disease-free body? Read more to find…
lose pregnancy weight
5 most effective ways you can lose those pregnancy pounds! Are you looking for ways to get back into shape? Scared of crash diets? Don't…
MANUKA HONEY child
Manuka Honey Manuka honey is a specific type of honey produced by honey bees that collect nectar…
castor oil hair
Castor oil : A vitamin-rich oil for shiny locks and healthy bowels Castor oil bestows unlimited benefits, whether you use it for your hair or skin. But…
iron food shellfish
Iron-Rich Foods: Eat these foods to keep fatigue and anemia away! How to ensure a muscles as strong as iron? Eat iron rich foods ! Iron…
kale
Kale: With more iron than beef, this superfood is the ultimate way to lose weight Checkmate meat-eaters; with kale, vegans now have the ultimate iron-rich superfood as their ally that…
low fodmap plan
Troubled with IBS? Here’s a complete roadmap to the low FODMAP diet Leaky & inflammatory gut troubling you? No medicine bringing you relief from the pain? Why…
superfoods quinoa probiotics
10 fantastic Superfoods you need to include in your diet from today! What exactly are superfoods and how do they battle diseases? From losing weight to looking…
alcohol toxic
7 startling facts that will make you quit alcohol today Does drinking really make you friendly and happy? How many calories does a can of…
Healthy pregnancy tips
How to have a healthy pregnancy: Essential tips to remember What to expect when growing a life within you? How important are prenatal vitamins anyway?…
top 5 deadliest cancers
A sneak peek into the top 5 deadliest cancers and the true nature of their origins Did you know that cancer is the 2nd leading cause of deaths globally? Among the…
paleo keto diet
Paleo vs. Keto: Which diet plan is best suited for your body goals? Is eating like a caveman the right way to go? Can you really eat fats…
autoimmune diseases facts
Autoimmune Diseases: Find out if your body is attacking you right now Did you know your body can harm itself? What are autoimmune diseases and why does…
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance: How common diseases become deadly Can a cold kill you? How important is to get a flu shot? Why do…
vital organ diseases
Common diseases that could cripple your vital organs Brain, heart, kidney, lungs, and liver - these vital organs are indeed vital for your…
Creatine: Is this the right peak athletic-performance supplement for you? Creatine is the amino acid that boosts our energy. Did you know creatine supplements can…
nutritional yeast bread
Nutritional Yeast : How can a fungi culture be good for your body? Nutritional yeast: How a simple culture of fungi can transform your skin, digestion, immunity ,…
Nitric oxide: Why is this heart-healthy supplement every sportsman’s first choice? Once considered a vastly toxic substance, nitric oxide is now deemed to be a great…
gallbladder diet tomato
Gallbladder surgery :Tips on post-operative care and diet What to eat post a gallbladder surgery? What are the key things to avoid if…
nature health benefits
Green Healing: The amazing health benefits of being in nature You have no idea what sitting in a closed room does to your body and…
about mediterranean diet
Why you should be adopting a Mediterranean style of diet today Ever wondered why the Mediterranean diet is so healthy? One simple solution to lowering risk…
common mental disorders
Common mental health disorders :The silent stigma surrounding millions More than 300 million sufferers and yet a silent and agonizing stigma; why are people…
lose weight fast
12 easy and instant steps to successful weight loss Do you want to lose weight without losing your mind? Does weight loss always mean…
low carb diet meal
Low carb diet : Go high on fats and low on carbs for a leaner body! Did you know that sugar is the new fat? Going low on carbs and high…
High Fiber Diet – Fire up your fiber intake for these health benefits! Regular bowels, healthy detox, higher immunity, and guaranteed weight loss - a high fiber diet…
boost brain health
The ultimate tips on how to boost your brain health Would you like to be smarter? Want a sharp memory but bored of doing sudoku?…
health benefits coffee
Dark, hot, & steamy: The remarkable health benefits of drinking coffee Coffee does more than just wake you up. One of the most widely consumed beverages…
matcha tea leaves
Matcha: The unthinkable health benefits of this unique green tea Did you know that a cup of matcha can boost your immunity against toxic diseases?…
Military diet
Military Diet : Why following a highly restrictive diet is a bad idea Is seiging your calorie intake the right way to attack fats? Read more about Military…
BCAAs powder
BCAA: Now get more out of your workouts with this miracle protein BCAAs are counted as one of the best supplements for increasing your physical endurance. Find…
Milk Thistle skin
Milk Thistle: Find possible cures for fatal diseases in these purple blooms Milk thistle is well-known for treating liver conditions. However, did you know that it comes…
CBD oil safe
Cannabidiol benefits: Evaluating the “highs” of CBD Oil The word cannabis paints a picture of addicts. But did you know that CBD oil,…
green poop causes
Green poop : What are the reasons and how can you correct it Ever sneak a peek down the toilet only to shockingly find green poop? Why does…
kefir bottle
Kefir: Top reasons why this probiotic drink should be consumed by you Yet another remarkable fermented food, kefir is a much healthier version of yogurt. These chewy…
cancer facts
8 hard-hitting truths no one tells you about cancer Did you know that 1.5 million new cases of cancer are reported every year? Can…
turmeric skin
We bet you didn’t know that turmeric could be this beneficial! Did you know that turmeric, a humble ingredient found in most Indian kitchens could cure…
dance health benefits
5 unbelievable effects of dance on your overall health! You enjoy dancing, but did you know what else it does to your body? Dancing…
Serotonin happiness
Serotonin : What you didn’t know about this “feel-good” chemical Serotonin : Did you know that this "feel-good" hormone could well impact your sleep cycle,…